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Embed code for: Bridge Design Brief
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A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle. There are many different designs that each serve a particular purpose and apply to different situations. Designs of bridges vary depending on the function of the bridge, the nature of the terrain where the bridge is constructed and anchored, the material used to make it, and the funds available to build it.
There are tons of bridges in this word. The greatest bridge builders of antiquity · were the
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Engineeringancient Romans.  The Romans built
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arch_bridgesarch bridges and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aqueduct_(bridge)aqueducts that could stand in conditions that would damage or destroy earlier designs. Some stand today.  An example is the
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alc%C3%A1ntara_BridgeAlcántara Bridge, built over the river
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SpainSpain. The Romans also used
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cementcement, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone.  One type of cement, called
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pozzolanapozzolana, consisted of water,
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lime_(material)lime, sand, and
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mortar_(masonry)mortar bridges were built after the Roman era, as the technology for cement was lost then later rediscovered.
Bridge provides lots of convenience to the residents. Also, bridge has many characteristics, like regional, diversity, versatility and convenience. The first bridges made by humans were probably spans of cut wooden logs or planks and eventually stones, using a simple support and crossbeam arrangement. Some early Americans used trees or bamboo poles to cross small caverns or wells to get from one place to another. A common form of lashing sticks, logs, and deciduous branches together involved the use of long reeds or other harvested fibers woven together to form a huge rope capable of binding and holding together the materials used in early bridges. The bridge of China can mainly be divided in four parts. The first parts are the Western Zhou dynasty and the warring state period. The second parts are the Qin dynasty and the Han dynasty, at that time, Chinese first learn how to use stone to build bridge. And to the Tang dynasty and Song dynasty, the most fabulous product is Zhao Zhou Bridge, and the last parts are the Yuan Ming Qing dynasties. Although large Chinese bridges of wooden construction existed at the time of the warring states, the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhao Zhou Bridge, built from 595 to 605 AD during the Sui dynasty. This bridge is also historically significant as it is the world's oldest open-spandrel stone segmental arch bridge. European segmental arch bridges date back to at least the
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcon%C3%A9tar_BridgeAlconétar Bridge(approximately 2nd century AD), while the enormous Roman era
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trajan%27s_BridgeTrajan's Bridge (105 AD) featured open-spandrel segmental arches in wooden construction.
The history of bridge building is profound. One day, a log fallen across a stream, then it become the first bridge. Nature is always the best building master. As for human race, the first bridges were probably spans of cut wooden logs or planks and eventually stones, using a simple support and
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossbeamcrossbeam arrangement. For some early Americans used trees or
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bamboobamboo poles to cross small caverns or wells to get from one place to another. A common form of lashing sticks, logs, and
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deciduousdeciduous branches together involved the use of long reeds or other harvested fibers woven together to form a huge rope capable of binding and holding together the materials used in early bridges. In ancient China, Chinese built big bridges of wooden construction, and later stone bridges, and the oldest surviving stone bridge in China is the Zhaozhou Bridge built around 605 AD during the Sui Dynasty. This bridge is also historically significant as it is the world’s oldest open- stone segmental arch bridge. The ancient Romans were the greatest bridge builders of antiquity. They used cement, – called pozzolana consisting of water, lime, sand, and volcanic rock, which reduced the variation of strength found in natural stone. Though extremely versatile, wood has one obvious disadvantage and during the 18th century there were many innovations in the design and a major breakthrough in bridge technology came with the erection of the Iron Bridge in Coalbrookdale in England during 1779, using cast iron for the first time as arches to cross the river Severn. With the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Industrial_RevolutionIndustrial Revolution in the 19th century,
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trusstruss systems of
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wrought_ironwrought iron were developed for larger bridges, but iron did not have the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tensile_strengthtensile strength to support large loads. With the advent of steel, which has a high tensile strength, much larger bridges were built, many using the ideas of
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gustave_EiffelGustave Eiffel. In 1927
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stefan_Bry%C5%82aStefan Bryła designed the first welded road bridge in the world, the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maurzyce_BridgeMaurzyce Bridge which was later built across the river
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/S%C5%82udwia_RiverSłudwiaat Maurzyce near
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%81owiczŁowicz, Poland in 1929. In 1995, the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Welding_SocietyAmerican Welding Society presented the Historic Welded Structure Award for the bridge to Poland.
-Statement of problem
We need to build a tower bridge that can stretch automatically; meanwhile the bridge should be strong and shapely.
The height must not be shorter than 40cm;
Plan dimension must not be smaller than 100x30cm;
Electrical wiring installed with at least 10 LED bulbs;
It should be strong, durable and finished to a high standard;
It must be possible to manufacture the design in the classroom;
It must include recycled and waste materials
The bridge should be electric
The bridge should be a cable-stayed bridge
The pier of the bridge should be made of wood
Our bridge should bearing at least 4 chairs.
Bridge can be categorized by several different ways. We classified in structure type.
Beam Bridge: A horizontal beam supported at its ends comprises the structure of a beam bridge. The construction of a beam bridge is the simplest of all the types of bridges.
Truss bridge:Truss bridges are composed of connected straight elements with the help of pin joints. They have a solid deck and a lattice of pin-jointed or gusset-joined girders for the sides. Early truss bridges were made of wood, and later of wood with iron tensile rods, but modern truss bridges are made completely of metals such as wrought iron and steel or sometimes of reinforced concrete.
Cantilever bridges: Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers—horizontal beams that are supported on only one end. Most cantilever bridges use two cantilever arms extending from opposite sides of the obstacle to be crossed, meeting at the center.
Arch bridges: Arch bridges have
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abutmentsabutments at each end. The weight of the bridge is thrust into the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abutmentsabutments at either side. The earliest known arch bridges were built by the Greeks, and include the
With the span of 220 metres (720 ft), the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solkan_BridgeSolkan Bridge over the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/So%C4%8DaSoča River at
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/SolkanSolkan in Slovenia is the second largest stone bridge in the world and the longest railroad stone bridge. It was completed in 1905. Its arch, which was constructed from over 5,000 tonnes (4,900 long tons; 5,500 short tons) of stone blocks in just 18 days, is the second largest stone arch in the world, surpassed only by the Friedensbrücke (Syratalviadukt) in
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/PlauenPlauen, and the largest railroad stone arch. The arch of the Friedensbrücke, which was built in the same year, has the span of 90 m (295 ft) and crosses the valley of the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/SyrabachSyrabach River. The difference between the two is that the Solkan Bridge was built from stone blocks, whereas the Friedensbrücke was built from a mixture of crushed stone and cement mortar.
Tied arch bridges have an arch-shaped superstructure, but differ from conventional arch bridges. Instead of transferring the weight of the bridge and traffic loads into thrust forces into the abutments, the ends of the arches are restrained by tension in the bottom chord of the structure. They are also called bowstring arches.
Suspension bridges are suspended from cables. The earliest suspension bridges were made of ropes or vines covered with pieces of bamboo. In modern bridges, the cables hang from towers that are attached to caissons or cofferdams. The caissons or cofferdams are implanted deep into the floor of a lake or river. Sub-types include the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Simple_suspension_bridgesimple suspension bridge, the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stressed_ribbon_bridgestressed ribbon bridge, the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Underspanned_suspension_bridgeunderspanned suspension bridge, the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suspended-deck_suspension_bridgesuspended-deck suspension bridge, and the
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-anchored_suspension_bridgeself-anchored suspension bridge.
The longest suspension bridge in the world is the 3,909 m (12,825 ft)
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Akashi_Kaiky%C5%8D_BridgeAkashi Kaikyō Bridge in Japan.
https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cable-stayed_bridgeCable-stayed bridges are hold up by cables. However, in a cable-stayed bridge, less cable is required and the towers holding the cables are proportionately higher. The first known cable-stayed bridge was design in 1784 by C. T. (or C. J.) Löscher.
Research about how to make a model tower bridge By Michael Li
Painted balsa wood might be the most attractive. Balsa is a soft wood that is easily bendable.
A more budget-conscious method would be to use flat toothpicks. I suggest flat rather than round in that you can crimp slightly and bend toothpicks.
Don't let the link below intimidate you -- allow it to inspire you. This person has created the golden gate bridge out of toothpicks. The bigger the model the more intricate the detail can be.
Simpler version would be to find a head on shot of the bridge, print it out twice, glue to cardboard, cut out, and create the rest with additional cardboard. If you in a crunch for time this might be the way to go.
London Bridge (really the Tower Bridge) is a well-known symbol of the United Kingdom. Craft suppliers sell lots of model kits of this famous landmark. If you enjoy a challenge and love to draw and make things yourself, the following article will give you tips and information on making your own model out of balsa wood.
Look at several photos and drawings of the bridge so you know how the pieces fit together. Make your own detailed drawing, showing how big each piece will be and how it will be shaped.
Lay the sheet of thin acrylic over your drawing and trace the outline of each piece on to it, using one of your markers.
Double check your tracings. Remember: measure twice, cut once.
Cut out the pattern pieces from the acrylic sheet, making sure the edges are nice and smooth without jagged edges. Draw your bridge pieces on the sheet of balsa wood by tracing around the pattern pieces, or templates, with a pencil or marker.
Place the balsa wood sheet on the cutting board on a worktable, not the dining room or kitchen table. Use the Exacto knife to carefully cut out the smaller pieces. Clamping the sheet with a C-clamp, being careful not to dent the wood, can make large pieces. These can then be cut using the Exacto knife and a metal straight edge.
When you're done cutting the pieces, smooth any rough spots with the sandpaper.
Using your selected photos and drawing you have made, begin matching up the pieces of your bridge. Make sure the right piece is connected to its correct match. Once you're sure, put a thin line of glue on each cut surface and put them together. Make sure the edges match up exactly. Hold the edges together for a minute or two to allow the glue to dry a bit.
When all the pieces are put together, allow the glue to dry overnight or for a full day if you have time.
Using your pictures as a reference, cut lengths of waxed linen twine and attach them to the balsa wood model to resemble the supporting cables. If you didn't cut holes to resemble the windows in the towers, use a marker to draw them on the wood. You can use the markers to color the roofs and trim on the bridge, too.
Citation from Garrett Boon:
Building a model bridge is one of the most rewarding hobbies I have done in my entire life . I have learned a ton about working with wood and tools. I have also learned the basics in bridge engineering, and have a greater appreciation for real bridges. Model bridge building has also given me a originative outlet that I can share with others. Not only does it give me something fun to do, I can show off my creations and prove their abilities.
To start out building a model bridge, you have to decide what materials to use. Frequently I use Balsa or Basswood. These two woods are common, and you can find them in most any hobby store. You can also use popsicle sticks, toothpicks, paper, cardboard, and tons of other things. Often I choose to make a balsa wood bridge because they are versatile and fun to construct. What materials you choose will depend on the goal you have for your bridge.
Most competitions tell you what materials you can use, and limit your choice. If you want to build this model bridge to exhibit on your shelf, then you can use materials that have more aesthetic appeal. However, if you are building a bridge to test it to failure, in order to see how much weight it will hold, then you want to use efficient materials.
Once you decide what materials to use, you need to start designing your bridge. Decide how long you want the bridge to be. Are you trying to set the world record for the longest popsicle stick bridge, or are you going for an easy project? You also need to pick out a truss design for your bridge. There are three standard trusses used in engineering, the Warren, Pratt, and Howe. After you pick a design, I find it helpful to draw it to scale on graph paper.
After you have designed your bridge, you need to start construction. Make sure you have all the tools and materials you will need, such as glue, saws or exacto knives, clamps, jigs, wax paper, and such. The glue you choose is important to the strength of your bridge. I recommend Cyanoacrylate Glue. Use your drawing on graph paper as blueprints to build your bridge on. Consider covering your blueprints with wax paper to help keep glue from ruining your drawing. You can do this step in two parts. Make one side of the bridge first, and then remove it from your blueprint. Repeat for the other side, and then join the two sides together to make a bridge.
Now that you have finished your bridge, you can enjoy it. If you are going to test it, remember to wear safety goggles. If you are going to display the bridge, or use it for a model train set, you are good to go.
Citation from Shannon Wakeland
Model bridges can be used as a school project or a fun filled activity for the entire family. Building a model bridge with something as simple as wood craft sticks can help children learn better hand and eye coordination. It's a great way to spend time inside on rainy days. This article will show you how to build a simple bridge suitable for beginners.
Decide on the size of your model bridge before construction begins. If the bridge is to be entered in to a weight contest, be sure to purchase extra wood craft sticks sticks for durability. Most model bridges range between 1 and 2 feet in length. The height can vary as well, depending on preference.
Sketch the bridge on to a sheet of paper to get a better idea of what type of bridge you plan on building.There are many designs to choose from such as draw bridges, suspension bridges or a simple bridge with a slight arch. Amateur builders may want to construct a simple bridge their first time around.
Begin constructing the model bridge with wood craft sticks. Glue several wood craft sticks together to make the length of the bridge. Lay another line of wood craft sticks down parallel to the other and glue those together until both sides are the same length. Once you have reached your desired length, glue a stick from one side to the other connecting the two sides at the sections. This process will hold the foundation in place. If needed, add extra wood craft sticks on the bottom of the foundation to create a "road effect."
Build the sides of the bridge by using a common shape used by many engineers during bridge construction, a triangle. Continue making the triangle shapes and glue each one together until you reach the desired length of the bridge model. Repeat these steps to build the other side of the bridge. Cross brace the triangles when and if needed.
Begin building the top of the bridge model just as you built the sides of the bridge. Glue the wood craft sticks from one side to the other, forming a triangle shape. Press firmly down on to the sticks to make sure the glue is dry before moving on to the next one. It's OK if they are not all lined up perfectly.
Add wire around the connecting points of the bridge for desired effect or durability. Touch up on corners or connecting points with glue.
LED bulbs (5 meters)
Hot melt adhesive
In total, we cost 165 Yuan in our bridge.
Number of chairs
Yes, no shaking
Considering the safety of our bridge, we just tested 4 chairs, but after first marking, we will put more chairs to see it’s bearing situations, and redesign.your bridge. There are three standard trusses used in engineering, the Warren, Pratt, and Howe. After you pick a design, I find it helpful to draw it to scale on graph paper.
After you have designed your bridge, you need to start construction. Make sure you have all the tools and materials you will need, such as glue, saws or exacto knives, clamps, jigs, wax paper, and such. The glue you choose is important to the strength of your bridge. I recommend Cyanoacrylate Glue. Use your drawing on graph paper as blueprints to build your bridge on. Consider covering your blueprints with wax paper to help keep glue from ruining your drawing. You can do this st