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Embed code for: HYDROPOWER ppt (1)
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Statement of the Problem:
We will make a nice and stable product.
We will make a model that contains science theories.
We will use recycled materials to build our model.
Be created from materials that were used, that can be reused, or that can be recycled again
Creates enough energy to light a light (needs 2 metal wires such as copper to create the electrical circuit)
No larger than one square meter and no heavier than five kilograms
Utilize maximum efficiency of the renewable energy through design
It should be strong, durable and finished to a high standard.
It must be possible to manufacture the design in the classroom
The product should be nice and useful.
The product should contain science theories.
Our construction is about hydroelectric. This construction must can show the theory of hydroelectric. We planned use popsicle sticks to make a model just like a house and that can put water on it to make electric. But if we try to use real water in it, we will must make sure the construction can waterproof. We can use some special coating to come true the goal. In another hand, we also should make our construction efficient and it is connect with real life. If the construction not efficient, it will just become a model, a real model.
The product should have a good looking because the exterior of the product could show the quality level of the product. People could not consider a product that is unsightly as well.
All the materials that used to construct should be recycle because it could reduce the waste and pollution and protect the environment. We should use more and more environmental protection materials in our daily lives to protect the environmental as well.
The most materials should be available in the product not for wasting because recycling is very important. Every time we use materials is a hurt for earth, protecting spirit is also a point we need be learned.
The model can’t be expensive or complex because it made by students and use for students to understand how its working.Students can’t offer too much money to make a model and complex model will also cause confuse in their mind. Our goal is to make a model efficiently, not just for looking.
Can you imagine a world without energy? You wouldn’t be able to play computer games, ride a bicycle, or talk on the phone. Cars and trucks wouldn’t move. Lights wouldn’t shine. Plants wouldn’t grow. Without energy, nothing would happen! Energy is one of the most important material bases in development and survival of human society, but as the world economy sustained and develop rapidly, energy shortages, environmental pollution and ecological deterioration and other problems gradually become serious. At the same time, Human energy demand is growing day by day; the contradiction between supply and demand of energy is graver. At present, the world’s energy consumption is dominated by fossil resources, which few countries such as China Coal is the main, most other countries are based on oil and gas-based. If people still do like that, the environment would be polluted and caused several kinds of problems. As a result, it is imperative to exploit new energy, utilize resources reasonably and protect environment , the countries all over the world are aware of paying more and more attention on exploitation of new energy . For instance, wind power, hydroelectric energy and solar power so on.
More and more non-renewable energy resource are used around world. These energy resource take a long time to formation and if we use up them, the nature will still spend 1000 or more years to produce it. On this period of time, we do not have energy resource to use, but we of course cannot away from them because of the modern life. In our daily life, almost everything need energy resource. In the north of China, coal is a kind of main energy resource. But it is non-renewable energy, it will be depleted one day. So we must think a way to solve it. In 21 centuries, energy resource is becoming a big problem that all person should face it. How can we solve it? Finding renewable energy sources is the best way. So what is the renewable energy? Renewable energy is generally defined as energy that is collected from resources which are naturally replenished on a human timescale, such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, waves, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy often provides energy in four important areas: electricity generation, air and water heating/cooling, transportation, and rural (off-grid) energy services. Hydroelectric is one of them. Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water. It is the most widely used form of renewable energy, accounting for 16 percent of global electricity generation – 3,427 terawatt-hours of electricity production in 2010,  and is expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. We use water to produce electric, it is very convenient and efficient. So we made a report about hydroelectric and hope you can understand well.
Our target audience are the farmers who lived near river or lake. In another hand, it are also suit for the factory which is in the rural and near lake. Our product is water turbine. It can create electricity by using the falling water to create power, and the power can create electricity. Farms are very needed this kind of machine because it is very save money and energy. And factories are also a huge group who need much electricity. So this product is very convent, you can use it as long as you have much water. So why not choose us?
To make a hydroelectricity Model:
1 、Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; The production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
2 、The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.
3 、Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
The cost of hydroelectricity is relatively low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U.S. cents per kilowatt-hour.
Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, and has a considerably lower output level of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide (CO2) than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
1. Hydroelectricity is a renewable energy source. Hydroelectricity gains power from running water, without reducing its quantity and do not producing any pollution.
2. Hydroelectricity promotes guaranteed energy and price stability. River water is a domestic resource and it cannot be easily effected to compare with fuel or natural gas.
H hydroelectric plants are very expensive to build, and must be built to a very high standard.
The construction of building a hydropower could impact the circumstances and cause lots of environment issues
To make a hydropower model:
The water reservoir can be just about anything that can contain water at an elevation above that of your turbine.
Let people see the workings by making a waterfall and paddlewheel.
Hook up a voltmeter instead of bulbs because your model won't be able to generate enough power to light a bulb sometimes.
Nowadays, People have been harnessing the energy of moving water for centuries. In Ancient Greece and China, waterwheels were installed in rapidly flowing rivers to run equipment, and they are still be used today in some parts of the world. Actually, as water flows from a higher to a lower area, these devices are using the principle of gravity. Hydroelectric power plants rely on the same basic principle, but rather than use the kinetic energy directly, the force of the water drives a turbine which in turn powers a generator, producing electricity which can be used on-site or transported to other regions. As with other turbine-powered methods of generating electricity, magnets in the turbine move relative to static conductors. This results in an electrical current flowing through the conductors
Notes: （Holly ）
Hydropower is using water to power machinery or make electricity. Water constantly moves through a vast global cycle, evaporating from lakes and oceans, forming clouds, precipitating as rain or snow, then flowing back down to the ocean. The energy of this water cycle, which is driven by the sun, can be tapped to produce electricity or for mechanical tasks like grinding grain. Hydropower uses a fuel—water—that is not reduced or used up in the process. Because the water cycle is an endless, constantly recharging system, hydropower is considered a renewable energy.
When flowing water is captured and turned into electricity, it is called hydroelectric power or hydropower. There are several types of hydroelectric facilities; they are all powered by the kinetic energy of flowing water as it moves downstream. Turbines and generators convert the energy into electricity, which is then fed into the electrical grid to be used in homes, businesses, and by industry.
There are three types of hydropower facilities: impoundment, diversion, and pumped storage. Some hydropower plants use dams and some do not.
The most common type of hydroelectric power plant is an impoundment facility. An impoundment facility, typically a large hydropower system, uses a dam to store river water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which in turn activates a generator to produce electricity. The water may be released either to meet changing electricity needs or to maintain a constant reservoir level.
A diversion, sometimes called run-of-river, facility channels a portion of a river through a canal or penstock. It may not require the use of a dam.
When the demand for electricity is low, a pumped storage facility stores energy by pumping water from a lower reservoir to an upper reservoir. During periods of high electrical demand, the water is released back to the lower reservoir to generate electricity.
1. Cut to form two big circles that have 7cm radius at two side of water turbine. Each wood block contains 12 popsicle sticks.
2. Because the border is too rough, we use sandpaper to polish it. Paint the wood block
3. And get two popsicle to do two side of water channel: We total use 5 popsicles to make one water channel. As a water channel, we need make sure that water proofing, no leakage for water .So we not only glue to paste them, but to use saw to cut indentations and stick them into each of wood pieces.
4. The side of water channel has two indentations, the first indentation at 1.3cm from the top, and the second groove is at 2.5cm from the top.
5. And we start to do the bottom. The same as we do the side, we also cut two indentations at this popsicle. To lock them with two side, groove can make sure they are stable enough.
6. The first groove is at 0.8cm from left, and second groove is at 0.8cm from right.
7. We put 4 pieces of these sides together, to form a rectangular.
8. At last, we put a whole popsicle at the middle of this rectangular. And it will form a stable locked water channel.
9. Because it is handmade, so there are some leaks at the bottom, and we can use glue to plug them up.
10. Paste the both sides of the water channel on both side of the wood block.
11. Use an iron wire as the axis of the water wheel to connect both sides of the wood block and then fasten the round wood
block by gluing wood chips on the outside of the wood block.
12. Glue the generator on the other side of the wood chips.
13. After making down the core part of water generator, to do two trestles supporting it so that water generator rotates in fluency. Making an isosceles triangle at the top with wooden stick because this kind of shape is the most stable.
14. After this, making a rectangle below it to take the water generator up away from the horizontal. Besides, let the basic angle of isosceles triangle connect a long stick to the grass ground, so that forming another new right triangle, to do the same way at another side. In that case, it can improve the stability a lot.
Use foam to fill all mountain.
In order to make a rugged surface, we crumble all piece of foam.
And put a box under the foam to make it higher.
Then use foil to cover them.
Use pigment to coloring this mountain.
Sprinkle some grass on it to let it vivid.
Use a whole long foam as the steamway.
And put some piece of foam on two side of river bank.
If just put it on here, it is not stable enough, so we use chopstick pass through two side’s foam, and cut the extra chopstick outside.
And use foil to cover it.
Use glue to paste steamway and mountain.
Get color for steamway
Get a rugged piece of foam.
Use foil to cover it, make sure foil wrapping this foam tightly, to show the shape.
Roll up the side slightly, to make the bank.
And get color for it, use painting brush powerfully to let the blue more vivid, like water wave.
Drawings/Sketches of your Refinements:
During the process of water channel, we came up with 3 different methods to make a groupware that can form 90 degree of angle between two popsicle sticks. (1) The first method is to increase the thickness of one popsicle stick by pasting other small short popsicle sticks so that the stick which form the angle of 90 degrees on the other side can easily be pasted on. Due to the fact that the product is not hard enough, we canceled this method. (2) The second method is to chisel a small indentation that has the same width of popsicle sticks so that the two popsicle sticks could be jammed and form an angle of 90 degrees. This kind of method is very weak as well, so we tried to find other method. (3) The third method is to chisel another kind of bayonets on each side of the popsicle sticks so that both of the popsicle sticks could be restricted mutually. The product is solid enough this time.
The axis of the water wheel is made of iron wire and the wire is crooked at first. We used a popsicle stick to adjust the bending degree of the iron wire to make the wire becomes straight.
The foam which fastens the iron wire always contacts with the round wood block. We come up with a solution to add an obstacle between the foam and the wood block to prevent them contact with each other.
For the decoration of the wood block, we decided to use watercolours to paint at first. Due to the fact that the pigment was dissolved by the water during the tests, we used cardboard to cover the plank. The plank is not only nice but also invariant after being soaked water.
Came up with lots of ideas about the construction. Bought the materials that need of construction.
Came up with lots of ideas about the construction.
All group members participated in the whole project well. We all made the questions about energy basics, design brief and the model together.
Our leader distributes the assignment to each member. We started to do our pie chart. Researching the statistic information from internet and comparing Everyone has their own work. We discussed many ideas and buy some raw materials from TaoBao we finish our first project about energy consumption of paper.
We improved yesterday's work and continued to analyze pie chart and answering a series of basic energy question. At last, We finished half work of energy consumption.
Leader Started to do PPT about pie chart. Other group members searched information about hydroelectric and thought how to make a model, use what kind of materials and if it is suitable for us.
Our groups were still looking for the best materials and methods to make model with high quality, after sharing the ideas each other. We sketch the model over and over again while asking Mr. sandy if he can give some good suggestions. Finally we had the designing plan.
The raw materials have been gotten and following the yesterday’s plan to make model .but the main part didn’t have. In other words, it is the water turbine generators lateral side. So we choose to write the background and the statement of problem.
Two members Continued to write the report （still revising the background’s content ）and make ppt. Another two members try to make one side of water turbine generators by using wooden stick. (Jonathan had ever the enough experience about wooden, so this time we still use this kind of main materials.)
All of members joined in making flume .this part is also important. The whole of it was cut with extremely carefully or it would be broken up. As a result, we spent a long time to make it
Similarly, making flume and writing down the making model process as producing the water generating.
Group members were making this model’s core part, we need to control what time is the most suitable to stick the connection point between the wooden stick, because we use the thermosol. At the same time, paper work was going on.
Making the PPT and prepared for the presentation. up with 3 different methods to make a groupware that can form 90 degree of angle between two popsicle sticks. (1) The first method is to increase the thickness of one popsicle stick by pasting other small short popsicle sticks so that the stick which form the angle of 90 degrees on the other side can easily be pasted on. Due to the fact that the product is not hard enough, we canceled this method. (2) The second method is to chisel a small indentation that has the same width of popsicle sticks so that the two popsicle sticks could be jammed and form an angle of 90 degrees. This kind of method is very weak as well, so we tried to find other method. (3) The third method is to chisel another kind of bayonets on each side of the popsicle sticks so that both of the popsicle sticks could be restricted mutually. The product is solid enough this time.
All group members participated in the whole project well. We all made the questions about energy basics, desi