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Useful Wild Plants of The Eastern Woodlands Photos and Text by Dave Canterbury The Pathfinder School LLC 2009 Preface This book is not a typical Field Manual in that I will not cover every plant in the given bioregion, I will also not identify them by Latin Name. Instead this book is meant to be for use by the aspiring Scout or Woodsman to help them on the path of Self Reliance. For this reason the book will be divided in a more un-natural or abnormal way compared to books of this kind. I will List Plants and Trees as well as some Fungi in this book and all will be categorized not by alphabetical order but by usefulness. By usefulness I mean are they Edible, Medicinal, or a Building Component. This follows the Rule of Three in the Natural Order as I believe it applies to Plants (Things that Grow from the ground) the Natural Order as I believe it applies to Plants (Things that Grow from the ground) in general. All listings will be alphabetized in there respective Topics for your convenience and ease of use. I will also not list all known uses for these plants but I will list several common uses as well as any that I have found particularly good. This book will follow the Pathfinder System in many respects so if you are unfamiliar with it, this may confuse you a bit but it will all make sense in the end. There will be an Identification Section at the end of this book for Poisonous plants just as precaution for you in your travels. Good Scouting! Chapter 1-Edibles Again we will not cover every wild edible in the Eastern Woodlands, what we will cover are the Basic Common easy to find plants that you can stake your life on in a given situation. We will also not cover every aspect of the preparation of these plants but some basics will be given. However it is up to you as an individual to fully ITEMIZE each plant to be sure of what you have and to research it thoroughly before use. Plant Listings Plant Listings Blackberry(Common)DayLillyPepperGrasses Bladder CampionDryad’s SaddlePines CleaversHickory (Nuts)Plantains Clovers(Red, Yellow, White)MintViolets CattailMallowWalnuts Burdock(Common, Giant)Onion (Field Garlic)Watercress DandelionParsnipWinter cress Notes While this list may seem brief at first glance, the plants here have been chosen for good reasons. The first thing that must be remembered when searching for Wild edibles in Availability both within bioregion and within Seasons. The other point that must be looked at is does the list satisfy the main Nutritional needs of the metabolism i.e.; Vitamins, Minerals, Proteins, and Carbohydrates ? This list of plants includes species available very commonly, in different seasons, and is a mix that will sustain all needs except Animal Fat. Each Plant is given a small table to Identify the Common Name, the Parts of the Plant that are most edible/palatable, and the uses for each. Uses are listed in the Plant that are most edible/palatable, and the uses for each. Uses are listed in Simple Terms like Fresh Green (Eaten Raw), Cooked Green (Must be Boiled), Dried for Coffee or Tea etc.. Plants are sometimes grouped to avoid unnecessary repetitive mentions, like Violets, Pepper Grasses and so on. These plants are of the same type and can be used in similar fashion. Multiple pictures are provided if available. Finally, personal research must still be done to help you learn all the ways of Harvest and Preparation of each of these species this is only a quick guide. Enjoy! BlackberryEdible PartsUse BrambleRaspberryFruitFresh LeavesTea ShootsFreshGreens Bladder CampionEdible PartsUse ShootsCookedGreens CleaversEdible PartsUse FruitRoasted Coffee Substitute ShootsCooked Green CloversEdible PartsUse RedLeavesCookedGreen YellowDriedSeasoning White CattailsEdible PartsUse RootsCooked Starch TubersCooked Starch/Flour ShootsFreshGreen BurdocksEdible PartsUse CommonLeavesCooked Green GreatRootsCooked Starch DandelionEdible PartsUse RootDried Ground Tea/Coffee LeavesFresh/Cooked Green Day LillyEdible PartsUse Flower Heads (Young)Cooked Green TubersCooked Starch Dryad’s SaddleEdible PartsUse ImmatureCapsBaked/Roasted Hickory Edible PartsUse ShagbarkNuts(Inner Meat)Raw or Roasted Shellbark Pignut MintsEdible PartsUse Wood mintLeavesDried/Fresh Tea Wildmint Spearmint MallowsEdible PartsUse Marsh MallowLeavesCooked Green Common MallowYoung FruitsFresh Green Onion (Field Garlic)Edible PartsUse ShootsFresh Green BulbsFresh/Fried Seasoning ParsnipEdible PartsUse Tap RootBoiled/Roasted Starch Pepper GrassesEdible PartsUse Sheppard's PurseSeedsSeasonings PennygrassLeavesFresh/Cooked Greens Peppergrass PinesEdible PartsUse PitchSeedsRaw Nut WhiteNeedlesTea LoblollyInner BarkFried PlantainsEdible PartsUse CommonYoung LeavesFresh/Cooked Green Longleaf VioletsEdible PartsUse BlueAll PartsSalad/CookedGreen Swamp WalnutsEdible PartsUse Nut InnerMeatRaw/Roasted WatercressEdible PartsUse Leaves/StemsFreshGreens WinterCressEdible PartsUse Young LeavesCooked/Fresh Green Chapter 2-Medicinals Again we will not cover every Medicinal Plant in the Eastern Woodlands, what we will cover are the Basic Common easy to find plants that you can use to treat common ailments. We will also not cover every aspect of the preparation of these plants but some basics will be given. However it is up to you as an individual to fully research each plant to be sure of what you have before use. Some plants that are medicinal can be poisonous as well if used or applied wrong. This will be noted beside the Plant name if applicable. Plant Listings BloodrootMint BonesetMullein CattailPlantain Onion(Field Garlic)Willow JewelweedYarrow Notes Again as you can see the list is brief, but again also it will be found to be effective. Thought has been put into this list for not only availability and bioregion but also to the basic needs of the average person. This is a list of 10 Plants for medicinal use, do you have more than 10 medications in your medicine cabinet at home? And if you have 3 different things to use each one for then you now have 30 medications at your disposal! In this chapter we will again be brief in description as far as uses of these medicinals but we will have a section after this chapter talking briefly about preparing herbs for Medicinal use as taught in the Pathfinder System. preparing herbs for Medicinal use as taught in the Pathfinder System. NameTreatmentPreparation Blood Root (POISON)Antifungal (Topical Only)Maceration NameTreatmentPreparation Boneset (Caution)Widelyused in the 19th century as a Flu remedy Infusion of Leaves NameTreatmentPreparation CattailAnti-inflammatoryGel from Sheathed Shoot AntisepticPowderPollen from Female Flower DiarrheaYoungFlower Heads Eaten Raw NameTreatmentPreparation Onion (Field Garlic)ColdsPeeled Bulbs Raw Sore ThroatInfusion of GroundCloves TopicalAntibacterialJuice from Cloves NameTreatmentPreparation JewelweedPoison Ivy/OakFresh Juices NameTreatmentPreparation MintHeadacheLeaf Infusion Sore ThroatLeaf Infusion NameTreatmentPreparation MulleinExpectorant/AntiviralLeaf/Flower Infusion Anti-InflammatoryLeaf Poultice Minor CutsLeaf Gauze NameTreatmentPreparation PlantainInsect Bites/StingsLeaf Poultice NameTreatmentPreparation WillowHeadache/Pain KillerBark Decoction NameTreatmentPreparation YarrowClotting BloodFresh or Dried eaves Cold and Fever Induces Sweating Leave Infusion InsectRepellantDecoction/Oil Mixture SoreThroatGargle Infusion (Warm) Herbals Within the Pathfinder System we do a great deal of study on Herbalism, for the context of this short book we will only cover the basics so that you may get a better understanding of how to apply herbal remedies in a woodland or Self Reliance setting. The List of Herbs we have chosen to include here will help you to deal with common ailments encountered day to day, they a simple yet effective, the only thing left is to understand how to utilize them. Methods of Preparation for herbal remedies can be complicated but with the list we have given you, it will only take basic knowledge. There are 4 types of preparation you will need to understand- preparation you will need to understand- Infusion-Steeping Raw or Dried Herb in water to create a Tea/Gargle Decoction-Condensing an Infusion by Reduction boiling (Deals usually with Barks and Roots) Poultice-Applying Macerated Herb with a compress Liniment-Rubbing the Juices from the Raw Herb into the affected area These are very simple explanations to help you understand the basics, further research on your part is required to become affluent in the uses of herbal remedies. Chapter 3-Building Components In this chapter we will explore plants useful for making and building objects that can be used to replace Kit components when lost or damaged. They can also serve to make additional items needed in self reliance situations or to prevent the overburdening of carrying heavy amounts of Kit originally. Again this list is by no means exhaustive but will give you commonly found plants that have many uses. I will not elaborate of the actual construction of these items or preparation for use as we have many videos both online free and in purchasable format to explain these concepts. purchasable format to explain these concepts. Plant Listings BambooHickory BirchNettles Black WalnutOak CattailPine DogbaneWillow NameSome Uses BambooFishingPoles Containers Rafts BlowGuns Spears NameSome Uses BirchFire Tinder (Bark) Container Construction Shelter Roofing A Byproduct of some Birch Species is a Fungi called Tinder Fungus that grows on the tree Tinder Fungus NameSome Uses Black WalnutDark Brown Earthen Dye Bow Making (Acceptable) Handle Material (Acceptable) High TanninContent for Hides NameSome Uses CattailBasket Making Mat Weaving Shelter Construction Fire Tinder Arrow Shafts NameSome Uses DogbaneCordage Making (Best) NameSome Uses HickoryBow Making (Best) Handle replacements Rabbit Sticks NameSome Uses NettlesCordage (Next Best) NameSome Uses OakHide Tanning Bow Making (acceptable) Handle Replacements NameSome Uses PineFire Starting Glue Making Shelter Construction Carving Pine Needle Baskets NameSome Uses WillowFireSet building Basket weaving Carving Bowels/Spoons Chapter 4-Poisonous Plants As I said before this again will not be an exhaustive list, but it will show you some of the more common plants you will encounter that should be avoided. Again you should look at this only as a Primer and personal research should be conducted to truly develop you tool box of Plant Identification and use. Some Plants that are poisonous but still can be useful in certain applications, for this reason you may see plants listed here that are listed also in an above chapter. Mushrooms will not be included in this chapter but should be avoided unless fully ITEMized as many more are harmful than not. harmful than not. Plant Listings BloodrootJimsonweed BouncingBet (Soap wart)May apple DogbanePoisonIvy DwarfLarkspurPoisonOak HemlockPoisonPokeWeed NamePoison Transferred through BloodrootIngestion NamePoison Transferred through Bouncing BetIngestion NamePoison Transferred through Dwarf LarkspurIngestion NamePoison Transferred through Poison HemlockIngestion **Can easily be mistaken for both Yarrow and Queen Anne’s Lace NamePoison Transferred through JimsonweedIngestion NamePoison Transferred through May appleIngestion NamePoison Transferred through Poison IvyContact NamePoison Transferred through Poison OakContact NamePoison Transferred through Poke weedIngestion Mixture SoreThroatGargle Infusion (Warm) Herbals Within the Pathfinder System we do a great deal of study on Herbalism, for the context of this short book we will only cover the basics so that you may get a better understanding of how to apply herbal remedies in a woodland or Self Reliance setting. The List of Herbs we have chosen to include here will help you to deal with common ailments encountered day to day, they a simple yet effective, the only thing left is to understand how to utilize them. Methods of Preparation for herbal remedies can be complicated but with the list we have given you, it will only take basic knowledge. There are 4 types of preparation you will need to understand- preparation you will need to understand- Infusion-Steeping Raw or Dried Herb in water to create a Tea/Gargle