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What’s New in Storage Francesco Molfese Progel Spa @FrancescoMolf Conference: #sidws16 @siditconferencesiditconference WindowServer.it • What's new in storage in Windows Server 2016 • Storage Replica • Storage Spaces Direct • Storage Quality of Service • Storage improvements in Windows Server 2016 • Senior Consultant presso Progel S.p.A. • Microsoft MVP Cloud Datacenter Management • Microsoft Certified Trainer (MCT) • Field Engineer per i progetti Microsoft Cloud OS • Community Lead dello User Group Italiano di System Center e Operations Management Suite (http://www.ugisystemcenter.org) Novità nello Storage Verso un mondo Software Defined What is Software Defined Storage? • Is a concept of managing storage independent of the underlying hardware • Can revolutionize storage like virtualization has revolutionized servers • Includes the following features in Windows Server 2016: • Storage Spaces • Scale-Out File Servers • Storage Replica • Data deduplication • Thin provisioning • iSCSI storage Dependent on Traditional Storage • Relied on 3rd party SAN vendors 1st wave SDS • Introduction to Storage Spaces • “Remote File solution for Hyper-V using shared JBOD • Introduced Scale Out File Server ( SOFS) • RDMA and Multichannel • SAN independence Storage Spaces Direct • Remote File solution for Hyper-V using shared nothing hardware • Unlock use of DAS • Reduce Cost Software Storage Bus • SATA and NVMe • Node Fault Tolerance • Health Services Storage Spaces Enhancements • Scalable pools • Data Rebalancing Pre Windows 2012 Windows 2012 Windows 2012 R2 Windows 2016 2nd wave SDS • Storage Tiering • WriteBack Cache (WBC) • Scale Out File Server improvements • SMB Direct Improvements • Volume Rebalancing • Multiple instances • JBOD monitoring Microsoft SDS: past, present and future Overview of ReFS • Is a file system introduced in Windows Server “8” Beta • Designed with 4 key concept: • Integrity • Availability • Scalability • Proactive Error Correction ReFS is the primary file system • VM checkpoints have parent-child VHDs • After backup completes, Hyper-V historically moved all data from child to parent (slow VHD “merge”) • Using ReFS, Hyper-V now quickly reassigns blocks from the child to the parent Efficient VM checkpoint clean- up after backup • Available per-file integrity streams validate file contents • Upon error detection, ReFS retrieves a correct copy from Storage Spaces, if available • ReFS uses the correct copy to automatically repair the corruption Resilient Optional automatic error correction • HDDs are optimized for capacity • SSDs are optimized for performance • ReFS keeps hot data in SSDs and cold data in HDDs, providing both performance and capacity Affordable Performance of SSDs, capacity of HDDs SSD • Does not need to pre- fill new files and growing files with zeros • Quickly creates large fixed VHDs • Quickly grows dynamic VHDs Accelerated VHD creation and growth Storage Replica The Storage Replica Feature • Use for disaster recovery or preparedness • Configure via Failover Cluster Manager or Windows PowerShell • Three replication scenarios: • Stretch cluster • Server-to-server • Cluster-to-cluster • Replicates synchronously or asynchronously Requirements for Storage Replica • Datacenter Edition • Active Directory Domain Services forest. • No need for Schema updates, AD objects, certain AD functional levels, etc. • Network • At least one Ethernet/TCP connection on each server for sync replication (preferably RDMA) • A network between servers with enough bandwidth to contain IO write workload and an average of 5ms round trip latency or lower, for sync replication. Async replication does not have a latency recommendation. • At least 2GB of RAM and two cores per server. • Disks • GPT, not MBR • Whatever your cluster thinks is Available Storage is ok for SR • Same disk geometry (between logs, between data) and partitioning for data • Free space for logs on a Windows NTFS/ReFS volume • Firewall ports • SMB, WS-MAN Storage Replica types • Synchronous replication • Asynchronous replication Storage Replica: Stretch cluster Storage Replica: Server-to-server Storage Replica: Cluster-to-cluster Storage Replica Features • Zero data loss, block-level replication. With synchronous replication, there is no possibility of data loss. With block-level replication, there is no possibility of file locking. • Simple deployment and management. Creation of a replication partnership between two servers requires only a single PowerShell command. Deployment of stretch clusters uses intuitive wizard in the familiar Failover Cluster Manager tool. • Guest and host. All capabilities of Storage Replica are exposed in both virtualized guest and host-based deployments. • SMB3-based. Storage Replica uses the proven and mature technology of SMB 3, first released in Windows Server 2012. • Security. Storage Replica has industry-leading security technology baked in. Storage Replica Features • High performance initial sync. Storage Replica supports seeded initial sync, where a subset of data already exists on a target from older copies, backups, or shipped drives. • Consistency groups. Write ordering guarantees that applications such as SQL Server can write to multiple replicated volumes and know the data will write on the destination server sequentially. • User delegation. Users can be delegated permissions to manage replication without being a member of Admin group on the replicated nodes. • Network Constraint. Storage Replica can be limited to individual networks by server and by replicated volumes, in order to provide application, backup, and management software bandwidth. • Thin provisioning. In order to provide near-instantaneous initial replication times under many circumstances. Demo Storage Spaces Direct What is Storage Spaces Direct ? • Spaces Direct is software-defined, shared-nothing storage • Enables to use industry standard servers with local storage to build highly available and scalable storage • It is the evolution of Storage Spaces, first introduced in Windows Server 2012 • It leverages many of features in Windows Server: • Failover Clustering • Cluster Shared Volume (CSV) file system • Server Message Block (SMB) 3 • Storage Spaces (of course) • AKA S2D Key benefits with Storage Spaces Direct Simplicity. Go from industry-standard servers running Windows Server 2016 to your first Storage Spaces Direct cluster in under 15 minutes. For System Center users, deployment is just one checkbox. Unrivaled Performance. Whether all-flash or hybrid, Storage Spaces Direct easily exceeds 150000 mixed 4k random IOPS per server with consistent, low latency. Resource Efficiency. Erasure coding delivers up to 2.4x greater storage efficiency, with unique innovations like Local Reconstruction Codes and real-time tiering to extend these gains to hard disk drives and mixed hot/cold workloads. Fault Tolerance. Built-in resiliency handles drive, server, or component failures with continuous availability. Larger deployments can also be configured for chassis and rack fault tolerance. Scalability. Go up to 16 servers and over 400 drives, for multiple petabytes of storage per cluster. To scale out, simply add drives or add more servers; Storage Spaces Direct will automatically onboard new drives and begin using them. Storage Spaces Direct in few steps Standard servers with internal drives (no shared storage, just Ethernet) Cluster them Software defined pool of storage (cache, tiers, resiliency, columns) Create volumes. Volumes have built-in resiliency (drives or nodes fail) Deployment options • Storage Spaces Direct was designed for two distinct deployment options: • Converged: also known as disaggregated, layers a Scale-out File Server (SoFS) atop Storage Spaces Direct to provide network-attached storage over SMB3 file shares. • Hyper-converged: runs Hyper-V virtual machines or SQL Server databases directly on the servers providing the storage, storing their files on the local volumes. Converged deployment • Compute and Storage resources separate • Compute and Storage scale and managed independently • Typically larger scale-out deployments Hyper-converged deployment • Compute and Storage resources together • Compute and Storage scale and managed together • Typically small to medium sized scale-out deployments Storage Spaces Direct Stack • Networking Hardware • Storage Hardware • Failover Clustering • Software Storage Bus • Storage Bus Layer Cache • Storage Pool • Storage Spaces • Resilient File System (ReFS) • Cluster Shared Volumes • Scale-Out File Server Fault tolerance in Storage Spaces Direct • Its implementation is similar to RAID, except distributed across servers and implemented in software • As with RAID, there are different ways Storage Spaces can do this: • Mirroring • Parity • Single parity • Dual parity • Mixed resiliency Demo Storage Quality of Service Why use Storage QoS ? • Mitigate noisy neighbor issues. Storage QoS ensures that a single VM cannot consume all storage resources and starve other VMs of storage bandwidth. • Monitor end to end storage performance. As soon as virtual machines stored on a Scale-Out File Server are started, their performance is monitored. • Manage Storage I/O per workload business needs Storage QoS policies define performance minimums and maximums for VMs and ensures that they are met. Storage QoS Requirements • Failover Cluster is required on Storage servers • All servers must be running the same version of Windows Server 2016 • Storage QoS supports two deployment scenarios: • Hyper-V using a Scale-Out File Server This scenario requires: • Storage cluster that is a Scale-Out File Server cluster • Compute cluster that has least one server with the Hyper-V role enabled • Hyper-V using Cluster Shared Volumes This scenario requires: • Compute cluster with the Hyper-V role enabled • Hyper-V using Cluster Shared Volumes (CSV) for storage Storage Improvements Enhancements in Data Deduplication • Support for large volumes • Prior to WS 2016, volumes had to be specifically sized for the expected churn, with volume sizes above 10 TB not being good candidates for deduplication • In WS 2016, Data Deduplication supports volume sizes up to 64 TB • Support for large files • Prior to Windows Server 2016, files approaching 1 TB in size were not good candidates for deduplication. In Windows Server 2016, files up to 1 TB are fully supported. What's New in Data Deduplication • Support for Nano Server • Simplified backup support • WS 2016 has added a new default Usage Type (Backup) for seamless deployment of Data Deduplication for Virtualized Backup Applications. • Support for Cluster OS Rolling Upgrade SMB hardening improvements for SYSVOL and NETLOGON connections • In Windows 10 and Windows Server 2016 client connections to the Active Directory Domain Services default SYSVOL and NETLOGON shares on DC now require SMB signing and mutual authentication (such as Kerberos). • What value does this change add? This change reduces the likelihood of man-in-the-middle attacks. • What works differently? If SMB signing and mutual authentication are unavailable, a Windows 10 or Windows Server 2016 computer won't process domain-based Group Policy and scripts. bytes of storage per cluster. To scale out, simply add drives or add more servers; Storage Spaces Direct will automatically onboard new drives and begin using them. Storage Spaces Direct in few steps Standard servers with internal drives (no shared storage, just Ethernet) Cluster them Software defined pool of storage (cache, tiers, resiliency, columns) Create volumes. Volumes have built-in resiliency (drives or nodes fail) Deployment options • Storage Spaces Direct was designed for two distinct deployment options: • Converged: also known as disaggregated, layers a Scale-out File Server (SoFS) atop Storage Spaces Direct to provide network-attached storage over SMB3 file shares. • Hyper-converged: runs Hyper-V virtual machines or SQL Server databases directly on the servers providing the storage, storing their files on the local volumes. Converged deployment • Compute and Storage resources separate • Compute and Storage scale and managed independently • Typically larger scale-out deployments Hyper-converged deployment • C