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Embed code for: RCSD Grade 78 Digital Citizenship Learning Online Course - ETAD 804 - Kyle Webb - Nov 22 2016
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Final project submission for ETAD 804.
Regina Catholic School Division
Grade 7/8 Digital Citizenship Learning Online Course
November 21, 2016
University of Saskatchewan
This online course design will serve teachers and students with the Regina Catholic School Division (RCSD). The course will focus on Digital Citizenship for seventh and eighth grade students and will be made available to all grade 7 and 8 teachers within the school division to use with their own students. The course will not be taken at a distance, but will be designed at a distance and teachers will be able to interact with their students directly as they work towards reaching course outcomes. Teachers will also be responsible for the majority of the assessments of students, although there are plans to have some self- and peer-assessment within the course, as well as assessments that are marked by the CMS.
The goal is to create a course that will take approximately 20 hours for students to complete. Regina Catholic School Division administrators are planning to allow this time to count towards Practical and Applied Arts (PAA) time requirements for students, which is why the grades of seven and eight are being targeted by the course. Because it is being delivered by RCSD, the course will also build in faith-based education practices and aims to be used cross circularly with Religion, ELA, and Social Studies outcomes.
Classroom teachers will decide when to implement the course into their long range plans for the year. There will be flexibility to implementing the course into classrooms, although teachers will be encouraged to spread it out over a longer period of time, rather than all at once. This will allow students to have the lessons of digital citizenship present throughout the course of the year, rather than viewing it as a one-time unit.
There is a large demand for learning opportunities around digital citizneship to exist for students of today. Bilgiler, Araştırmaları, Karaduman, & Öztürk (2014) define digital citizenship as “behaviors necessary for legal, ethical, safe and responsible use of info communication technologies in online settings”. Unfortunately, even with strong desires to educate students on digital citizenship, there is often little or no time in the day for teachers to use towards specifically teaching digital citizenship (Ribble, 2011). By creating an online course for students to take, which ties to other curricular areas, the extra burden on teachers to teach these subjects will have lessened. Schools have a responsibility to teach these skills to students and providing online resources for teachers to use is an effective way meet their needs (Couros & Hildebrandt, 2015; Oxley, 2011).
Organization: Regina Catholic School Division
Regina Catholic School Division (RCSD) is a large school division located in Regina, Saskatchewan. RCSD is a public school division and receives funding and financial support from the Government of Saskatchewan. The division currently serves over 11,000 students and over 1100 staff and is slated to open three new schools in the 2017-18 school year in addition to the 30 current schools (Regina Catholic School Division, n.d.).
The vision of RCSD is “provide a quality Catholic education that is faith based, student-centered, and results-oriented” (Regina Catholic School Division, n.d.). RCSD lists three major goals for the division:
Students demonstrate commitment to the Catholic faith.
Students have foundations for success.
The community understands and supports the value of Catholic education
The guiding theme for school division is to “Go Make a Difference” (Regina Catholic School Division, n.d.). With this in mind, course designers will aim to build in opportunities where students will be able to make a difference within their schools, churches, and communities.
All stakeholders for this course have a strong motivation for students to receive top quality learning opportunities and wish for the students to engage deeply in the topics covered. For this course, the stakeholders include grade 7 and 8 students, grade 7 and 8 students’ families, grade 7 and 8 teachers, school based administrators, RCSD Online education leader, RCSD senior administration, RCSD director of education, RCSD board of trustees, and the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education.
Additionally, because of RCSD’s goal for a faith-based education for all students, local parish priests, Archdiocese of Regina, RCSD Coordinator Catholic Education Services are also stakeholders in this course. They aim to have the course also reflect the Religion curriculum and teachings of the Catholic church through this course.
Perhaps the most foreseeable barrier facing this course is potential parent pushback with discussion of controversial topics, like sexting and online predators. To get ahead of this, teachers will be encouraged to inform their school principal that these topics will be discussed as well as inform parents that they will be talked about. It is imperative that parents are also informed why these topics are being covered and that they will be covered in an age appropriate way with students’ best interests in mind. With regards to the same controversial topics, there may be some pushback from church leaders involved the process. It will be essential that the course design team be willing to discuss and justify these topics with these stakeholders.
Another barrier that may be encountered from is teacher willingness to engage deeply in these topics with students. Because this course will be implemented division wide, there is not the opportunity to hand pick teachers to deliver the course to students (Simonson, Smaldino, & Zvacek, 2011). When professional development is provided to teachers for the course to prepare them for the delivery of the course, the VOCAL (visible, organized, compassionate, analytical, and lead by example) acronym will be shared (Simonson et al., 2011). In addition, teacher technology coaches will be prepared to help struggling teachers out with the course, meeting their needs on a case-by-case basis and IT Services will be warned when the rollout will happen, to be prepared in case of something happening to the software.
Ensuring the course is created with the highest level of quality possible is in the best interest of all stakeholders. Although the C-RAC quality guidelines listed by (Simonson et al., 2011) are more directed at the institutional level, and should be considered by RCSD Learning Online as a whole, rather than this one course, there are some elements that should be considered by the course designers. It is critical that the course aligns with RCSD’s mission and purpose, the content in comparable in rigor to traditional classroom teaching, teachers implementing the course are well trained and prepared to deliver the course effectively, and support will be provided by teacher technology coaches (Simonson et al., 2011). Additionally, the British Columbia Ministry of Education has released a set of standards in an effort to provide guidance for educators creating online learning opportunities for students (British Columbia, 2010). These standards cover the management of learning, fostering social learning, and stimulating cognitive processes and should considered a guide for the design team both when planning and designing the course as well as reviewing the course once it has been created (British Columbia, 2010).
Prior to division wide release, all stakeholders will have an opportunity to review the course and provide feedback and suggestions for changes. It will be highly encouraged that the teachers of the grade 7 and 8 classrooms go through the course as a student prior to rolling out to students to ensure they have a strong understanding of the content and topics that will be covered, as some teachers may not have experience with the topics that are covered in their own lives.
Once the course is implemented across the division, mandatory course evaluations will be expected from all participants. The aim of these evaluations will be to provide constructive criticism and feedback on the course (Simonson et al., 2011). In the case of this course, assessing the instructor (the classroom teacher), is not as pertinent as the delivery and engagement with the topics and the relevance and current context of those topics. It is possible that the examples chosen in the course design may become dated and not as relevant to students after course has been in existence for a few years, and these course evaluations will allow students to voice their concerns. These evaluations will be reviewed by the Educational Technology team who will take over the management of the course following its initial design.
Ultimately, the funding from this course will come from the RCSD budget for the school year. This funding is provided from the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education and follows a funding formula from the ministry. As a consequence, a lot of thought has been put into how to best fund the development of this course, especially given the increasing pressures of limited provincial funding available to school divisions with Saskatchewan.
The superintendent who is behind getting this course development in motion has offered up funding from his own budget to pay for 2 days of sub release time for 4 selected teachers to develop the course content and lessons. The cost of a sub is approximately $300 per day, so this cost will be approximately $2400 for teachers to develop course materials. The cost to house the course in the Learning Online Moodle environment is $0 since the hosting and services have already been established, and adding this course and all of the sections will not change any costs for IT Services. Professional development needs for teachers implementing the course also need to be considered. To avoid additional financial costs, this professional development will be offered outside of school hours or on TPDs to avoid needing to finance substitute teacher release time. Additionally, this professional development will be delivered by teacher technology coaches as a part of their required duties. The only additional costs for this course will be text based resources that will be ordered by Information and Learning Services and ultimately loaned out as part of the professional library resources available to all teachers.
Any additional, unforeseen funding requirements will be put forth to the overseeing superintendent and decisions will be made which budget to pull funds from. In all likelihood, it will be taken from either the superintendent’s budget or Educational Technology’s budget.
The content of the course will be based upon the Digital Citizenship Education in Saskatchewan Schools put forth by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education (Couros & Hildebrandt, 2015). The goal will be to address the nine elements of digital citizenship put forth by Ribble (Ribble, 2011). The nine elements are grouped within three themes: respect, educate, and protect. Within the respect theme, elements on digital etiquette, digital access, and digital law are covered. Within the educate theme, elements on digital communication, digital literacy, and digital commerce are covered. And, within the protect theme, digital rights and responsibilities, digital safety and security, and digital health and wellness are covered. The following diagram illustrates the nine elements within the three themes.
The digital citizenship continuum put forth by the Saskatchewan Ministry of Education breaks the elements into age appropriate understandings and outcomes, framed as “understand’ and “do” within the continuum (Couros & Hildebrandt, 2015). The portions contained within the grades 6-9 on the continuum will be focused on within the course.
Ribble suggests that, just like in offline society, students need to be educated on how to be good citizens and understand deeply what both rights and responsibilities fall upon them as members of online, digital society (Ribble, 2011). In the past, it was easy for parents and teachers to simply restrict digital access for students in an effort to keep them out of harms way. However, this is not possible in today’s world, where students are using the internet at very early ages (Couros & Hildebrandt, 2015). We can no longer wait until high school to teach students about digital citizenship and students need to be made aware that there are potential consequences that could result from their online choices (Couros & Hildebrandt, 2015; Oxley, 2011). Luckily, research has shown the digital citizenship lessons and classroom activities have had significant positive influences on student digital choices (Bilgiler et al., 2014). Although it is recommended for all teachers to embed digital citizenship within their other curricular areas as a unifying skill, establishing a formal course for students in grades 7 and 8 to take will ensure they are exposed to the topics and can work towards making positive choices as they transition to teenagers (Bilgiler et al., 2014; Couros & Hildebrandt, 2015)
A substantial amount of work has already been completed with regards to lessons and courses surrounding digital citizenship for students. Ribble’s work is often the starting point for many of the resources that currently exist, and will be used in depth by the design team as they begin assembling the course content (Ribble, 2011). Furthermore, there are some other Catholic school divisions within Canada that have created similar courses. Saskatoon Catholic Cyber School currently has two digital citizenship courses: Digital Citizenship 10 and Digital Citizenship 20. Their leadership group has graciously offered to allow us into their courses to see how they have approached the content (Saskatoon Catholic Cyber School, 2014, 2015). In addition, the Ottawa Catholic School Board has created public resources across all grade levels titled “Samaritans on the Digital Road” (Ottawa Catholic School Board, 2015). All of these resources, already framed in a Catholic, faith-based context will be extremely valuable to the team as they develop the course.
This course will follow a linear-designed instruction model. This is so that all students follow a similar learning path and will be exposed to the same content, creating a consistent message across the school division. All students will follow the same sequence of topics, activities, and assessments (Simonson et al., 2011). The aforementioned elements of digital citizenship will outline the modules that students will work through.
In the future, there are plans to make the course branch-designed. This would allow for students to explore topics that are relevant to them more deeply and allow for more effective and deeper levels of assessment of student understanding (Simonson et al., 2011). However, since branch-designed instruction requires more time and resources to develop, this will need to be a future modification to the course due to time constraints and limited funding for development (Simonson et al., 2011).
There is a huge need for students to be taught the elements of digital citizenship. Students have constant access to unmonitored content, networks, and people through digital technologies (Oxley, 2011). It is important for students to not just be told about the dangers and rules of the internet, but for them to understand the reasoning behind the rules and think independently and critically when presented with “inappropriate and irresponsible online behavior” (Oxley, 2011).
The learners for this course are all in grade 7 or 8 and attend school in the Regina Catholic School Division. Because of the size of the school division, and the fact that it has locations in nearly every area of the city of Regina, it is difficult to define a typical learner that will take this course beyond their age and the fact that they are in a catholic school.
It is generally assumed that students that fall within this age group are strong with technology and familiar with using it in their daily lives. However, this assumption should be cautioned as not all students will have had access to technology outside of school, especially considering the wide range of demographics that this group will contain. To ensure that student voices are included within the design decisions of this course, those teachers that are selected to create the course will be asked to poll and interview their students about their needs and hopes for the course. It is critical that this course meets the students where they are in terms of these topics, otherwise it may fall flat and appear to be disconnected from reality and the knowledge ultimately not acquired by the students.
Students will also likely not have encountered online learning at this point in their education. However, there is a strong likelihood that all students will encounter an online class of some form in high school and this course serves to introduce them to learning online and at a distance. Because of students’ strong motivations to learn about social media and use it in their daily lives, it is anticipated that they will be very motivated to work through the course.
The course will be housed with the Regina Catholic School Division Learning Online platform, which runs on Moodle. This platform has been chosen for a number of reasons. The first being that it is already established and used by all four high schools within the division. Support documents have already been created by IT Services and professional development for teachers is available on teacher’s own time, upon request. Additionally, the Learning Online group hopes to grow and offer more and more courses and learning opportunities through its platform. By exposing grade 7 and 8 students to the learning online platform prior to high school, it is hoped that students will be more motivated to take online courses when they enter high school.
Learning Online is hosted by IT Services within in the school division servers and will not require any additional web hosting or costs to accommodate the Grade 7/8 Digital Citizenship course. Bandwidth and internet speeds are always a concern within schools and teachers will be encouraged to be mindful of this as they use the course with their students. It Is planned to have all schools upgraded to 100 Mbps internet connections by the end of the school year, which will lessen the impact on internet speeds by a class using the course.
In the interest of security, all student usernames and log ins will remain consistent with their Office 365 credentials through the LDAP system. There is always a risk that student passwords may be guessed by outside users for them to gain access to the system, but part of the course will address password security and encourage students to strengthen and change their passwords.
All schools in Regina Catholic School Division have access to carts full of either ASUS Netbooks or Microsoft Surface tablets. Teachers will need to book out these devices for their students to be able to access the course and progress through the content towards meeting the learning outcomes laid out by the course. Additionally, since the course will be built in Moodle, students will have access to it through their own mobile devices through the Moodle app. Although the course’s design focus won’t be for delivery through mobile devices, the possibility that students may access it through their own mobile devices will be considered as the course is published into the Moodle environment.
Teachers will be somewhat familiar with using Moodle, since division wide training has been delivered through the platform in the past. However, they will likely not have experience using the teacher and administrator tools that will be available to them while they use Moodle with their students. As such, two separate professional development opportunities will be offered to teachers by the Educational Technology team. The first offering will be a face-to-face afterschool session that teachers can bring their own teacher device to and walk through all of the tools with teacher technology coaches present. The second offering will be delivered through Skype for Business, which all division teachers have access to through their Office365 licenses. This offering will cover all of the same topics and tools, but will allow teachers to join from their own schools after school, rather than having to commute to the training. A recording of this training will also be saved so any teachers that are unable to attend either session will still have an opportunity to be trained. Additionally, support documents and screen cast videos will be created and hosted on the Educational Technology website for teachers to access at any point.
Students will likely not have ever encountered the Moodle environment. Therefore, it will be important that teachers are comfortable with assisting their students as they progress through the course. Additionally, teachers will be encouraged to invite their school’s teacher technology coach or the education leader of Learning Online to join the class in their classroom as they begin the course for the first time. As it was for the teachers, support documents will be created that show screenshots from the student perspective for a reference if students need additional help. Again, these will be hosted on Educational Technology’s website, but will be linked to directly within the course from an easy to find “Help” button.
The user interface that students will interact with has recently been updated by IT Services and Learning Online to a responsive design, allowing for quality viewing on any internet-enabled device. Usability testing has already been conducted by IT Services and Learning Online. Because this course is being designed to fit the current Learning Online Moodle interface, there is limited opportunity for the design team to influence the actual Moodle environment beyond the course content and structure itself.
The course’s design will be broken down into sections within Moodle, corresponding to the modules of the course. Each section will be able to expand and collapse, to avoid information overload for students using the page. Additionally, since the course is being designed in a linear-designed instruction model, each element will by greyed out until prerequisite tasks have been completed to ensure students will not jump around the content out of order. Every effort will be made to ensure that engaging visuals are used to complement the course content and that pages of content won’t be pure text, in an effort to further engage students as they read. All pages will have a “Back to Course Home” button built in at the bottom so students don’t get lost in the navigation panels of Moodle, which can sometimes become confusing, especially if students are not yet familiar with the Moodle platform.
The following milestones and dates have been established to ensure the development and design of this course remain on schedule and ready for division wide roll out in the 2017-18 school year.
Initial meeting with superintendent, educational technology team, and prospective teachers that will develop course
September and August 2016
Design team will meet and build course resources and sequencing
Migrate all content into Moodle
Begin course pilots with 3 grade 8 classrooms
Present course to all 7/8 teachers and stakeholders within RCSD at Institute. Allow all teachers and stakeholders access to course content, and provide opportunities to submit suggestions and revisions
Conduct course evaluations for piloting classrooms
February and March 2017
Educational Technology team to make revisions and edits based upon stakeholder and initial pilot classroom feedback
April and May 2017
Allow for additional, willing grade 8 classrooms to continue to pilot the course
Division wide roll out of the course to all 7/8 classrooms. PD provided afterschool to teachers.
The largest motivation behind the assessment choices in this course is to provide feedback to both students and teachers. We want students to take ownership of their own learning and be motivated to learn the content through practical, relevant applications to their real lives (Simonson et al., 2011). Each module will contain a short, automatically graded quiz to assess student understanding of topics presented. These quizzes will be 10 or less questions, in either multiple choice, true or false, or numeric responses and will serve an entirely formative assessment purpose, to provide both students and teachers with feedback as to whether or not learners are understanding the content (Simonson et al., 2011). These types were selected to avoid adding to teacher’s grading workloads.
Each module will also contain a reflective journal entry. These journal entries will contain prompts that challenge students to make connections between the topics and their own lives. Some of these journal entries will be shared a discussed through asynchronous discussions. This will allow students to make more meaningful contributions through their reflections and the opportunity to see their classmates’ viewpoints and how these topics emerge in their lives as well (Simonson et al., 2011). All journal entries will have an accompanying rubric that can be utilized by teachers as they assess student work. Use of rubrics aims to make assessment more consistent across all implementations of the course (Simonson et al., 2011).
To end the course, there will be a digital service project. The entire purpose of this service project is for learners to have the opportunity to pull all of their learning together and create something that contributes to the greater good, relating directly to RCSD’s theme of “Go Make a Difference” (Regina Catholic School Division, n.d.). This has been intentionally left open for student interpretation, so they can take the project the direction they wish to. Some possible student projects may include a digital citizenship poster campaign to be shared through the school, connecting with seniors in the community and teaching digital citizenship skills to them, creating an online site where people share positive messages about each other, and many other options. Classroom teachers and their students will be encouraged to co-create assessment criteria and rubrics relevant to the project, further encouraging engagement in the project. Peer collaboration and assessment will be encouraged for these projects and aims to further develop student digital citizenship skills through this activity (Simonson et al., 2011). This project is likely to make many different shapes and forms, and teachers will be encouraged to assess outcomes from other subject areas, like ELA or Arts Ed, through this project.
Prior to the full roll out of the course to all grade 7/8 classrooms with RCSD, a pilot of the course will be conducted within three grade 8 classrooms, rather than split classrooms. The desire to have straight grade 8 classrooms pilot is so that the current grade 7 students will have an opportunity to take the course when it is rolled out division-wide in their grade 8 year. This pilot will be conducted with the support of the teacher’s technology coach present, as well as the RCSD Learning Online education leader, if requested. Throughout the pilot, a “Report Problems or Give Feedback” button will be present for students to communicate their experiences directly as they work through the course. The button will link to an Office365 Form that will be viewed by the course design team.
Following the pilot classrooms implementation, teachers and their students will be asked to complete course evaluations. This survey will be created by the Educational Technology team, which has experience creating effective evaluations like this, and will ask students about their experience with the learning materials, sequencing, and assessments. The responses to the survey will be collected and then provided to the design team to set future goals and plans for any revisions (Simonson et al., 2011).
Teachers will also be asked to provide feedback regarding the course. A survey will be designed for them as well, but a voluntary focus group will also be organized. The focus group will be conducted by the Educational Technology team and occur outside school hours, in an attempt to avoid the cost of substitute teacher release time.
Following these evaluations, a formal AEIOU (accountability, effectiveness, impact, organizational context, and unanticipated consequences) approach for program evaluation will conducted (Simonson et al., 2011). This model has been selected because of its ability to provide both formative feedback and summative information about the implementation (Simonson et al., 2011). This evaluation will be used to make future decisions regarding the direction of the course and funding to make changes to the course.
The management of this course will fall under the Education Technology department, with assistance from the Learning Online group and technical support from IT Services.
All grade 7 and 8 students within RCSD will take the course and therefore will be no special additional registration required from students or parents at the school level for students to be able to participate in the course. However, there is some additional work required to get students registered within the RCSD Learning Online Moodle environment. IT Services has already created a tool for Learning Online to pull class rosters from SIRS and import them into Moodle, based on student identification numbers and Office365 email credentials. This tool will again be utilized to import students into Moodle for teachers. When teachers are ready to create their section of the course, they will contact the teacher technology coach assigned to their schools. The technology coach will then create the course in Moodle, adding the teacher and importing all the content from the master course. Once this is completed, they will contact Learning Online to request an import from SIRS. IT Services will investigate ways to automate this entire process, but at this point in time this is the process that will need to be followed.
Digital notifications and communication with students will take place using email, accessed through the RCSD Office 365 tools. All students have an assigned email address and will receive course updates and changes through this email address. However, this mode of communication will not be used a large amount, since classroom teachers will likely choose to communicate face to face with students in their classrooms.
Communication and notifications about the course will need to be provided to parents of students participating in the course. These will be completed using email address provided to classroom teachers. Teachers are already expected to communicate regularly with parents about school and classroom updates and updates regarding this course would be included in these communications. The course design team will also create a syllabus to be shared with parents that will include content covered, help document locations, and expectations. This document can be modified by classroom teachers to meet their needs.
The Regina Catholic School Division has allotted 40 hours per school year for grades 7 and 8 Practical and Applied Arts PAA curriculum (Regina Catholic School Division, 2016). This allotment is up to the classroom teacher to determine when it will fit into the classroom schedule. This course will be designed to fill 20 hours of this requirement per school year, allowing for additional PAA activities to be pursued. An even-year and odd-year course will be developed so that students will not be repeating the same course in both their grade 7 and grade 8 years.
Both teachers and their students will likely be new to the RCSD Learning Online Moodle environment. With this in mind, the Educational Technology team will create a guide for navigating the course and utilizing Moodle. For students, the guide will focus primarily on how to login and logout, how to navigate modules, how to submit work, and how to view assessed work. The teacher version will contain the same information, but also include how to view and grade student work using Moodle’s tools, how to hide and show content, and how to communicate through the platform. These documents will all be housed on the Educational Technology website, along with similar resources for other division tools that have been created by the team. This will all also be covered in the professional development provided to teachers who will be delivering the course.
IT Services and the Learning Online education leader will also be available for additional support, as requested by teachers. They will be able to address more technical concerns brought forth by teachers, such as error messages, login issues, etc.
In a course that is designed to teach students how to be good digital citizens, it is critical that the course practices what it preaches in terms of being ethical online. All resources used in the creation of this course will be properly referenced and linked to, modeling proper attribution in the process. Additionally, if any licenses are required to provide content to students, there is support from Information and Learning Services to investigate purchasing licenses, if a free license is not available and comparable resources do not exist. When dealing with all resources, course designers will start by considering the Tests for Determining Fair Dealing put forth by the University of Winnipeg (n.d.).
All content created by the course designers will be licensed under Creative Commons licenses. Part of the course tasks for students will include licensing their own work under Creative Commons licenses.
The course will also address digital accessibility and it will be important for RCSD to model strong accessibility for all students involved in the course. Students with special needs, or that require learning accommodations will be considered while designing the course. Because of the ease of access to Learning Online’s Moodle, all students will have access to the course outside of class time and school hours, if they need additional time to work on content or need to work through it with supports, like a learning resource teacher, tutor, or parent. Additionally, EAL students and students that have trouble with reading and speaking English will have access to division text-to-speech and speech-to-text tools. Any additional supports required to accommodate students through this course can be requested to the teacher technology coach, as they would with other technology related support opportunities.
This course will accumulate a large amount of student work and data, tied to student usernames. It is important that security measures are in place so that students are protected and their information is not available to outside users. At the end of each course, the course work and files will be backed up and stored securely by IT services, and removed completely from the Moodle environment to avoid any long term risks with student data.
There is no longer a question of whether or not schools should be teaching digital citizenship to students. Whether most of the digital interactions of students happen at school or away from school, it is now the responsibility of schools to ensure students are educated on digital citizenship (Couros & Hildebrandt, 2015; Ribble, 2011). It is exciting to see an entire school division embrace this responsibility and make plans to implement an entire course for all grade 7 and 8 students within the division. The ability to build in religion curriculum and faith-based education is very prevalent in this opportunity, and aims to foster an even deeper understanding of the issues facing today’s students in digital spaces. With conscious design decisions, motivated administration, and effective evaluation this course is set up well to be a success.
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Bilgiler, S., Araştırmaları, E., Karaduman, H.,