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Embed code for: Notes - Biomolecules (003)
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Day Starter for Wednesday October 9th
1.) Arrange from smallest to largest:
Molecule Atom Macromolecule
2.) Use the terms from above, plus the term “chemical bond” to explain how matter is organized
3.) List the four types of macromolecules
“The Chemistry of Life”
Draw the next:
Organic Compounds: Compounds built of carbon along with other elements.
Elements common to all living things
Carbon, Oxygen, Hydrogen, Nitrogen
Why is carbon so useful?
Four valence electrons
This means it can bond with four other atoms (the most connections it can hold)
It also has a high likelihood of bonding to other carbon atoms
Therefore, it’s VERY Versatile (flexible)
Macromolecules = GIANT molecules (polymers) made from smaller molecules (monomers) linked together
Think of a whole train vs. a single train car
Dehydration reaction = monomers → polymer
H2O taken out…chemical bonds form
Hydrolysis reaction = polymer → monomers
H2O broken/inserted…chemical bonds break
1) What represents a monomer?
2) What represents a polymer?
3) Dehydration or Hydrolysis?
4) Dehydration or Hydrolysis?
Monomer = monosaccharide
Ex: glucose, fructose
Monosaccharide + monosaccharide = disaccharide
Polymer = polysaccharide (carbohydrate)
Long chain of ring-shaped monosaccharides
Ex: cellulose, starch
Monomer = amino acid
20 amino acids exist
Ex: leucine, serine, tryptophan
C-terminus, N-terminus, R-group
Polymer = polypeptide (protein)
Chain of amino acids joined by peptide bonds
Primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary structures
Ex: hemaglobin, keratin
Composed of fatty acid chains
Full of H, no double bonds
Straight molecules form solids
Missing H, one or more double bonds
Bent molecules form liquids
Ex: triglycerides, phospholipids
Types of lipids
Saturated fat- Butter, lard (animal fat)- BAD!!!
No double bonds in the fatty acid
Harder for the body to break up into smaller parts
Can stack together at higher temps- solid at room temperature
Typically found in animals
Unsaturated fat- Cooking oils- BETTER!!!!!!
Double bonds in the fatty acid
Easier for the body to break up – typically found in plants
Liquid at room temperature
Vegetable oil is made of what type of lipid?
16) Liquid or solid?
A healthy diet of all of these macromolecules insures that your body in functioning right.
Carbs: Functions and Sources
Grains (bread, cereal, pasta)
Carbs: Functions and Sources continued
- Animals digest polysaccharides into
monosaccharaides in stomach to use for quick energy.
Excess carbs are converted to fat and stored in the body.
- If it ends “ose” it’s usually a carbohydrate.
Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in some
vegetables (like corn) which humans can’t digest.
That’s why if you don’t chew up our corn well
enough, if goes right through your body.
Wood is almost completely cellulose.
- Cows and termites
have bacteria in their
stomachs that digest
How the Body Uses Carbohydrates
How do plants create glucose?
Remember the Leaf diagram?
To produce energy our cells have a very similar process, almost opposite to this one!
Proteins: Functions and Sources
Building and repair
Animal products (meat, eggs)
Nuts / seeds
Proteins: Functions and Sources continued
Function as enzymes
Molecules that control the rates of reactions in the body
Allows us to “burn” sugar without cooking all our cells
Build structures in our bodies
Muscle, brain tissue, hormones
Transport materials throughout the body
-- From cell to cell, across membranes
Fight off disease in the body
Lipids: Functions and Sources
Long-term energy storage
Cell membrane structure
Animal products (fats)
Examples of Lipid Rich Foods
Where is fat stored?????……
Obesity In America
Make a list of what you see in each picture
Write which type of macromolecule each list contains
NT molecules (polymers) made from smaller molecules (monomers) linked together
Molecules that control the