What email address or phone number would you like to use to sign in to Docs.com?
If you already have an account that you use with Office or other Microsoft services, enter it here.
Or sign in with:
Signing in allows you to download and like content, which the author will be aware of.
Embed code for: comunication
Select a size
* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * (b) Convalescent carriers:- ..These are animals which discharge the microorganism during the convalescent period Ex:-. in poultry laryngotracheitis & salmonellosis in cattle S.dublin & S.typhimurium infections 2-According to duration of carriage:- a-Temporary carriers: * where cases discharge the organism for a short period. b-Chronic carriers: *where cases discharge the organism continuously for a long period. 3-According to site of carriage: a-Upper respiratory tract carriers. b-Urinary carriers. c- Faecal carriers. d-Skin carriers including nasal carriers. *another type of carrier is contact carrier or occupation carrier; those persons who are in contact with infective cases e.g. veterinarian, farm attendants &abattoirs , attendants ,vet., hospitals attendants, farmers,etc.. *the main characteristic of this type is the period of carriage ends as soon as the contact is discontinued. .Infections spread by the respiratory route are more likely to occur where population densities are high and ventilation is poor. Ex:- enzootic pneumonia in intensively reared pigs occupationally acquired brucellosis in meat workers. . In environmental extremes diseases that are rarely spread by the respiratory route become transmissible by this method. Ex:-These circumstances arise in the airborne transmission of rabies from insectivorous bats to animals and man within the confines of a cave. .Similarly, in crowded & poor living conditions. Ex:-pneumonic plague is transmitted directly between people, rather than by the bites of infected fleas, the latter method of transmission inducing the less severe bubonic plague. 3-Infection via skin, cornea & mucous membranes **Transmission via skin … is percutaneous. 1-) Certain agents infect only the skin & transmission is always by direct contact with either another infected animal or a fomes. Ex: ringworm & ectoparasitic infestations. … The incidence of such infections and infestations is particularly influenced by the population density of the susceptible hosts 2)Intact skin acts as an effective barrier to the majority of infectious agents, but some immature stages of some nematodes & trematodes can penetrate this barrier & cause infection. EX:- Blood fluke (Schistosoma spp.) &hookworm (Ancylostoma spp.) infections which being zoonotic & the cause of cutaneous larva migrans in man. 3)If the skin is cut or abraded infection by a variety of organisms can occur resulting in localized infections of the skin Ex:- Staphylococcus spp. and the cutaneous form of human anthrax). .But leptospires, may gain entry to the body percutaneously and then develop a more generalized infection. 4)Another important form of percutaneous infection is from bites by both vertebrates and arthropods. …Agents that are present in the saliva, such as; the viruses of rabies & lymphocytic choriomeningitis, bacteria such as Streptobacillus moniliformis (a common inhabitant of the oropharynx of rats) are transmitted by animal bites. Infection of the cornea ۩ localized e.g.:- bovine keratoconjunctivitis may be caused by Moraxella bovis. generalized e.g.:- the infection may spread to other parts of the body as corneal infection of birds with N.D virus. Infection via mucous membrane ۩ ...Although few disease can be transmitted through intact skin, several can infect undamaged mucous membranes. .An important class of such agents is those that are very labile in the external environment, & require sexual contact during coitus to be transmitted to the urogenital tract, e.g: Trypanosoma equiperdum in horses. **Factors affecting pattern of infection: Infection may be : 1)Inapparent (silent) infection: is infection of a susceptible animal without clinical signs. 2)Subclinical infection: infection occur without clinical signs & characterized by a loss of productivity. 3)Clinical infection: it produces clinical signs. 4)Latent infection: is one that persist in an animal without producing clinical signs. …Whatever the exposure to infective agents, the outcome of the detectable infections depends on the following factors: 1 Pathogenicity & virulence of the microorganism Pathogenicity is measured by: (a) The ratio of clinical to subclinical cases:- The higher the pathogenicity the higher the proportion of clinical cases and the lower the proportion of subclinical infection. While ,virulence is measured by:- (b) Case mortality rate: …The number of deaths from a certain disease & a percentage of the number of cases. .The more the virulence the higher will be the case mortality rate. 2 Antigenic power of the microorganisms: …This means the ability of a microorganism to initiate antibodies. … In practice, the antigenic power could be measured by: (a) The second attack frequency:- …….frequent one, two or more attacks of a certain disease. The more frequency reinfection of a certain individual or herd with a microorganism the lower the antigenic power of it. (b) Age specific attack rate:- …There is a drop in the attack rate in some individuals either man or animals after infection of young age with microorganisms of higher antigenic power (e.g. Measles and Shigellosis). 3- Duration of infectious state: =(period of communicability). …This period is defined as the time or times during which the etiological agent may be transferred directly or indirectly, from an infected animal to another. …Carriers & vectors protracted the period of communicability of disease. 4- Ease of communicability of the disease:- .For an infection transmitted by direct contact, droplet, & droplet nuclei, *The communicability within a restricted population or herd is measured by the secondary attack rate (S.A.R). Secondary attack rate (S.A.R): It is useful in study the spread of infectious disease (communicability of disease) and applied to natural grouping of animal such as pens of farms (restricted population or herd). So, the rate is useful in outbreak studying, & is expressed as follows: No. of cases in an outbreak minus primary case SAR= Total No.of susceptible animals minus primary case Example: In a flock of 100 animals, one get the infection of disease, & two weeks later another30 animals showed disease. The veterinary records show that 39 animals had the disease before: Calculate the SAR? Solution: (1+30+39)- (39+1) SAR= X 100=50% 100-(39+1) MAINTENANCE OF INFECTION *The transmission of infection involves some stages when the infectious agent is in the host, in the external environment or in a vector or in both . .Both internal and external environments present hazards to infectious agents. Maintenance strategies strategies The ways in which infectious agents are maintained. Five main strategies can be identified: 1-Avoidance of a stage in the external environment. 2-The development of resistant forms. 3-A rapidly-in, rapidly-out strategy. 4-Persistence within the host. 5-Extension of host range. (1)Avoidance of a stage in the external environment: **Some agents avoid transfer via the environment. The are four main methods: 1)By vertical transmission (e.g. chicken leucosis virus, avian salmonellosis) 2)By venereal transmission (sexually transmitted diseases) 3)By vector transmission(biological vector transmission as plague bacillus, trypanosoma, babesia). 4)By transmission by sarcophaga (flesh eating). Ex:- Trichinella spiralis occurs in cysts in the muscle of pigs, rats & other animals, and is only transmitted when these animals are eaten by predators and scavengers, including man. (2) The development of resistant forms **The harshness of the external environment can be buffered by surrounding the infectious agent with a shell that is resistant to heat and desiccation. **Some bacteria form such shells (spores). EX:- members of the genera Clostridium& Bacillus, which can survive boiling water,flames for short periods of time, & may survive in the external environment for decades. **Fungi may also produce spores these are less resistant than bacterial spores. **Some helminthes & protozoa form resistant shells (cysts) these can protect the agent from the host’s defense mechanisms. **The protozoan parasiteToxoplasma gondii can survive for many years in its cystic form in the host, until the host is eaten. **Thick-shelled helminthes eggs can resist the external environment. (3) Rapidly-in, rapidly-out strategy .Some agents enter the host, replicate & leave very quickly, before the host has time to mount an immune response or die. . Many viruses of the upper respiratory tract can do this within 24 hours. .The strategy requires a continuous supply of susceptible hosts. this may be one reason why respiratory &enteric infections, such as the common cold virus in man are not present in primitive societies of low population density & may not have occurred in small prehistoric societies. (4) Persistence within the host 1-Agents may persist within the host by:- *Sometimes aided by a poor rejection response by the host. Ex(1): Mycobacterium johnei, tapeworm infections of the gut. Ex(2):- T.gondii and T.spiralis in tissues. 2- Persistence can be associated with a long incubation or prepatent period. A group of virus diseases termed ‘slow virus diseases’ because of their long incubation period. Ex1:- “Scrapie” is a slow virus disease of sheep, producing neurological signs, with an incubation period of 1-5 years. Its persistence within its host facilitates vertical & possibly horizontal transmission in a flock. 3-Alternatively, an incubation period may be relatively short, but excretion of the agent may continue for a long time (i.e. the period of infectiousness is long). *Excretion may be: a- intermittent, as Salmonella spp. where infection can be associated with intermittent clinical cases or sub clinical infection. b- Continuous, as Leptospira, results in urinary excretion of the bacterium that can last for 12-24 months. 4- Some endogenous agents may persist as the bacterial flora of hosts. 5-Agents may persist in arthropod vectors. (e.g. murine typhus) can persist in fleas over 500 days in the case of unfed Pulex irritans. .Also, agents can persist in flea excreta for long periods e.g.:- murine typhus can persist for over 9 years. (5) Extension of host range **Many infectious agents can infect more than one host. In man over 80% of infectious agents are shared by other species of animal .Extension of host range is an obvious way of maintaining infection. It is facilitated by the presence of the various hosts in the same area. 4- Presence of the pathogen in the environment of the host: *Pathogens may reach the environment of the susceptible host in the secretion & excretion of infected animals e.g. expired air, urine, feces, milk, sputum, salvia, eggs, contaminated discharges tissues of infected host & IH hosts. *These infective agents reach the susceptible animal. through;- a) ingestion of contaminated feed, water, garbage, herbage, meat and meat by-products, milk, etc. b) by direct or indirect contact with contaminated fomites and articles. *This assessment is possible only when the number of diseased animals is compared with the total number of animals in the population at risk of developing the disease. *Thus, morbidity rate describes the level of clinical disease in an animal population. *The expression of morbidity rate is the most suitable for the frequency of disease occurrence and may be called prevalence or incidence. A) Prevalence (p) …refers to the amount of disease in a known population at a designated time, without distinction between old and new cases. *So, prevalence include all cases (new cases & those already present at the beginning of the time period), while, incidence only refers to new case occurring during the period of time of interest. Hence, prevalence comprises incidence. *Prevalence can be calculated for a given period of time (annual prevalence, monthly prevalence, weekly prevalence & lifetime prevalence) known as period prevalence or for a specific point in time. known as point prevalence. . * Period prevalence: …This is a measure of the total number of cases of a disease that have existed in a population during a defined period of study (year, month, week,….). …It is the sum of the point prevalence at the beginning of the period (P) & the incidence (I) during the period of study: Pp = P + I So, Pp considers as combined value of prevalence & incidence. THANKS WITH MY BEST WISHES * : 2) Body posture: a- frightened dog Tail and ear down and body away from afear B- fearful dog Tail between legs and ear down C- submissive dog Lay down on its side, lift hind legs and some time urinate, D- dog great Its owner or their old mother by licking its face or some licking the hands of the owner E- dog a play signals: . Lowering fore qureters and hind with elevated and toppedby rapidly tail wagging c) olfactory commuication Dog has the greatest olfactory sence which can detect the odour on concentration 0.1-0.00001 more than human Scent marking: male dog making left of one of hind leg and make urination which contain pheromones which important in sexual reproduction and dog recogenize each other If occure castration for male this decreas the ansomination of dog And decreas scent marking (urination) dog not able to smell *** anal sac secretion*** Secretion from anal gland with feaces which give special odour which dog can smell and can idenitify each individual by it Vocalization in canine are divided into A- Murmures( purr) Request call Greating call B-Vowel patterns Acomplaint call Mating call Cry angry 4) cat communication C- strained intensity pattern Frighting call Pain cry Female in oestrous b) visual commuication A- posture 1- greating and frustrated : raising tail and wagging tail depressed : 2- stalking 3- walking and trotting: tail out with angle 40and ear up ward 4-aggressive cat. Cat walk on tip toe, tail lower and erected ear expresion b) Ear flattened ,salvation and spits and crouched : 1-frightened cat Pupiles of the eye is costricted : 2- aggressive cat eye dilated : 3-defenced cat Eye red : 4-excited cat 5-gapping:cat smell bad odour, cat smell urine of another cat which occur by opening the mouth and raising the tounge against the hard palate c) olfactory communication Scent marking: male cat make urination can smell and can identify each individual by it and its home *** anal sac secretion*** Secretion from anal gland with feaces which give special odour which cat can smell and can identify each individual by it and cat make cover for feaces after secretion Bunting : Glandular secretion from cat face deposited on the object which bunted by it and responded by gapping occur after smell strange odour from urine of other cat Behavioural problems of communication Dog 1- excess barking: noisy 2-urine marking: urine borne disease and pollution Cat 1-urine marking: urine borne disease and pollution 2-Pores on walls 3- cutting beds by toes : make cleaning of place In modern epidemiology an epidemic is an occurrence of an infectious or non-infectious disease to a level in excess of the expected “endemic” level. Examples:- *if cattle grazed on rough pasture which could abrade their mouths there might be an increase In the number of cases of actinobacillosis. although only 2%of animals might become infected ,this would be an unusually high (epidemic) level compare with the endemic level of 1%in the herd. Thus, an epidemic need not involve a large No. of individuals. A-Point epidemic: a pronounced clustering of a disease event&mostly occurs when a number of animals is exposed to a common source of infection such as an agent present in water or food or on fomites. B- Propagative epidemic: when the No. of affected animals is increased gradually allover a specific time. A rapid build up of propagative epidemic depends on a variety of factors such as: The mode of transmission of the agent. The infectivity & free-living longevity of the agent. The direct or indirect social distance between susceptible hosts. 4.The proportion of susceptible or infective animals in The population. (3)Pandemic occurrence Def: is a widespread epidemic that usually affect a large proportion of population &many countries or allover the world may be affected. Examples:- 1-pandemic of rinder pest,F.M.D,African swine fever. 2-in 1978,1979 pandemic of parvo virus infection occurred in dogs in many parts of world. 3-serious human pandemic (Global pandemic) have included; Plague (the black death) in middle ages. Cholera in the 19th century. Influenza after the first world war. (4)Sporadic occurrence Def: … disease which occurs irregularly &haphazardly& occur locally, producing small localized outbreaks. Sporadic disease can indicate either a single case or a cluster of cases of a disease or infection (without obvious disease) that isn’t normally present in an area **The possible explanation of sporadic occurrence might be that: 1-The infection exists in the population in apparently &only occasionally some animals do signs of the disease due to some stress factors . 2-The infection is generally absent &the disease is only noted when an infected animal introduced to the area. 3-The infection is maintained in another species of animals, in the same area &only there is an occasional interspecies transmission. **The possible explanation of sporadic occurrence might be that: 1-The infection exists in the population in apparently &only occasionally some animals do signs of the disease due to some stress factors . 2-The infection is generally absent &the disease is only noted when an infected animal introduced to the area. 3-The infection is maintained in another species of animals, in the same area &only there is an occasional interspecies transmission. (Sporadic disease) (Endemic disease) Point epidemic) ) Propagative epidemic) ) No of cases No of cases No of cases No of cases time time time time The disease usually is caused by multiple factors these factors are determinants of disease. The determinant is any characteristic that affect the health of a population. **Classification of determinants:- can classified in 3 ways, as: 1-Primary or secondary. 2-Intrinsic or extrinsic 3-Associated with host, agent or environment. 1-Primary & secondary determinants: *Primary determinants: …are factors whose variation exerts a major effect In inducing disease. Primary determinant are necessary causes. Thus, exposure to distemper virus is a primary determinant of canine distemper . Secondary determinants: * …Correspond to predisposing, enabling or reinforcing factors. E.g.:- sex is a secondary determinant of canine heart valve incompetence male dogs are more likely to develop incompetence than females. But the primary determinants of incompetence may Include other genetically determined factors as the rate of aging of valves. &may associated with breed. ΩInfectious or Communicable disease:- …IS a disease caused by living agent , it is capable of transmission from one animal to another. **The infectious disease can be classified according to its spreading into: a) Contagious disease:- …transmission of pathogen from one infected host to another either by direct or indirect contact (latin, contagium = contact). also, these diseases are rapidly distributed between the animals b) Non contagious disease:- …disease caused by living agent but either sporadic in its occurrence as tetanus, rabies or not rapidly distributed among the animal as T.B or Mastitis. **There are six requisites for the perpetuation of communicable infectious diseases namely: 2-Reservoir & 6.susceptible source of host infection 1-Presence of the infective agent. 2-Presence of the reservoir & sources of infection. 3-An outlet (portal of exit) from reservoir. 4-A suitable mode of transmission. 5-A portal of entery. 6-Presence of a susceptible host. Diseased animal Carrier Man 1.Infective agent 5.A portal of entry 3.Anoutlet from reservoir 4.suitable mode of transmission Factors related to pathogen & influence the occurrence of disease: 1)virulence:- …It is the ability of pathogen to over come the body defense The virulence of M.O determined by :- a- presence of special Ag as vi-antigen of Sal.typhi b-forms of bacterial colonies (either rough or smooth colony). e.g. rough form of Bacillus anthrax is more virulent than smooth form. 2-Infective stage :- some causal agents are establish themselves in the host and produce disease. For further infection to another susceptible host, it needs to develop into a special infective stage ex1;-The oocyst of Eimeria should reach the infective stage to induce the disease. ex2:-In helminthes diseases as;- *parasitic bronchitis “husk disease” in cattle *parasitic gastroenteritis in sheep. …. in both the eggs and larvae passed in the faeces have to develop into the infective larval stage (L3) before they can set up the disease. 3-Number of organisms:- The number of organisms attacking a host at one time may be significant in the initiation of the disease. EX:- M.tuberculosis, when present only in small numbers, can establish the disease, whereas Salmonellae may need to enter the host in relatively large numbers if they are able to cause disease. 4-Portal of entery into the body:- …The more portal of entry, the more the frequency to establish the disease. Ex1:-Tubercle bacilli and brucella organisms entry conjunctiva, skin to the body through respiratory, digestive tract. or by coitus. Ex2:-rabies virus &Cl.tetani mainly enter the body through wounds. Ex3:-Trypanosoma evansi, T. congolens & Theileria parava and others mainly restricted in their entry to the bite of arthropods. 5-Establishment of the pathogen in the host: *Pathogens establish themselves in a variety of ways localized sites in the host animal generalization sites. *localized sites as *C.renale in bovine kidney *str. Agalactia in bovine udder *trypanosomes in blood *coccidia in intestine *trematodes in liver *metastrongyle nematodes in the lung . *Gastro-intestinal nematodes in gut *generalization sites as B.anthracis, FMD, Distemper and ND virus cause generalized invasiveness after the initial infection. **Some organisms remain in localized area producing exotoxins which affect more tissues from their site of production as Cl.tetani in tetanus . 6-The production of the disease by more than one species of organisms: *The disease may be either the result of :- 1)collaboration of different species of organisms. 2)OR one organism may multiply because of tissue damage caused by another. Ex1:-C.pyogenes alone causes localized abscesses *in the burst vesicle caused by FMD ,it in combination with Sphaerophorus necrophorus cause foot-rot in sheep & with Str.dysagalactia causes summer mastitics in bovines Ex2:-Cl.oedematious is multiplied in the damaged liver of sheep (by liver flucks) and causes black disease 7-Pathogenic role taken over by one organism on removal of another *In man, it is known that moulds and fungi tend to multiply and cause lesions in tissues after the removal of bacteria from the site as by antibiotics. * Also it is occurred in cows in some cases of yeast mastitis. (iii) Insecticide-resistant ticks (iv) Resistant trypanosomes where a trypanocide is used as a prophylaxis or treatment in a certain area. 8-Variation in animal pathogens ..Occur under laboratory and field conditions due to (i) Mutation of the pathogen as in FMD virus,salmonella (ii) Drug resistant microbes as tetracycline resistant coliforms where these drugs are used persistently in rations of pigs and poultry. Def of reservoirs:- ….are those harbour the infection and from which the pathogen is transferred to the healthy animal by different routes: 1-Cases(diseased animal):- …Cases whether clinical or missed (sub clinical) are the main reservoir of infection. ♣Clinical cases. cases where the clinical signs appears on the animals & the microorganisms leave typical cases through secretions & excretions. ♣sub clinical cases inapparent or missed cases in which infection is so mild that it is not recognized Clinically& evidence of infection could be demonstrated by laboratory methods. 2-Carriers: …Carriers are one of reservoir of infection which harbour the infection without clinical signs. *Also, carriers are inapparently infected animals, so it is act as potential transmitter of the infectious agent. *Carriers can be also detected by serological investigations. **Carrier plays a dangerous role in dissemination diseases because: 1-A carrier does not display any clinical manifestation (silent). 2-Unaware contact between carriers and other animals. 3-It is not always easy to discover carriers since laboratory examinations,( which may not always be easy or practical) are usually required. 4-It is not always possible to deal with carriers effectively Classification of Carriers : 1-According to the stage of shedding the infective agent: (a) Incubating carriers= pre-clinical carriers:- …are animals which discharge the microbe during the incubation period and before onset of signs. ex:- in man measles, infectious hepatitis. in calves infected with bacterium of John's disease. in cattle FMD virus is found in considerable quantity in pharynx & milk of infected cattle for several days before the clinical lesions are appeared. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Animal, poultry behaviour and management Represented by Dr: azhar fakhry Veterinary Public Health Department Def: transmision of information among animals which done through different activites between animals. e.g song in birds roaring in lions tail waging in dog bowing in doves dance of honey bees Signal= realser Behaviour pattern from sender animal to the reciever animal Sender : reaction of one animal which pass through the media to another animal Animal communication Sender Signal Media of communication Meaning reciever Designs of signals depend on: 1 :distance of the action 2:location 3:time scale 4:specificity of signals. importance: pervent hyprid mating between animals and must be uniform in the species Meaning: respons of the reciever animal for message of sender by changein behaviour of the reciever animal Media of communication: physical media of communication cross correspond to 4 main sense organ Def: It is the art and science of combining ideas, facilities, processes, materials and labor to produce and market product successfully. Moreover, it is the art of dealing with animal and its products through converting with all imputes into milk, wool, meat, eggs…..ect. A veterinarian is a manager and not only a medical surgeon. He must plan, organize, co-ordinate and control all processes and tools of management. Veterinarians acting all their arts, jobs to inciate healthy stocks with maximum production under economic conditions. Types of communication media: 1) Visual signals. 2) Auditory signals 3) Touch signals 4) Chemical signals Importance of studying animal communication 1) Dignosis case of animal. 2) Understand message of animal 3) Vital part of animal management 4) Assesment animal emotional state Perception of communication: a) Visual acuity a) cat: difficult determined colour. b) dog: see black and white. c) horse: determined green ,yellow and less blue and red d) cattle: determined green ,blue and red b) Auditory acuity:. a) Dog and cat: more sensetive to the sound than human. b) sheep : response with high sound than human. c) olfactory acuity:.important for reproduction activity Dog have the greatest olfactiory communication , if put alphatice acid with concentration 0.01 can detected and can detect odour of finger prints 6weeks after the finger prints were placed on glass Types of communication media: a) Ruminant (cattle, sheep and goat):. Little known around the communication of the ruminant. a) Auditory commuication: Cow to calf ,feeding and milking : 1- MM call 2- MMh.: isolated cow fom flock 3- Mench call.bull in threatening and calf very hungery 4- Moo AND baa call. calf play with each other 5-menh call. During copulation grunting sound In sheep For escape from enemies Mutal recogenition between ewe and lamb b) visual commuication: Sheep has visual signals for Aggression and reproductive activity c) olfactory commuication Important for reproductive activity Goat and cattle can discriminated conspecifics by smell the odour of urine( flehman response ) response of male to female urine in oestrouse by vemeronasal organ (Jcabson organ)can detect sexual phermones by transporting these low volatility steroid metabolites to the nasopalatine duct and into vemronasal organ. (Witten phenomna ):putting of castrated bull in flock of femal which not reach to puprity to encourage the beging of oestrous Horse communication a) Auditory commuication: 1) Neigh call= whinny call greeting call sepration between mare and foal 2) Nicker call. For hunger for feeder Materinal care, parental care, care ) care soliciting call Giving epimelitice) 3) Roaring call: high call produced from stallion to mare 4) Snort call. A- sharp snort B- long snort= frustration call * Prevent horse from galloping or runing *forcing horse to work *distress sitution 5) Squals call. Crying sound in case of pain and non oestrous female in case3 of approach of male b) visual commuication Due to lateral postiopn of eye of the horse which can see the lateral and rear with difficult for the front so horse with very wide visual so horse ear is best indication of its emotion a) alert horse: Ear forward b) Aggressive horse: ear back ward c) Submissive horse: ear out wade d) In case of mare in estrous : ear back and lips hang loose c) olfactory commuication Scent marking Important in sexual behaviour in horse Important to know its way home by smell its urine or manuere 3) Dog communication b) Auditory commuication 1- bark: territorial call of dog. stary dog rarly bark 2- whine : care soliciting call From puppies to mother From adult to escape out door For relief pain. 3- howl Sound of wild animal (wolf) 4-growl :aggressive call. b) visual commuication Emotinal state of dog determined by observation 1- ear,mouth , tail and facial expression A- rest = calm dog :ear and tail down b- Alert dog : ear and tail up ward C-excited = aggressive dog: ear back , exposed teeth, lips reteracted and hairr of shoulder and rump stand * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ry signals 3) Touch signals 4) Chemical signals Importance of studying animal communication 1) Dignosis case of animal. 2) Understand message of animal 3) Vital part of animal management 4) Assesment animal emotional state Perception of communication: a) Visual acuity a) cat: difficult determined colour. b) dog: see black and white. c) horse: determined green ,yellow and less blue and red d) cattle: determined green ,blue and red b) Auditory acuity:. a) Dog and cat: more sensetive to the sound than human. b) sheep : response with high sound than human. c) olfactory acuity:.important for reproduction activity Dog have the greatest olfactiory communication , if put alphatice acid with concentration 0.01 can detected and can detect o