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1-IDENTIFICATION OF THE BOOK
A) Title: On the Edge (Gillian Cross)
B) Publisher: Oxford Bookworms
C) Date of Publication: In 1984
2-IDENTIFICATION OF THE AUTHOR
A) His Life: Gillian Arnold was born in 1945 and she married Martin Cross in 1967. She has four children (Jonathan, Elizabeth, Anthony, Katherine), and lives near Coventry, in the Midlands. She was educated at North London Collegiate School, Somerville College, Oxford and the University of Sussex.
Her first published book was ‘’The Runaway’’ (1979). Her first ever book was ‘’Such a Nice Girl’’ but it didn’t get published. Gillian Cross said ‘’… it was terrible but I learned two important things from it…’’. Three years later she inaugurated ‘’The Demon Headmaster’’ (which was filmed by BBC Television.) series of seven books (1982 to 2002). She also completed ‘’The Dark Behind the Curtain’’ a horror story illustrated by David Parkins and published by Oxford University Press. It was highly commended for the 1982 Carnegie Medal from the Library Association, recognising the year’s best children’s book by British subject. ‘’A Map of Nowhere’’ was highly commended for the 1988 Carnegie. She has won several prizes for her writing: the 1990 Carnegie Medal for ‘’Wolf’’, and in 1992 the Smarties Prize and the Whitbread Children’s Novel Award for ‘’The Great Elephant Chase’’.
***Gillian Cross ‘s stories show how people behave in exciting or difficult situations. Many of her characters, like Tug in ‘’On the Edge’’, have to fight battles with themselves as well as with the world, before finding freedom or peace of mind. She tries to show how her stories fit into the wider world we all live in, but above all, she writes, ‘I want to entertain, to amuse, and to move my readers.’
Cross held several informal jobs including assistant to a member of parliament. For eight years she also sat on the committee which advises ministers about public libraries. She is now a full-time writer who often travels and gives talks in connection with her work. In early 2014, Cross became a patron for the Leamington Spa-based charity cord, after their work in Sudan inspired her latest novel, ‘’After Tomorrow’’.
B) The parallels between his life and his works: As a child, Gillian Cross dressing up and imagining adventures for herself. Then she discovered that writing the adventures down made them more vivid and absorbing, because she had to sharpen up her imaginary world if she wanted other people to visualize it. Sharpening up the imaginary world helped she to understand the real one better and sparked off more questions. The older she gets, the more her curiosity grows, and every book she writes is a new exploration.
C)The significant events of this period: At the end of the Second World War, Europe was totally drained of vitality and exhausted. Age-old trade links had been cut off, and any heavy industry or vital manufacturing sector that had not been destroyed was operating below capacity in a Europe that lay bloodied and ill-prepared to deal with the millions of people made homeless both during and after the war.
In 1950, the Korean War and the Communist threat proved how pressing the need was for a European defence organisation that would necessarily include German armed forces. Moreover, the need was for German rearmament was constantly repeated by a US Administration anxious to thwart the ambitions of Communism in Europe.
The Cold War and the era of nuclear deterrence, which had led to a stand-off between the two superpowers since the end of the 1940s, reached its peak in the early 1960s. In Europe, the status of the city of Berlin remained a major stumbling block for the two superpowers. The construction of the Berlin Wall, in the summer of 1961, closed the last crossing point between West and East.
Europe was seriously weakened by the currency turmoil in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The combined effect of the devaluation of the French franc, the upward revaluation of the German mark and the collapse of the Bretton Woods International Monetary System destabilized European markets. Furthermore, exchange rates between the currencies of the Member States had to be fixed before a common market could be created.
Microwave Ovens was invented in 1946. Wide- screen cinema was invented in 1952. Car seat belts was invented in 1959. Laser was invented in 1960. Neil Armstrong went to the moon in 1969. Computer mouse and miniskirt were invented in 1964. Personal Computer was invented in 1975.
3-SETTİNG OF THE STORY
A)Time: Sunday 7th August – Tuesday 16th August
B)Place: Two hundred kilometers away in Derbyshire
C)Actual social, political situation at that place at that time: That time terrorist is holding thirteen-year- old Lian Shakespeare’s son, at the family home in London.
A) Physical appearance :
Tug: Black hair, his face seemed very whited and coldly blue eyes.
Doyle: Thick black hair, white face and cold blue eyes (like Tug).
Ma(Hare): She was about thirty, and very thin with long legs, long brown hair and long fingers. (likely hare)
Rachel: She was very pretty.
B) Typical clothing:
Rachel: She always wearing beautiful clothes.
Jinny: She wears old farm clothes.
Tug: T-shirt and pants.
Ma(Hare): Long sweatshirt, pants and boot.
Tug: Tug is a go-getter and he is a bit uncertain.
Jinny: Jinny is a real investigator and a hard-working child.
. Many of her characters, like Tug in ‘’On the Edge’’, have to fight battles with themselves as well as with the world, before finding freedom or peace of mind. She tries to show how her stories fit into the wider world we all live in, but above all, she writes, ‘I want to entertain, to amuse, and to move my readers.’
Europe was seriously weakened by the currency turmoil in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The combined effect of the devaluation of the French franc, the upward revaluation of the German mark and the collapse of the Bretton Woods Inter