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Presentation Summary Essay
My topic is discussing the threats to the tropical rainforests and introduce some protections from both governments and citizens.
Those information are searched and chosen: “Tropical rainforests occur in areas of tropical rainforest climate in which there is no dry season – all months have an average precipitation of at least 60 mm – and may also be referred to as lowland equatorial evergreen rainforest. They rarely extend more than 10 degrees north or south of the equator and are a sub-set of the tropical forest biome type that occurs roughly within the 28 degree latitudes (in the equatorial zone between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn). Within the World Wildlife Fund's biome classification, tropical rainforests are a type of tropical moist broadleaf forest (or tropical wet forest) that also includes tropical seasonal forests”(http://bioscience.oxfordjournals.org/content/51/11/933 Olson, David M.; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric D.; Burgess, Neil D.; Powell, George V. N.; Underwood, Emma C.; d'Amico, Jennifer A.; Itoua, Illanga; et al. (2001).
“An area of the Amazon rainforest in Brazil. The tropical rainforests of South America contain the largest diversity of species on earth.”(By lubasi - Catedral Verde - Floresta Amazonica, CC BY-SA 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=18572902
Several countries,(Amazon deforestation rises sharply in 2007, Usatoday.com, January 24, 2008)
“notably Brazil, have declared their deforestation a national emergency.”(Vidal, John (20 May 2005 )https://www.theguardian.com/news/2005/may/20/brazil.environment).
“Amazon deforestation jumped by 69% in 2008 compared to 2007's twelve months, according to official government data.”(Brazil: Amazon deforestation worsens,Msnbc.com, August 30, 2008)
“Deforestation could wipe out or severely damage nearly 60% of the Amazon Rainforest by 2030, says a 2007 report from WWF.”(Benjamin, Alison (6 December 2007 https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2007/dec/06/conservation.endangeredhabitats)
“Deposits of precious metals (gold, silver, coltan) and fossil fuels (oil and natural gas) occur underneath rainforests globally. These resources are important to developing nations and their extraction is often given priority to encourage economic growth. Mining and drilling can require large amounts of land development, directly causing deforestation. InGhana, a West African nation, deforestation from decades of mining activity left about 12% of the country's original rainforest intact.”(Ismi, A. (1 October 2003), https://www.policyalternatives.ca/publications/monitor/october-2003-canadian-mining-companies-set-destroy-ghanas-forest-reserves)
“With the invention of agriculture, humans were able to clear sections of rainforest to produce crops, converting it to open farmland. Such people, however, obtain their food primarily from farm plots cleared from the forest and hunt and forage within the forest to supplement this.”(Bailey, R.C., Head, G., Jenike, M., Owen, B., Rechtman, R., Zechenter, E. (1989).http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1525/aa.1989.91.1.02a00040/abstract)(Walker, Philip L.; Sugiyama, Larry and Chacon, Richard (1998) http://pages.uoregon.edu/sugiyama/docs/Diet%20and%20Dental%20Health.pdf)
“The tropics take a major role in reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. The tropics (most notably the Amazon rainforest) are called carbon sinks. As major carbon reducers and carbon and soil methane storages, their destruction contributes to increasing global energy trapping, atmospheric gases. Climate change has been significantly contributed to by the destruction of the rainforests. A simulation was performed in which all rainforest in Africa were removed. The simulation showed an increase in atmospheric temperature by 2.5 to 5 degrees Celsius.”(Semazzi, F. H., Song, Y (2001) http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v17/n2/p169-182/
“ Tropical rainforest conservation ranges from strict preservation of habitat to finding sustainable management techniques for people living in tropical rainforests. International policy has also introduced a market incentive program called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) for companies and governments to outset their carbon emissions through financial investments into rainforest conservation.”(Varghese, Paul (August 2009).http://www.rightsandresources.org/documents/files/doc_1220.pdf
The solution for dealing with the problem are:
Positives: Governments introduced many policies to reduce deforestation. It protect the Tropical Rainforest Ecosystems, and can prevent the previous trees from dying out. Negative: Many people that make living by cutting trees lose their jobs, and there isn’t enough trees to supply for some factories. To some extent, it is bad for economy. Reaserch: “Even where some effort is made to control timbering, the government usually has very weak enforcement capabilities. Moreover, governments obtain revenue from logging, and they are highly subject to pressures from the wealthy and the well connected. Threats of violence are quite frequent as well. So there are many incentives to establish government policies favoring special interests (often the officials’ friends and relatives). In actual fact, the timber concessionaires are often military or government leaders and politicians.”(http://www.rainforestconservation.org/rainforest-primer/3-rainforests-in-peril-deforestation/d-causes-of-tropical-rainforest-destruction/7-government-policies/)
Positives: Governments also introduced some policies on mining and drilling, but in fact, some of them couldn’t work. The tropical rainforests have wide range of rich resources, especially good for mining and drilling. But overmining and overdrilling is not allowed. So the policies from governments play a role in protecting the resources. Negative: the need of the mine caused too much drill hole, but the world need mine. If the government introduce too much policies, that wouldn’t fit the reality. It will affect many other fields. Research: “While deforestation and chemical pollution from mining can impact the rainforest environment, downstream aquatic habitats fare worse. Increased sediment loads and reduced water flows can seriously affect local fish populations. ”(http://rainforests.mongabay.com/0808.htm)
Positive: many people that farm in the tropical rainforests could make a living by that and support their family.Research: “People such as the Yanomamo of the Amazon, utilize slash-and-burn agriculture to overcome these limitations and enable them to push deep into what were previously rainforest environments. However, these are not rainforest dwellers, rather they are dwellers in cleared farmland that make forays into the rainforest. Up to 90% of the typical Yanamomo diet comes from farmed plants.”(Walker, Philip L.; Sugiyama, Larry and Chacon, Richard (1998)http://pages.uoregon.edu/sugiyama/docs/Diet%20and%20Dental%20Health.pdf
Negative: Conversion to agricultural land is also a serious problem. Governments put a lot of effort to deal with it. But this is not enough because no plan has been established. If the conversion to agricultural land goes too far, it will be a huge harm to the tropical rainforests.
Based on the research, the alternative about the deforestation one is the best. Because it has the richest policies and researches, and lots of data. And the solutions are the best and most suitable.
The research includes the brief introduction of tropical rainforests, some main threats and protections. Also discussed some choices that dealing with the problems, both positive ones and negative ones.
10Cntly contributed to by the destruction of the rainforests. A simulation was performed in which all rainforest in Africa were removed. The simulation showed an increase in atmospheric temperature by 2.5 to 5 degrees Celsius.”(Semazzi, F. H., Song, Y (2001) http://www.int-res.com/abstracts/cr/v17/n2/p169-182/
“ Tropical rainforest conservation ranges from strict preservation of habitat to finding sustainable management techniques for peo