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Physiology SI 1-25-17
Jonah and Mad dog
Movement Across Membranes (Important!!!!)
Where does it happen?
What are the two types of ribosomes?
What determines which type of ribosome will synthesize a protein?
Cytosolic ribosomes- In the cytosol
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ribosomes- located on the rough endoplasmic reticulum
Destination of the protein
Cytosolic ribosomes- Proteins remain in the cytosol
RER ribosomes- shipped out of the cell or attached to a membrane
Which Ions are located in relatively higher amounts intracellular vs. extracellular? (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, Mg2+).
What is a phospholipid? What are the two components of a phospholipid?
What is a phospholipid? What are
the two components of a phospholipid?
How do phospholipids typically arrange themselves in the plasma membrane?
Review Questions- Phospholipids
How would a single sheet of phospholipids arrange themselves?
What molecule helps the plasma membrane maintain fluidity?
What type of interactions do adjacent phospholipids experience?
What type of molecule is more likely to pass through the plasma membrane? (polar, nonpolar)
What is Diffusion?
How Does it Move?
What do we call the concentration difference?
Terminology- Concentration gradient
What is Brownian Motion? How does it relate to diffusion?
How Does it Move? Areas of High concentration to areas of Low concentration.
Going with the gradient-high to low
Going against the gradient- low to high
Random particle motion, the collisions lead to even dispersal of particles
First identify the type of diffusion (1, 2, 3 dimensional)
Solute- Moves from areas of high solute to low solute
Water- Moves from areas of low solute to high solute (think of water as a solute and it is moving from high water concentration to low water concentration)
Tonicity- Looking at the solute concentration
Hypertonic- Higher SOLUTE concentration (lower water)
Hypotonic- Lower SOLUTE concentration (higher water)
Diffusion Across the Membrane
Active Transport (Primary and Secondary)
How do we decide?
Does it move against a concentration gradient?
Does the molecule need a channel?
Is the molecule polar? Charged? Large?
Primary Active Transport
Secondary Active Transport
Movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to low concentration
Molecules move “with” their concentration gradients, so no ATP is required
Does not require a channel to move across the membrane
Molecules move with the concentration gradient
Does not require ATP
Because the molecules are charged/polar/or large, they can’t pass through the membrane without help (channel)
Molecules move against concentration gradients, so energy is needed
Primary vs. Secondary Active Transport
Primary Active Transport: Both ions are moving against their concentration gradients
Secondary Active Transport: One ion is moving with its concentration gradient, and one ion is moving against its concentration gradient
What type of bonds are present in glucose?
Do you think glucose is polar/nonpolar?
Do you think glucose can freely pass through the cell membrane?
What type of transport?
What type of transport would K+ use to leave a cell?
Would K+ need energy to leave a cell?
Would K+ need a channel to cross the cell membrane?
Yes- it is charged
Cell Cycle - Interphase
G1 (Growth and Normal Cellular Activity)
S (DNA Replication)
G2 (Preparation for Mitosis e.g. Replicate Organelles)
Which type of cells? Somatic
Identical Daughter Cells
Cell Cycle - Prophase
Cell Cycle - Metaphase
Cell Cycle - Anaphase
Cell Cycle – Telophase/Cytokinesis
Cell Cycle - Question
Some of the steps of the cell cycle are listed below. Place them in order from beginning to last
Spindle aligns chromosomes in middle of cell
Nuclear envelope breaks down
Because the mol