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Physiology SI 1/24/17
Fast-paced (Broad concepts to build foundation)
Transitioning into Units
Which Ions are located in relatively higher amounts intracellular vs. extracellular? (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Cl-, Mg2+).
What does hydrophobic/hydrophilic/amphipathic mean?
Hydrophobic = “Water Hating”
Hydrophilic – “Water Loving”
Which of the following functional groups are hydrophilic, hydrophobic? Why?
What is an example of an amphipathic molecule?
Warm up/ Review
Which regions are hydrophobic, hydrophilic?
Which type of macromolecule(s) is/are not present in the cell membrane?
What is the role of cholesterol in the cell membrane?
Is the cell membrane homogenous(the same composition throughout)?
If a molecule passes through the plasma membrane and then becomes trapped in the cytosol and cannot pass back through the membrane, what could explain this?
Which type of macromolecule(s) is/are not present in the cell membrane? Answer: Nucleic Acids
What is the role of cholesterol in the cell membrane? Maintain Stability at higher temperatures; fluidity at lower
Is the cell membrane homogenous(the same composition throughout)? No; “Fluid Mosaic Model”
Became Polar (Ex. “Trapping” Glucose by phosphorylation during glycolysis: Hexokinase)
What do the following organelles do?
Nucleus- Store Genetic Information
Ribosome- Protein Synthesis
Endoplasmic Reticulum- Smooth: Store Calcium/Lipid Synthesis; Rough: Protein Synthesis
Golgi Apparatus- Shipping Modification
Mitochondria- Energy Synthesis
Central Dogma of Biology
Where is DNA stored?
How does DNA store genetic information?
Where is DNA stored? Nucleus
How does DNA store genetic information? (Think Structure) Nucleotide Base Sequence
Three types of RNA?
tRNA (Transfer RNA)
rRNA (Ribosomal RNA)
Convert DNA---mRNA (Where does this occur)
Initiation(Unzipping, Binding to promotor)
Termination (Termination Factor)
Protein Synthesis—What Next?
mRNA leaves nucleus through nuclear pore membrane
mRNA binds to ribosome (cytosolic or Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum(RER) based on destination)
Question: What type of membrane protein is this? (peripheral, integral)
Once bound to ribosome, begin translation
Protein Synthesis- Translation
mRNA--- Amino Acid Sequence (Protein)
Convert three nucleotide sequences (Codons)—Amino Acids
Quick Review Question
What level of structure of proteins (primary, secondary …) is the amino acid sequence produced from translation?
Primary: Amino Acid Sequence
Protein-containing vesicle buds off RER(if RER) and is sent to the cis terminal of the Golgi-Apparatus.
Protein is modified and packaged before being shipped from the trans terminal of the Golgi-Apparatus
Protein is sent to destination.
How do we decide destination?
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Proteins embedded in the plasma membrane/Organelle
Proteins to be secreted
Intracellular proteins (For example fibers)
Translation on the RER results in protein inside the RER
Vesicle buds off Golgi
mRNA passes through the nucleopore
Golgi modifies and packages proteins
Vesicle travels toward intracellular organelle or plasma membrane
DNA is transcribed to mRNA
Vesicle travels to the cis face of the Golgi
mRNA attaches to ribosome on the surface of the RER
Vesicle buds off RER
mRNA passes through nucleopores
Golgi modifies and packages proteins
Membrane Trafficking (Exocytosis)
Membrane Trafficking (Endocytosis)
Receptor mediated endocytosis
Which subset of membrane trafficking are leukocytes likely to use in order to ingest pathogens?
Which organelle are the vesicles containing the pathogen likely to combine with?
Cell Cycle - Interphase
G1 (Growth and Normal Cellular Activity)
S (DNA Replication)
G2 (Preparation for Mitosis e.g. Replicate Organelles)
Which type of cells? Somatic
Identical Daughter Cells
Cell Cycle - Prophase
Cell Cycle - Metaphase
Cell Cycle - Anaphase
Cell Cycle – Telophase/Cytokinesis
Cell Cycle - Question
Some of the steps of the cell cycle are listed below. Place them in order from beginning to last
Spindle aligns chromosomes in middle of cell
Nuclear envelope breaks down
Vesicle travels toward in