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Embed code for: Design Report of Solar Fan
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Solar Fan Adelina Nie, Alex Jin, Ann Qian, Leo Luo, Sophia Liu Teacher: Mr. Sandy Albarico Class: 10A I. Problem a) Background Resources which human are consuming at present, such as coal, oil, natural gases and so on are all non-renewable resources, which means it is impossible for human to rely on them permanently. “As much of our energy is consumed and depleted, it also is increasing pollution. And unlike a lot of environmental factors that are hard to measure, we have very precise records of how much energy is being consumed each year by each country of the world.” (Consumption by the United States) Meanwhile, the overuse of those non-renewable resources can be harmful to environment. For example, fossil oil leak will bring an enormous negative influence on water resulting in water pollution. (Secondary Containment). In addition, as an increasing number of world populations, the energy and resources are becoming harder to foster such a large population. However, fortunately, some new resources that are clean and renewable are exploited gradually, which will be the best solution for the problems about energy and resources. Solar energy is one of the most typical renewable energy, also the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available. Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy, which can be utilized in appliances instead of electric power. (SEIA) Here are many different utilization of solar energy in daily life, such as heating water, cooking, and indoor lightning. (The Spruce) Presently, two solar technologies are becoming common. First, solar collectors or panels are used to heat water or ventilation air for use in buildings. Second, solar photovoltaic technology uses solar cells to convert sunlight directly into electricity. (Natural Resources Canada) b) Statement of problem Make a solar ventilating fan model which can illustrate the conversion between solar energy and electricity. c) Specification 1. The energy of this model is strong enough to light a light. 2. The model is in a moderate size and suitable dimension. 3. No larger than one square and no heavier than five kilometers. 4. The electric motor is strong enough to rotate the fan blade. 5. The safety of the solar fan must be ensured, because there is current involved in the model which plays the essential part. 6. The electric circuit should be installed correctly. 7. The fan blade can rotate at a fast speed. 8. There are some recycled materials in the model. Other requirements---- 1. Some materials need to be bought online, like solar battery, electric motor, and conductors. 2. We need to do some calculations about electricity based on Ohm’s Law so that we can ensure the specification of solar battery and electric motor. (Like the rated voltage and electric power) R U I II. Research Solution a) Idea Generated 1. Recommended materials to make a solar powered fan: Single Solar Panel Small Fan 3 V Battery Holders with Attached Wires DC Motor with bracket Wooden Dowel Soldering Iron, Wire Strippers, and Wires/Alligator Clamp Wires Duct Tape Scissors Switch and screwdriver (Greeniacs) 1. Recommendation about materials : About 30 in. of PVC pipe 3 T-pieces of PVC pipe 5 90 degree pieces (right angle) Altoids tin 2 rechargeable batteries & battery holder Solder iron & metal Solar panels and its circuit board Small motor Lots of wires USB cable & connector Tinker toys (optional for fan) Wire cutter PVC pipe cutter Small pliers Hammer Small piece of wood to fit in hole of tinker toy Drill (How to make a solar fan) 3. The requirements for the fan: The fan also needs to be relatively small and light so that it can rotate without requiring much power. (Greeniacs) 4. Alternatively, you can customize the system as your needs grow to add more panels and a bigger fan. (Scott E. Mann) 5. Connect the positive from the panel to the positive on the capacitor to the positive on the fan, then the negative on the panel to the negative on the capacitor to the negative on the fan. The panel will power the fan and any excess power will build up in the capacitor, like a small battery. (Yourgreendream) b) Brainstorming Sophia: We can recycle some old materials to make the fan, like the fan leaves can be made of plastic bottles; cardboard boxes can be regarded as the bottom of the fan. Ann: The stay bar which is used for support the fan leaves can be made of cardboard. Leo: It is not always sunny day; in that case the solar panel will be useless in cloudy days, so some storage batteries are also needed. Adelina: We need to establish an electric circuit among solar panel, switch, and motor. Some electric calculations or measurements are required when we purchase solar panel and motor. Alex: We have better buy relatively higher- power solar panel and motor, because the solar energy can’t be converted to electricity entirely. Some solar energy will convert to mechanical energy of motor and internal energy of wires. Conclusion: We will use recycled materials to make the fan, such plastic bottles and cardboard, the stay bar of the fan will be made of water pipe. The nominal voltage of the solar panel should be around 12V, while that of the motor is around 10V. Some storage batteries will be also installed in the circuit if the solar panel doesn’t work (which means there is no sunlight). III. Design and Develop a) Design Sketch b) Materials with costing Materials Amount Expense Solar Panel 2 (12V per panel) 22 Storage Battery 6 (1.5V per battery) 15 Motor 2 (9.5V per motor) 9 Wires 50 in total 5 Plastic bottle 2 0 Water Pipe 1 5 Cardboard Boxes 2 0 Voltage Meter 1 0 Current Meter 1 0 c) Constructions in-process 1. Cut a plastic bottle into four parts and make it in the shape of fan leaves. 2. Cut down a small portion of a long water pipe. 3. Cut a cardboard box into half. This is used as the ventilating fan’s bottom. 4. Use gummed tape to fix and firm the bottom. 5. Paint the cardboard box (bottom). 6. Chisel aperture on the water pipe so that the motor can be fixed on the pipe. 6. Install the water wipe, wires, motor, and fan leaves together. 7. Install the internal circuit of the solar fan. Final Model---- IV. Test and evaluation solution The performance of test Test solution Evaluation The voltage of solar panel (More than) 15V The voltage of the solar panel is a little big if it is just for a model, may be a smaller one will be better. The voltage of motor (only motor in the circuit without fan leaves, the voltage of the main power is 4.5 V) 3.5V The voltage of motor with fan leaves on it (the voltage of the main power is 4.5 V) 3.0 V, but still can rotate The fan leaves can produce a slightly effect on the voltage of the motor called resistance. We need to change the shape of the fan leaves. If the fan can rotate when there is sunlight Yes, but the it rotates very slowly and stopped as soon as the weather turn to cloud The nominal voltage of the motor is so big that the solar energy can’t satisfy the motor. We need a smaller-voltage motor. V. Refine the design 1. Change the shape of the fan leaves. 2. Install a sliding rheostat so that the wind-force can be adjusted. Reference http://www.secondary-containment.net/oil-containment.html https://public.wsu.edu/~mreed/380American%20Consumption.htm http://www.seia.org/about/solar-energy http://www.greeniacs.com/GreeniacsGuides/Home/Solar-Powered-Fan.html http://www.instructables.com/id/How-to-make-a-personal-solar-USB-powered-fan-1/ https://www.thespruce.com/top-solar-energy-uses-1152263 http://www.nrcan.gc.ca/energy/renewable-electricity/7295 http://sciencing.com/make-solarpowered-fan-5948930.html http://www.yourgreendream.com/yp_solar_fan.php power. (Greeniacs) 4. Alternatively, you can customize the system as your needs grow to add more panels and a bigger fan. (Scott E. Mann) 5. Connect the positive from the panel to the positive on the capacitor to the positive on the fan, then the negative on the panel to the negative on the capacitor to the negative on the fan. The panel will power th