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Embed code for: Engineering Bridge
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Engineers:Ashley Eren Rick Will
Background: The name of this bridge is Nanchang No.2 Sino - Canadian bridge,which was the product of famous engineers,Eren,Will,Rick,Ashley,to commemorate their high school life.This bridge is a new type of bridges,which likes the combination of the arch bridge and suspension.This bridge is just for cars.This bridge cross the part of Gan River in the downstream in Nanchang.Gan River Basin presents hilly landscape as the main pattern, hilly accounted for 64.7% of the basin area (which accounted for 43.9% mountainous, hilly 20.8%), hilly (below 200m above sea level) post to 31.5%, plains, waters only 3.9%. Gan River downstream, is a mountainous, hilly as the mainstay of both low hills and a few plain landforms type.A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles without closing the way underneath such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle.
Statement of Problem: We use the knowledge to make a hand-making bridge.Target audiences are divers.
The high must be higher than 40cm.
Plan dimension must not be smaller than 30cm x 100cm.
Electrical wiring installed with at least 10 LED bulbs.
It should hold 40 kg thing.
We do not have the equipment and skills to make a bridge by hard materials,such as iron.
We can not do very dangerous processes,it will hurt ourselves.
We do not have perfect hand-making skills,so the bridge we made will not perfect as well.
Each Person’s Role:
Beam bridges are horizontal beams supported at each end by substructure units and can be either simply supported when the beams only connect across a single span, or continuous when the beams are connected across two or more spans. When there are multiple spans, the intermediate supports are known as piers. The earliest beam bridges were simple logs that sat across streams and similar simple structures. In modern times, beam bridges can range from small, wooden beams to large, steel boxes. The vertical force on the bridge becomes a shear and flexural load on the beam which is transferred down its length to the substructures on either side.They are typically made of steel, concrete or wood. Beam bridge spans rarely exceed 250 feet (76 m) long, as the flexural stresses increase proportional to the square of the length (and deflection increases proportional to the 4th power of the length).However, the main span of the Rio-Niteroi Bridge, a box girder bridge, is 300 metres (980 ft).
The world's longest beam bridge is Lake Pontchartrain Causeway in southern Louisiana in the United States, at 23.83 miles (38.35 km), with individual spans of 56 feet (17 m).Beam bridges are the most common bridge type in use today.
A truss bridge is a bridge whose load-bearing superstructure is composed of a truss. This truss is a structure of connected elements forming triangular units. The connected elements (typically straight) may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads. Truss bridges are one of the oldest types of modern bridges. The basic types of truss bridges shown in this article have simple designs which could be easily analyzed by nineteenth and early twentieth century engineers. A truss bridge is economical to construct owing to its efficient use of materials.
Cantilever bridges are built using cantilevers—horizontal beams supported on only one end. Most cantilever bridges use a pair of continuous spans that extend from opposite sides of the supporting piers to meet at the center of the obstacle the bridge crosses. Cantilever bridges are constructed using much the same materials & techniques as beam bridges. The difference comes in the action of the forces through the bridge.
Some cantilever bridges also have a smaller beam connecting the two cantilevers, for extra strength.
The largest cantilever bridge is the 549-metre (1,801 ft) Quebec Bridge in Quebec, Canada.
Arch bridges have abutments at each end. The weight of the bridge is thrust into the abutments at either side. The earliest known arch bridges were built by the Greeks, and include the Arkadiko Bridge.
With the span of 220 metres (720 ft), the Solkan Bridge over the Soča River at Solkan in Slovenia is the second largest stone bridge in the world and the longest railroad stone bridge. It was completed in 1905. Its arch, which was constructed from over 5,000 tonnes (4,900 long tons; 5,500 short tons) of stone blocks in just 18 days, is the second largest stone arch in the world, surpassed only by the Friedensbrücke (Syratalviadukt) in Plauen, and the largest railroad stone arch. The arch of the Friedensbrücke, which was built in the same year, has the span of 90 m (295 ft) and crosses the valley of the Syrabach River. The difference between the two is that the Solkan Bridge was built from stone blocks, whereas the Friedensbrücke was built from a mixture of crushed stone and cement mortar.
The world's current largest arch bridge is the Chaotianmen Bridge over the Yangtze River with a length of 1,741 m (5,712 ft) and a span of 552 m (1,811 ft). The bridge was opened April 29, 2009 in Chongqing, China.
Tied arch bridge
Tied arch bridges have an arch-shaped superstructure, but differ from conventional arch bridges. Instead of transferring the weight of the bridge and traffic loads into thrust forces into the abutments, the ends of the arches are restrained by tension in the bottom chord of the structure. They are also called bowstring arches.
Suspension bridges are suspended from cables. The earliest suspension bridges were made of ropes or vines covered with pieces of bamboo. In modern bridges, the cables hang from towers that are attached to caissons or cofferdams. The caissons or cofferdams are implanted deep into the floor of a lake or river. Sub-types include the simple suspension bridge, the stressed ribbon bridge, the underspanned suspension bridge, the suspended-deck suspension bridge, and the self-anchored suspension bridge.
The longest suspension bridge in the world is the 3,909 m (12,825 ft) Akashi Kaikyō Bridge in Japan.
Cable-stayed bridges, like suspension bridges, are held up by cables. However, in a cable-stayed bridge, less cable is required and the towers holding the cables are proportionately higher.The first known cable-stayed bridge was designed in 1784 by C. T. (or C. J.) Löscher.
The longest cable-stayed bridge since 2012 is the Russky Bridge in Vladivostok, Russia.
"Beam bridges". Design Technology. Retrieved May 14, 2008.
Structural Beam Deflection Stress Bending Equations / Calculation Supported on Both Ends Uniform Loading. Engineers Edge. Retrieved on April 23, 2013.
"A big prefabricated bridge". Life 40 (22): 53–60. May 28, 1956.
Gorazd Humar (September 2001). "World Famous Arch Bridges in Slovenia". In Charles Abdunur. Arch'01: troisième Conférence internationale sur les ponts en arc Paris: (in English and French). Paris: Presses des Ponts. pp. 121–124. ISBN 2-85978-347-4.
"Longest bridge, steel arch bridge". Guinness World Records. Retrieved February 18, 2013.
Sigmund, Pete (February 7, 2007). "The Mighty Mac: A Sublime Engineering Feat". Construction Equipment Guide. Retrieved May 14,2008.
Johnson, Andy. "Cable Stay vs Suspension Bridges". U.S. Department of Energy.
Earliest cable-stayed bridge
Elder, Miriam (2 July 2012). "Russian city of Vladivostok unveils record-breaking suspension bridge". The Guardian. Retrieved 3 February2016.
For small footbridges, the cantilevers may be simple beams; however, large cantilever bridges designed to handle road or rail traffic use trusses built from structural steel, or box girders built from prestressed concrete.
The cables are usually made of steel cables coated with Zinc, along with most of the bridge, but some bridges are still made with steel reinforced concrete.
Stone, brick and other such materials that are strong in compression and somewhat so in shear.
Beam bridges can use pre-stressed concrete, an inexpensive building material, which is then embedded withrebar. The resulting bridge can resist both compression and tension forces.
The triangular pieces of Truss bridges are manufactured from straight and steel bars, according to the truss bridge designs.
"Cantilever". Bridges of Dublin.
"Suspension Bridges". Made How.
"Beam Bridges". PBS.
K, Aggeliki; Stonecypher, Lamar. "Truss Bridge Designs". Bright Hub Engineering.
Infrared thermography and ground-penetrating radar
Infrared thermography and ground-penetrating radar have been developed to locate voids and delaminations in concrete structures such as bridge decks, highwaysand airport pavements. Being able to locate voids and delaminations means the structural maintenance engineer can measure the actual cracking and weakening of concrete pavements before catastrophic failures can occur.
Concrete objects, such as bridges, emit energy based upon the absolute temperature of its surfaces and the surface temperatures are dependent upon the internal conditions of the concrete. These internal conditions can include physical conditions like:
Density changes in concrete
Voids caused by erosion beneath the concrete slabs
Horizontal delaminations caused by rust expansion of rusting internal reinforcing steel.
Infrared thermographic radiometer or “IR Imager” locates these anomalous thermal conditions. This device can measure hundreds of thousand of individual temperature points per second and convert this data to thermal maps or temperature images of the concrete. By locating anomalous areas, or temperature patterns which differ from the background “norm” on these images, trained engineers can locate the exact anomalous areas that could lead to catastrophic failure of concrete and its supporting soil and backfill systems.
Ground-penetrating radar gives information valuable in determining such characteristics as: target material, voids, fluids, soil or backfill strata, and quantity of reinforcing steel present.
Magnetometers are instruments designed to locate ferrous materials. It can detect iron containing materials to a maximum depth of approximately 10 feet. This is useful for locating dowel pins or determining if reinforcing steel exists.
This device is designed to specifically locate reinforcing steel in concrete and to assist in the determination of the size of the hidden reinforcing steel.
Design and Develop
There is a difference between our bridge and other bridge,which is our triangle towers.We think triangle is the strongest shape,so we chose it.We learn from other types of bridge and create this bridge.First of all,we used the carbon fiber sticks to make a framework.Then we use the thread to balance the bridge.The pillars which were made by wood sustain the bridge.
80cm x 30cm x 4cm *4
Carbon Fiber Sticks
The reason why we chose these materials is they are safe to us and easy to make and find.
In the real life,the materials are reinforced concrete,steel,industrial residue,gravel material,asphalt mixtures and so on.
Carbon fiber sticks were the materials of Ashley’s kite,then she took it off.
Wooden board is the waste material in the house decor.
Iron sheet is from a old iron box.
Foam is the waste material of some projects.
Cut the wooden board to the shape we want.
Use the iron sheets to fasten the towers by nailing
Use carbon fiber sticks to make the framework of the bridge.
Use the thread and glue to reinforce the relationship of each carbon fiber sticks.
Use the wood to be the pillars,and use glue to connect them and the road board.
Cut some part to the tower and connect them and the road board.
Final Product 1.0
Corrosion Resistance：spread Anti-rust paint;t has good and stable conducting electrostatic property and long time cathodic protection.Highly resistant to abrasion, sea water, crude and fuel oil.
Bearing of the bridge:We do not plant the trees and add other things,because we want to decrease the pressure on the bridge as possible as we can.
Time of construction:two and half years
Time of repairing:5 years per once
Time of inspection: 6 month per once
We add the LEDs.
We add railings to protect the cars.
We add ladder to help people fixing the bridge up.
Scale(model and real life):
1:3500hwaysand airport pavements. Being able to locate voids and delaminations means the structural maintenance engineer can measure the actual cracking and weakening of concrete pavements before catastrophic failures can occur.
Use the th