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Threats to Ecosystems: Coral Reef BY: Estrella 10C NOV.29.2016
1-What are Coral Reefs
2-The Structure of Coral Reefs
3-Where Reefs Exist
The basic knowledge
Appearing as solitary forms in the fossil record more than 400 million years ago, corals are extremely ancient animals that evolved into modern reef-building forms over the last 25 million years. Coral reefs are unique (e.g. the largest structures on earth of biological origin) and complex systems. Rivaling old growth forests in longevity of their ecological communities, well-developed reefs reflect thousands of years of history
Coral is the ocean organism which can absorb Ca and CO2 in the water to grow up and survive.
they are tiny and living together with a group,
When they died , and produced limestone continuously together.
The limestone after compacted
Tiny corals forming islands and reefs
Boundary for 20 °C isotherms. Most corals live within this boundary.
tropical ocean area
Main zone is around Australia
Most require very salty (saline) water ranging from 32 to 42 parts per thousand. The water must also be clear to permit high light penetration. (
http://www.coris.noaa.gov/about/what_are/#Reference: Biological OceanographyLalli
http://www.coris.noaa.gov/about/what_are/#Reference: Biological Oceanography and Parsons, 1995).
Compared with the pre-industrial level, Now,coral slow down the speed of their bones. When the concentration of carbon dioxide decrease to 560 PPM, It will cause the reef stop growing and begin to dissolve.
Coral reefs be acidize means die out.
Especially tropical coral adaptation ability is weak, they extremely be hurt by surface temperature ofsea.
Most of animals whom living in coral will gone when the water temperature increased.
Main Idea Threats
In particular, coral mining, agricultural and urban runoff, pollution (organic and inorganic), overfishing, blast fishing, disease, and the digging of canals and access into islands and bays are localized threats to coral ecosystems.
The influence of Cyanide to the coral reef ecosystem is cruel, it will kill the corals and other animals.
At the same time ,It is harm for the whole ecosystem and break the balance of the ocean animals.
It means the color of reef turned white.
Scientists know that bleaching leaves corals vulnerable to disease, stunts their growth, and affects their reproduction, while severe bleaching kills them.
Marine protected areas (MPAs) have become increasingly prominent for reef management.
MPAs promote responsible fishery management and habitat protection.
Much like national parks and wildlife refuges, and to varying degrees, MPAs restrict potentially damaging activities.
You could understand more about “CORAL REEF “by my presentation.
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