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Embed code for: Bridge Project
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Group members: Judy Winnie Sammy Summer Christy
Bridges play very important role in our life, which are artificial channels overhead. We can sort bridges by different uses, crossing obstacles, materials used and positions of bridge decks. For uses of bridges, there are railway bridges, highway bridges, highway and railway bridges, pedestrian bridges and other special bridges. For obstacles crossed, there are bridges cross rivers, bridges cross valley, overpasses, viaducts, trestle bridges, etc. For materials, they can be wooden bridges, steel bridges, reinforced concrete bridges and masonry bridges which are made of brick or stone or concrete or something else. For positions of bridge decks, they are only divided into three types: deck plate, through truss and half-through bridge.
There are 10 most famous bridges in the world:
Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco, United States
Tower Bridge, London, England
Sydney Harbour Bridge, Sydney , Australia
Brooklyn Bridge, New York, United States
Ponte Vecchio, Florence, Italy
Rialto Bridge, Venice,, Italy
Millau Viaduct, Millau, France
Charles Bridge, Prague, Czech Republic
Akashi Kaikyō Bridge,Japan
Great Belt Bridge,Denmark
These famous bridges are all made by famous engineers in the world, which have fine structures with long history.
•Statement of the problem
We ’ re going to make a bridge using the idea of the London Bridge.
The height must not be shorter than 40cm
The length must not be shorter than 100cm
Electrical wiring installed with at least 10 LED bulbs
The materials should cost less than 500 Yuan.
It must include recycled and waste materials
It has two towers that can stand the weight of the bridge
The colors should work together well.
The bridge should be beautiful and stable as well
Add crawls on the sides of the bridge.
It must has a background that can show the use of the bridge.
II - Research Solution:
Our bridge should be like Bayi Bridge which belongs to stayed-cable bridge. It is not only good-looking, but also durable. To make it more stable which can stand the standard weight of an adult, the cables should be made of iron and tightened when we make it.
We can make stayed-cable bridge, this kind of bridge is more stable than other bridges. Also, it is easier to make than arch bridge. We can use wood to make this bridge, wood is heavier and easier to change the shape than the other simple materials; also, use wood to make it can improve the stability of bridge.
We can make a bridge that same as London bridge, it should be good looking. We could have some hollow out spaces as our window. We could make the bridge to be delicacy. And it could also be hard, can bear the weight of sufficient objects. I think our model should show the idea, it should be beautiful. But the thickness of the baseboard is not necessary because it’s just a model, if we build a real one, we will not use these materials, it just need to show the theory.
We can use iron chain so it is harder to break. We can use nails to connect every part so it won’t be fall to pieces easily. After we build the model, we can put some small model cars on the bridge to decorate it. To make sure the bridge will be enough stable, we should ensure every details of bridge are precise. And we can have guardrail on both two sides.
In my opinion, the foundation of the bridge should be very strong and firm inorder to sustain the bridge. Additionally, the bridge should not be too long an d the height of bridge cannot be too high, to find a balance point which can sustain thebridge every well is really important. What’s more, the materials of building bridge .
Three views and 3D One-point perspective
Two-point perspective 3D
Three views One-point perspective
Three views and 3D One-point perspective
One-point perspective Three views and 3D
•Research and generating idea
For the stayed-cable bridge, every iron chain of it take a part of its force. This kind of bridge play an important role in our real life, it has an effective ability to solve the problem like across the greater distance.
My bridge in brainstorming is Guardrail bridge. States have standard types of bridge. Rail that are commonly used on that State ’ s bridge system. Many other bridge rail installations are designed and engineered specially pleasing design styles and coating options to highlight the bridge ’ s importance or high profile location. This kind of bridge is extremely stable and safe.
(How to make a bridge model)
Step 1: Decide on the shape and overall design of the bridge just as an engineer does.Step 2: Sketch out the shape of the bridge to full size on a piece of paper or board.
Step 3: Another trick is to make a form or "jig". You can make a jig by nailing two pieces of wood, about 2 centimeters square, to a piece of plywood along the top and bottom cord as in the picture.
Step 4: Glue the cross bracing between the top and bottom cords.
Step 5: The next step is to add the bridge deck.
The Bridge’s scale should be almost like London tower bridge.Planning：Step 1: Look at several photos and drawings of the bridge so you know how the pieces fit together. Make your own detailed drawing, showing how big each piece will be and how it will be shaped.Step 2: Lay the sheet of thin acrylic over your drawing and trace the outline of each piece on to it, using one of your markers.Step 3：Double check your tracings. Remember: measure twice, cut once.CuttingStep 1 cut out the pattern pieces from the acrylic sheet, making sure the edges are nice and smooth without jagged edges. Draw your bridge pieces on the sheet of balsa wood by tracing around the pattern pieces, or templates, with a pencil or marker.Step 2Place the balsa wood sheet on the cutting board on a work table, not the dining room or kitchen table. Use the Exacta knife to carefully cut out the smaller pieces. Large pieces can be made by clamping the sheet with a C-clamp, being careful not to dent the wood. These can then be cut using the Exacta knife and a metal straight edge.Step 3when you're done cutting the pieces, smooth any rough spots with the sandpaper.ConstructionStep 1Using your selected photos and drawing you have made, begin matching up the pieces of your bridge. Make sure the right piece is connected to its correct match. Once you're sure, put a thin line of glue on each cut surface and put them together. Make sure the edges match up exactly. Hold the edges together for a minute or two to allow the glue to dry a bit.Step 2When all the pieces are put together, allow the glue to dry overnight or for a full day if you have time.Step 3using your pictures as a reference, cut lengths of waxed linen twine and attach them to the balsa wood model to resemble the supporting cables. If you didn't cut holes to resemble the windows in the towers, use a marker to draw them on the wood. You can use the markers to color the roofs and trim on the bridge, too.
My bridge in brainstorming is cable-stayed bridge. This kind of bridge should be made up of towers, girdes and cables. For bridge's cables, the tower of a cable-stayed bridge is responsible for absorbing and dealing with compression forces, so that means we should tighten them up to make the bridge firm.
III – Design and Develo p
Material The number The cost(RMB) Nails and screws Several 4 502 8 16 Iron chain 4 8 Tape 5 10 Toy car 2 boxes 40 M odel lamp 8 10.56 Wallpaper 51 28.68 Acrylic plate 2 11.17 Handrail 3 35.73 Model people A bag 3.13 Circular cone 8 15.84 205 205 6 Plank Several 80 PVC board 3 35 LED lights 2 30 Battery 6 10 Total cost 344.11
Step 1: Cut the wood to the appropriate length.
They are the bases of our bridge. Step 2: Cut the wood into certain shape. These could be use to build our small tower.
Step 3: Use 502 to fix each part of the small tower together.
Step 4: Calculate the length and width of the big tower, and draw the figure on the board. In order to make it beautiful, we should make each layer symmetrical.
Step 5: Use machine to cut the board. Then we will have some hollow out spaces as our window. (It ’ s a very difficult part)
Step 6 : Get the board that have been cut and use tape to fix them together with some pipe. And try to make them stabilization.
Step 7: Make a pedestal to solve the problem that the tower is instability.
Step 8: Use glass cement to glue the tower and its pedestal. So it will be really stable and won ’ t move anymore.
Step 9: In order to make the tower become more beautiful, stick the wallpaper on the tower.
Step 10: Paint the base board and use nail to pin the base board with big tower and small tower.
Step 11: Draw lines on the base board in order to divide two lanes.
Step 12: Install the holder for the part that could move. Then it will be in the same level as other base board.
IV – Test and Evaluate:
The height must not be shorter than 40cm √
The length must not be shorter than 100cm √
Electrical wiring installed with at least 10 LED bulbs √
The materials should cost less than 500 Yuan. √
It must include recycled and waste materials √
It has two towers that can stand the weight of the bridge √
The colors should work together well. √
The bridge should be beautiful and stable as well √
Add crawls on the sides of the bridge. √
It must has a background that can show the use of the bridge. √
It can bear the weight of Sammy ’ s school bag. ( \
The length of our bridge is approximately 2 meters long. Our two towers can stand the weight of the bridge and the colors are working together well. The bridge is really beautiful and stable. The LED bulbs are all inside the towers, and also two light belts on the both sides of the wood board above. It must has a beautiful background made of some blue wood boards as a river, put them under the bridge. And a big beautiful bridge that made by ourselves. In addition, the top of our bridge should be suitable for the whole bridge.
Our bridge is beautiful, and especially we have four beautiful towers. And we have four stable pedestals; they make our bridge more stable. Our bridge is more than two meters long, so maybe our base board is a little bit thin. We should seal the top of our tower. Our handrails that on the both sides of the bridge is easy to fall down, so maybe we should make it more fastness. There should be another bridge above the bridge , that could connect two towers and people can pass through the river by that bridge.
I think the bridge is beautiful, and I love it. We spent a lot of time to do that, so I satisfied of it. But we should add LED lights.
In my opinion, our bridge looks really beautiful and nice. The length and height makes our bridge very magnifying . But it still needs to improve. The bridge is not stable enough, because of the length of the bridge; it’s too long that the middle bridge over two towers is not stable enough.
Added a background for our bridge in order to let people could understand the use of our bridge.
Glued the handrails and make it more fastness.
Added the tower top.
Stick LED lights in the tower and glue LED lights on the bridge.
Added a bridge that above the base bridge. .
We added pulleys and some lines to make some parts of our base beidge can move.
•Prepare PPT for the presentation.
Everyone should know which part they should presentation.
t of the small tower together.
I think the bridge is beautiful, and I love it. We spent a lot of time to do that, so I satisfied of it. But we should add