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Embed code for: WATER AND SPECIES DISTRIBUTION AND FARMING PRACTICE UNDER LIMITED SUPPLY OF WATER IN PAKISTAN
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WATER AND SPECIES DISTRIBUTION AND FARMING PRACTICE UNDER LIMITED SUPPLY OF WATER IN PAKISTAN
WATER RESOURCES OF PAKISTAN
Sources from which water is available are called water resources.
Common sources in PAKISTAN
It comprise of ,
Major reservoir : 3
Inter river link canal: 12
Canal system: 44
Water Course: 107,000
Aggregated Length of Canal System:56073km
Water Course from Channel and Field Ditches:1.6million km
Tube Well: 500,000
Dams and Reservoirs:150
Water provided by
INDUS RIVER 65%
JEHLUM RIVER 17%
CHENAB RIVER 19%
Naturally flowing water course
usually fresh water
flowing towards ocean
There are 6 main river that flows in Pakistan:,
Natural depressions of land
Supplied with water by RAINFALL
Three main lakes:
Reserviors are created by DAMS
provide water for many activites as irrigation, human consumption, electicity production
Amount of water depends on:
Height of Dam
Area of Reservoir
Distribution of ground water in Pakistan
Sindh and Balochistan : 40ft depth
Rachna doab: 108ft depth
Punjab covers 79% and
Sindh covers 28% of ground water
DIVERSITY OF SPECIES IN WATER BODIES OF PAKISTAN
Diversity is divided into two components as:
RICHNESS: number of species in a specific area
EVENESS: population of species
LEVEL OF WATER
Enhance the features of river
Bring variety of species
bacteria on rocks
free floating plants
submerged and emerged plants
BIRDS AND MAMMALS
WATER QUALITY OF PAKISTAN
Water quality refers to the chemical, biological, physical and radiological characteristics of water.
Measure of conditions of water requirement of one or more Biotic Species or to any Human needs.
Set of standards against which compliance can be assessed.
IMPORTANCE OF WATER QUALITY
essential for survival of living things
access to clean water is as important as access to water itself
polluted water can cause illness, ailment and even death.
THE SUPREME COURT OF PAKISTAN has declared access to UNPOLLUTED water is right to every person, wherever he lives.
AT the time of partition PER CAPITA water resource of PAKISTAN was estimated at 5000m3/year are expected to fall below 1000m3/year in near future
The PAKISTAN CONCIL OF RESEARCH IN WATER RESOURCES(PCRWR) launched National Water Quality Monitoring Program throughout the PAKISTAN
357 samples were collected from
23 major cities
2. Every major city including Bahawalpur, Kasur, Multan, Lahore, Sheikhupura and ziarat reported unsafe drinking water.
3 .All of the 22 surface water bodies evaluated were found contaminated with COLIOFORM and E.COLI.
4 .73% had a high level of turbidity.
5. 3% had high concentration of IRON
6. 27% showed concentrations of IRON and FLUORIDE.
FACTORS AFFECTING WATER QUALITY
Non_seperation of Municipal waste and Industrial effluents, both flows into open drains which then flows to the nearby water body.
Absence of regular Monitoring system
Use of 5.6million tons of fertilizer and 70,000 tons of pesticides, this mixes with the irrigation water and then leaches through the soil into the ground water.
Toxic effluents from petrochemical, paper, food and textile industries.