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Taylor & Francis Not for distribution A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English is an invaluable tool for all learners of American English, providing a list of the 5,000 most frequently used words in the language. The dictionary is based on data from a 385-million-word corpus—evenly balanced between spoken English (unscripted conversation from radio and TV shows), fiction (books, short stories, movie scripts), more than 100 popular magazines, ten newspapers, and 100 academic journals—for a total of nearly 150,000 texts. All entries in the rank frequency list feature the top 20–30 collocates (nearby words) for that word, which provide valuable insight into the meaning and usage. Alphabetical and part of speech indexes are provided for ease of use. The dictionary also contains 31 thematically organized and frequency-ranked lists of words on a variety of topics, such as family, sports, and food. New words in the language, differences between American and British English, and grammar topics such as the most frequent phrasal verbs are also covered. A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English is an engaging and efficient resource enabling students of all levels to get the most out of their study of vocabulary. Mark Davies is Professor and Dee Gardner is Associate Professor, both at the Department of Linguistics and English Language, Brigham Young University at Provo, Utah. 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 1 10/14/09 4:03:05 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Routledge Frequency Dictionaries General Editors Paul Rayson, Lancaster University, UK Mark Davies, Brigham Young University, USA Editorial Board Michael Barlow, University of Auckland, New Zealand Geoffrey Leech, Lancaster University, UK Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, University of Lodz, Poland Josef Schmied, Chemnitz University of Technology, Germany Andrew Wilson, Lancaster University, UK Adam Kilgarriff, Lexicography MasterClass Ltd and University of Sussex, UK Hongying Tao, University of California at Los Angeles Chris Tribble, King’s College London, UK Other books in the series A Frequency Dictionary of Arabic (forthcoming) A Frequency Dictionary of Chinese A Frequency Dictionary of French A Frequency Dictionary of German A Frequency Dictionary of Portuguese A Frequency Dictionary of Spanish 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 2 10/14/09 4:03:05 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English Word sketches, collocates, and thematic lists Mark Davies and Dee Gardner 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 3 10/14/09 4:03:06 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution First edition published 2010 by Routledge 2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Routledge 270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016 Routledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa business © 2010 Mark Davies and Dee Gardner Typeset in Parisine by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed and bound in Great Britain by TJ International Ltd, Padstow, Cornwall All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilized in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publishers. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data Davies, Mark, 1963 Apr. 22 A frequency dictionary of contemporary American English : word sketches, collocates, and thematic lists / Mark Davies, Dee Gardner.—1st ed. p. cm.—(Routledge frequency dictionaries) Includes bibliographical references and index English language—-Word frequency—-Dictionaries. I. Gardner, Dee. II. Title. PE1691.D35 2010 423′.1—dc22 2009031322 ISBN10: 0-415-49046-2 (hbk) ISBN10: 0-415-49063-4 (pbk) ISBN10: 0-203-88088-9 (ebk) ISBN 13: 978-0-415-49064-1 (hbk) ISBN 13: 978-0-415-49063-4 (pbk) ISBN 13: 978-0-203-88088-3 (ebk) 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 4 10/14/09 4:03:06 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Contents Thematic vocabulary list | vi Series preface | vii Abbreviations | ix Acknowledgments | x Introduction | 1 Frequency index | 9 Alphabetical index | 282 Part of speech index | 317 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 5 10/14/09 4:03:06 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Thematic vocabulary lists 1 Animals | 9 2 Body | 15 3 Clothing | 22 4 Colors | 29 5 Emotions | 36 6 Family | 43 7 Foods | 50 8 Materials | 57 9 Nationalities | 65 10 Professions | 71 11 Sports and recreation | 78 12 Time | 85 13 Transportation | 92 14 Weather | 99 15 Opposites | 106 16 The vocabulary of spoken English | 113 17 The vocabulary of fiction texts | 120 18 The vocabulary of popular magazines | 127 19 The vocabulary of newspapers | 136 20 The vocabulary of academic journals | 143 21 New words in American English | 150 22 American vs. British English | 157 23 Frequency of synonyms | 164 24 Comparing words | 170 25 Irregular plurals | 178 26 Variation in past tense forms | 186 27 Creating nouns | 194 28 Creating adjectives | 202 29 Collective nouns | 210 30 Phrasal verbs | 218 31 Word length (Zipf’s Law) | 225 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 6 10/14/09 4:03:06 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Series preface Frequency information has a central role to play in learning a language. Nation (1990) showed that the 4,000–5,000 most frequent words account for up to 95 percent of a written text and the 1,000 most frequent words account for 85 percent of speech. Although Nation’s results were only for English, they do provide clear evidence that, when employing frequency as a general guide for vocabulary learning, it is possible to acquire a lexicon which will serve a learner well most of the time. There are two caveats to bear in mind here. First, counting words is not as straightforward as it might seem. Gardner (2007) highlights the problems that multiple word meanings, the presence of multiword items, and grouping words into families or lemmas, have on counting and analysing words. Second, frequency data contained in frequency dictionaries should never act as the only information source to guide a learner. Frequency information is nonetheless a very good starting point, and one which may produce rapid benefits. It therefore seems rational to prioritize learning the words that you are likely to hear and read most often. That is the philosophy behind this series of dictionaries. Lists of words and their frequencies have long been available for teachers and learners of language. For example, Thorndike (1921, 1932) and Thorndike and Lorge (1944) produced word frequency books with counts of word occurrences in texts used in the education of American children. Michael West’s General Service List of English Words (1953) was primarily aimed at foreign learners of English. More recently, with the aid of efficient computer software and very large bodies of language data (called corpora), researchers have been able to provide more sophisticated frequency counts from both written text and transcribed speech. One important feature of the resulting frequencies presented in this series is that they are derived from recently collected language data. The earlier lists for English included samples from, for example, Austen’s Pride and Prejudice and Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe, thus they could no longer represent present-day language in any sense. Frequency data derived from a large representative corpus of a language brings students closer to language as it is used in real life as opposed to textbook language (which often distorts the frequencies of features in a language, see Ljung, 1990). The information in these dictionaries is presented in a number of formats to allow users to access the data in different ways. So, for example, if you would prefer not to simply drill down through the word frequency list, but would rather focus on verbs for example, the part of speech index will allow you to focus on just the most frequent verbs. Given that verbs typically account for 20 percent of all words in a language, this may be a good strategy. Also, a focus on function words may be equally rewarding—60 percent of speech in English is composed of a mere 50 function words. The series also provides information of use to the language teacher. The idea that frequency information may have a role to play in syllabus design is not new (see, for example, Sinclair and Renouf, 1988). However, to date it has been difficult for those teaching languages other than English to use frequency information in syllabus design because of a lack of data. 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 7 10/14/09 4:03:06 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution viii Series preface Frequency information should not be studied to the exclusion of other contextual and situational knowledge about language use and we may even doubt the validity of frequency information derived from large corpora. It is interesting to note that Alderson (2007) found that corpus frequencies may not match a native speaker’s intuition about estimates of word frequency and that a set of estimates of word frequencies collected from language experts varied widely. Thus corpus-derived frequencies are still the best current estimate of a word’s importance that a learner will come across. Around the time of the construction of the first machine-readable corpora, Halliday (1971: 344) stated that “a rough indication of frequencies is often just what is needed.” Our aim in this series is to provide as accurate as possible estimates of word frequencies. Paul Rayson and Mark Davies Lancaster and Provo, 2008 References Alderson, J.C. (2007) Judging the frequency of English words. Applied Linguistics, 28(3): 383–409. Gardner, D. (2007) Validating the construct of Word in applied corpus-based vocabulary research: a critical survey. Applied Linguistics 28, pp. 241–265. Halliday, M.A.K. (1971) Linguistic functions and literary style. In S. Chatman (ed.) Style: A Symposium. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 330–365. Ljung, M. (1990) A Study of TEFL Vocabulary. Almqvist & Wiksell International, Stockholm. Nation, I.S.P. (1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Heinle & Heinle, Boston. Sinclair, J.M., and Renouf, A. (1988) A lexical syllabus for language learning. In R. Carter and M. McCarthy (eds) Vocabulary and Language Teaching. Longman, London, pp. 140–158. Thorndike, E. (1921) Teacher’s Word Book. Columbia Teachers College, New York. Thorndike, E. (1932) A Teacher’s Word Book of 20,000 Words. Columbia University Press, New York. Thorndike, E. and Lorge, I. (1944) The Teacher’s Word Book of 30,000 Words. Columbia University Press, New York. West, M. (1953) A General Service List of English Words. Longman, London. 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 8 10/14/09 4:03:07 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Abbreviations The following are the part of speech codes for the 5,000 headwords in the dictionary. Code No. of Words Explanation Examples a 11 article the, a, your c 39 conjunction if, because, whereas d 34 determiner this, most, either e 1 existential there g 1 genitive ’ i 96 preposition with, instead, except j 843 adjective shy, risky, tender m 37 number seven, fifth, two-thirds n 2590 noun bulb, tolerance, slot p 46 pronoun we, somebody, mine r 336 adverb up, seldom, fortunately t 1 to + infinitive to u 12 interjection yeah, hi, wow v 996 verb modify, scan, govern x 2 negation not, n’t 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 9 10/14/09 4:03:07 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Acknowledgments We are indebted to a number of students from Brigham Young University who helped with this project: Athelia Graham, Andrea Bowden, Amy Heaton, Tim Wallace, Tim Heaton, Kyle Jepson, Timothy Hewitt, Mikkel Davis, Jared Garrett, Teresa Martin, Billy Wilson, and Dave Ogden, and several student employees at Brigham Young University’s English Language Center. A special thanks to Brigham Young University’s English Language Center, the College of Humanities, the Department of Linguistics and English Language, and the Data-Based Research Group for their financial support. 9780415490641_1_pre.indd 10 10/14/09 4:03:07 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Introduction The value of this frequency dictionary of English “I don’t know that word.” “What does that word mean?” “How is that word used?” These are some of the most common pleas for help by language learners—and justifiably so. Not knowing enough words, or the right words, is often the root cause of miscommunication, the inability to read and write well, and a host of related problems. This fundamental need is compounded by the fact that there are simply so many words to know in any language, but especially in English, which may contain well over two million distinct words (Crystal, 1995)—and growing fast. Thirty years ago, who would have thought that we would be “surfing” in our own homes, or that “chips” would be good things to have inside our equipment, or that we would be excited “to google this” and “to google that.” Without belaboring the obvious, it is little wonder that learners, teachers, researchers, materials developers, and many others are interested in establishing some sense of priority and direction to what could easily become vocabulary chaos. Our frequency dictionary is designed for this very purpose. We wanted to know which of the vast number of English words to start with, and we also wanted to know which other words these words “hang out with”—their neighbors (or collocates)—which provides crucial information about the meaning and use of these words. Perhaps even more importantly, we wanted to know this for our current day, not for some English of the past, when punch cards were used to program computers, and when surfing was only done at the beach. In short, we offer A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English with the hope that it will benefit those who are trying to learn our current mother tongue, as well as for those who desire to assist them. As a final introductory note, we might mention that if you find this dictionary valuable and would like a similar electronic version (fewer collocates, but more of other features), feel free to visit http://www.americancorpus.org/dictionary. What is in this dictionary? This frequency dictionary is designed to meet the needs of a wide range of language students and teachers, as well as those who are interested in the computational processing of English. The main index contains the 5,000 most common words in American English, starting with such basic words as the and of, and quickly progressing through to more intermediate and advanced words. Because the dictionary is based on the actual frequency of words in a large 400-million-word corpus (collection of texts) of many different types of English texts (spoken, fiction, magazines, newspaper, and academic), the user can feel comfortable that these words are very likely to be encounter in the “real world.” In addition to providing a listing of the most frequent 5,000 words, the entries provide other information that should be of great use to the language learner. Each entry shows the main collocates for each word, grouped by part of speech and in order of frequency. These collocates provide important and useful insight into the meaning and usage of the word, following the idea that “you can tell a lot about a word by the other words that it hangs out with.” The entries also show where each of the collocates occur with regards to the head word (before, after, or both), which denotes whether they are subject, object, and so on. Finally, the entries indicate whether the words are more common in one genre of English (e.g. spoken or academic) than in the others. Aside from the main frequency listing, there are also indexes that sort the entries by alphabetical order and part of speech. The alphabetical index can be of great value to students who, for example, want to look up a word from a short story or newspaper article, and see how common the word is in general. 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 1 10/14/09 4:23:57 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 2 Introduction The part of speech indexes could be of benefit to students who want to focus selectively on verbs, nouns, or some other part of speech. Finally, there are a number of thematically related lists (clothing, foods, emotions, etc.) as well as comparisons of vocabulary across genres and over time, all of which should enhance the learning experience. The expectation, then, is that this frequency dictionary will significantly maximize the efforts of a wide range of students and teachers who are involved in the acquisition and teaching of English vocabulary. Comparison to other frequency dictionaries of English Historically, most frequency dictionaries (also referred to as word books and word lists) have been created to meet educational needs, with many designed specifically to meet the needs of foreign- and second-language learners of English. Prominent among these are: The Teachers Word Book of 30,000 Words (Thorndike and Lorge, 1944)—based on 4.5 million words from general English texts, magazines, and juvenile books; The General Service List of English Words (West, 1953)—a list of the 2,000 highest frequency words (with semantic distinctions and counts) based on visual inspections by semanticists of 5 million words from various sources (encyclopedias, magazines, textbooks, novels, etc.); the Brown Corpus list (Francis and Kugera, 1982)—based on 1 million words of written American English; and its British English counterpart—the LOB corpus list (Johansson and Hofland, 1989). For many purposes, these latter two replaced the older lists of Thorndike and Lorge. Additionally, there are several more specialized school lists, such as: the American Heritage Word Frequency Book (Carroll, Davies, and Richman 1971)—based on 5 million running words of written school English (grades 3 through 9); the Academic Word List (Coxhead, 2000)—570 academic word families based on 3.5 million running words of academic texts; and the very early A Basic Vocabulary of Elementary School Children (Rinsland, 1945)—based on 6 million running words of actual children’s writing samples. A great debt is owed to the pioneering scholars who generated these and other frequency lists to facilitate English vocabulary learning, research, and description. Building on these earlier efforts, A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English addresses several vocabulary needs in the field of English language education. First, and perhaps most obvious, it is based on contemporary American English, thus making it more ecologically valid in educational and research settings where American English is the target, and where many are still relying on the nearly 30-year-old Brown Corpus (Francis and Kugera, 1982) for frequency information about American English vocabulary. (Note: the actual texts for the Brown Corpus were from 1961.) Second, unlike the Brown Corpus (1 million words of written English only), the frequency counts in this dictionary are based on a very large and balanced corpus of both written and spoken materials (400 million words from five major genres), thus adding confidence that the highest frequency words have indeed been determined and properly ranked, and that these words have a high degree of utility across major genres of importance to English language learners (spoken, fiction, newspapers, magazines, and academic). Third, the inclusion of collocates (by part of speech) for each of the 5,000 high-frequency node words adds a semantic richness to the dictionary that is often lacking when only the forms of words are tallied without consideration of their potential meanings (Gardner, 2007). The tightness of some of these node-collocate relationships (big deal, bad habit, make sense, trash talk, etc.) also highlights the phrasal nature of many English vocabulary items (Cowie, 1998). Such collocational knowledge is a crucial component of what it means to know a word (Nation, 2001) and has also been recognized as a characteristic difference between native and non-native language abilities (Nesselhauf, 2005). Therefore, language learners and their teachers should benefit from the rich semantic and pragmatic information the collocates provide, thus taking us one step closer to Read’s (2000) call for new high-frequency word lists that are based on large electronic corpora, but which also account for the many meanings that language learners need to negotiate. Although semantic frequency is not fully realized in this dictionary, the collocates do provide some support for semantic interpretations, and will certainly aid in determining which meanings of a word form to teach and learn. 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 2 10/14/09 4:23:57 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Introduction 3 Finally, the 30 call-out boxes in this dictionary are packed with useful vocabulary information for language learners and their teachers, including words that make up many of the basic semantic sets of the language (animals, body, clothing, colors, emotions, family, food, etc.), words that characterize a specific genre of the language (spoken, fiction, academic, etc.), words that are new to American English, words that tend to be characteristically American or British, productive suffixes and the actual content words they are found in (nouns and adjectives), and the highest frequency phrasal verbs of American English. (Compare with Gardner and Davies, 2007, which lists the highest frequency phrasal verbs of British English.) These and other call-out boxes in the dictionary can be used for self-study, teaching, assessment, materials development, and research purposes. To our knowledge, there is only one other publicly accessible frequency dictionary of English that is based on a large mega-corpus—Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English (Leech, Rayson, and Wilson, 2001). However, our dictionary is quite different in at least three major respects. First, the Longman frequency dictionary represents British, not American, English, and it bases its word-frequency information on the British National Corpus (BNC). Second, most of the texts in the BNC are at least 20 years old, while texts in the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) are current through late 2008. Third, while both corpora are balanced for genre (e.g. spoken, fiction, newspaper, and academic), COCA (400 million words) is nearly four times as large as the BNC (100 million words), allowing us to have more confidence in determining the words that should “make the list” and in finding their meaningful neighbors. In addition to the differences in focus, age, and sampling size between the two dictionaries, there are also differences in the presentation formats. The Longman dictionary is mainly composed of straight frequency lists of words and lemmas, while this dictionary is oriented specifically to language learners, supplementing the frequency listings with the unique features previously mentioned: (a) frequency-ranked collocates (co-occurring words) for each headword in the frequency dictionary—which can help learners and their teachers better understand the meanings and uses of the high frequency words; and (b) the more than 30 thematically oriented vocabulary lists (call-out boxes) for particular semantic, grammatical, or lexical categories that would be helpful for language training purposes. The corpus A frequency dictionary is only as good as the corpus on which it is based. The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA) is the largest balanced corpus of American English, and the largest balanced corpus of any language that is publicly available (http://www.americancorpus.org). In addition to being very large (400 million words; 20 million words each year 1990–2007), the corpus is also balanced evenly between spoken (unscripted conversation from 150+ radio and TV shows), fiction (e.g. books, short stories, movie scripts), 100+ popular magazines, ten newspapers, and 100+ academic journals—for a total of 150,000+ texts. The more than 150,000 texts come from a variety of sources: Spoken• : (79 million words) transcripts of unscripted conversation from more than 150 different TV and radio programs (e.g. All Things Considered (NPR), Newshour (PBS), Good Morning America (ABC), Today Show (NBC), 60 Minutes (CBS), Hannity and Colmes (Fox), Jerry Springer, etc.). (See notes on the naturalness and authenticity of the language from these transcripts.) Fiction• : (76 million words) short stories and plays from literary magazines, children’s magazines, popular magazines, first chapters of first edition books 1990–present, and movie scripts. Popular magazines• : (81 million words) nearly 100 different magazines, with a good mix (overall, and by year) between specific domains (news, health, home and gardening, women, financial, religion, sports, etc.). A few examples are Time, Men’s Health, Good Housekeeping, Cosmopolitan, Fortune, Christian Century, Sports Illustrated, etc. Newspapers• : (76 million words) ten newspapers from across the US, including: USA Today, New York Times, Atlanta Journal Constitution, San Francisco Chronicle, etc. In most cases, there is a good mix between different sections of the 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 3 10/14/09 4:23:58 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 4 Introduction newspaper, such as local news, opinion, sports, financial, etc. Academic journals• : (76 million words) nearly 100 different peer-reviewed journals. These were selected to cover the entire range of the Library of Congress classification system (e.g. a certain percentage from B (philosophy, psychology, religion), D (world history), K (education), T (technology), etc.), both overall and by number of words per year. In summary, the corpus is very well balanced at both the “macro” level (e.g. spoken, fiction, newspapers) and the “micro” level (i.e. the types of texts and the distribution of the sources) within each of these macro genres. Annotating and organizing the data from the corpus In order to create a frequency dictionary, the words in the corpus must be tagged (for part of speech) and lemmatized. Tagging means that a part of speech is assigned to each word—noun, verb, and so on. Lemmatization means that each word form is assigned to a particular “head word” or “lemma”, such as go, goes, going, went, and gone being marked as forms of the lemma go. The tagging and lemmatization was done with the CLAWS tagger (Version 7), which is the same tagger that was used for the British National Corpus (http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/) and for other important corpora of English as well. One of the most difficult parts of tagging, of course, is to correctly assign the part of speech for words that are potentially ambiguous. In cases such as computer, disturb, lazy, or fitfully, these are unambiguously tagged as noun, verb, adjective, and adverb, respectively. But in a case such as light, the word can be a noun (he turned on the light), verb (should we light the fire?), or adjective (there was a light breeze). In these circumstances, the tagger looks at the context in which the word occurs in each instance to determine the correct part of speech. While the CLAWS tagger is very good, it does produce errors. We have tried to correct for most of these, but there are undoubtedly still some that remain. It of course makes sense to provide separate entries in the dictionary for words with different parts of speech, such as noun and verb. For example, the word beat as a noun has collocates such as hear, miss, steady, drum, and rhythm. As a verb, however, it takes collocates such as heart, egg, bowl, severely, or Yankees. Even in cases where the word appears as a noun and an adjective (magic, potential, dark, veteran), the collocates for the two parts of speech are very different, and it would probably be too confusing to conflate them into one entry. Perhaps the most problematic are function words such as since, which appear up to three times in this dictionary. In the case of since, for example, it appears as preposition (he’s been here since 1942), adverb (several other schools have since been constructed), and conjunction (since they won’t be here until 5 pm, we’ll just leave for a minute). In these cases, we have simply followed the output of the tagger. If it says that there are multiple different parts of speech, then the word appears under each of those parts of speech in the dictionary. Frequency and dispersion After the tagging and lemmatization of the 400 million words in the corpus, our final step was to determine exactly which of these words would be included in the final list of the 5,000 most frequent words (or lemmas). One approach would be to simply use frequency counts. For example, all lemmas that occur 5,000 times or more in the corpus might be included in the dictionary. Imagine, however, a case where a particular scientific term was used repeatedly in engineering articles or in sports reporting in newspapers, but it did not appear in any works of fiction or in any of the spoken texts. Alternatively, suppose that a given word is spread throughout an entire register (spoken, fiction, newspaper, or academic), but that it is still limited almost exclusively to that register. Should the word still be included in the frequency dictionary? The argument could be made that we should look at more than just raw frequency counts in cases such as this, and that we ought to look at “dispersion” as well, or how well the word is “spread across” all of the registers in the entire corpus. In our dictionary, we have used Juilland’s “d dispersion index”. A score of 1.00 means that the word is perfectly spread across the corpus, so that if we divided the corpus into one hundred equally sized sections (each with 4 million words, in the case 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 4 10/14/09 4:23:58 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Introduction 5 of our 400 million word corpus), the word would have exactly the same frequency in each section. A dispersion score of .10, on the other hand, would mean that it occurs a lot in a handful of sections, and perhaps not at all or very little in the other sections. As a clear example of the contrast between “frequency” and “dispersion”, consider Table 1. All of the words in this table have essentially the same frequency—an average of about 3,000 occurrences in the corpus. The words to the left, however, have a “dispersion” score of at least 0.95, which means that the word has roughly the same frequency in all of the 100 sections of the corpus that we used for the calculation. The words to the right, on the other hand, have a much lower dispersion score. Most would easily agree that the words shown at the left would be more useful in a frequency dictionary, because they represent a wide range of texts and text types in the corpus. Therefore, as we can see, frequency alone is probably not sufficient to determine whether a word should be in the dictionary. The final calculation The calculation to determine which words are included in this frequency dictionary was a fairly straightforward one. The formula was simply: score = frequency * dispersion For example, consider the words near 3210 in the frequency dictionary (see Table 2). The word furthermore has a higher frequency (9594 tokens) than the other two words, but it has lower dispersion (.86). Orange, on the other hand, has a lower frequency (8881 tokens) but it has better dispersion across the corpus. Taxpayer (frequency of 9140 and dispersion of .90) is in the middle of both of these. But with the formula that takes into account both frequency and dispersion, these three words end up having more or less the same score. Table 2 Frequency and dispersion ID Lemma PoS Frequency Dispersion Score 3199 orange j 8881 0.93 8270 3201 taxpayer n 9140 0.90 8256 3205 furthermore r 9594 0.86 8235 The 5,000 lemmas with the top score (frequency * dispersion) are those that appear in this frequency dictionary. Table 1 Contrast between frequency and dispersion Good dispersion Poor dispersion Frequency Lemma PoS Dispersion Frequency Lemma PoS Dispersion 3134 convincing j 0.96 4653 healthcare n 0.56 3107 sensible j 0.95 4282 electron n 0.58 3041 honesty n 0.96 4181 skier n 0.43 3033 unusually r 0.95 4113 compost n 0.31 3020 confusing j 0.97 3685 watercolor n 0.41 3014 exaggerate v 0.96 3769 ski v 0.47 2950 distraction n 0.95 2028 nebula n 0.46 2922 resent v 0.96 2547 palette n 0.57 2891 wrestle v 0.95 2536 angle v 0.55 2876 urgency n 0.96 2479 algorithm n 0.52 2873 hint v 0.96 2437 pastel n 0.25 2842 obsessed j 0.95 2388 socket n 0.60 2833 genuinely r 0.96 2350 nasal j 0.44 2813 respected j 0.95 2281 cache n 0.43 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 5 10/14/09 4:23:59 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 6 Introduction Collocates A unique feature of this frequency dictionary is the listing of the top collocates (nearby words) for each of the 5,000 words in the frequency listing. These collocates provide important and useful insight into the meaning and use of the keyword. To find the collocates, we did the following. First, we decided which parts of speech to group together in order to rank the collocates and show the most frequent ones. In the case of verbs, we grouped noun collocates (subject: the evidence supports what she said, and object: this supports the claim ), and all other collocates were grouped as miscellaneous (e.g. with, directly, difficult, and prepare for the verb deal ). For nouns, we looked for adjectives ( green grass), other nouns ( fire station), and verbs (e.g. desire to succeed ). For adjectives, we looked for nouns ( fast car ) and all other collocates were grouped as miscellaneous ( completely exhausted, willing to stay, black and white ). Finally, for adverbs and other parts of speech, we see collocates from all parts of speech listed together ( sharply reduce, fewer than, except for ). To find the collocates for a given word, a computer program searched the entire 400-million-word corpus and looked at each context in which that word occurred. In all cases, the context (or “span”) of words was four words to the left and four words to the right of the “node word”. The overall frequency of the collocates in each of those contexts was then calculated, and the collocates were examined and rated by at least four native speakers. Obviously, common words such as the, of, to, etc. were usually the most frequent collocates. To filter out these words, we set a Mutual Information (MI) threshold of about 2.5. The MI calculation took into account the overall frequency of each collocate, so that common words were usually eliminated from the list. Using MI is sometimes more an art than a science. If the MI is set too low, then high frequency “noise words” show up as collocates, whereas if it is set too high, then only highly idiomatic collocates are found. As an example, the most frequent collocates of break as a verb—when the MI score is set high at 5.5—are: deadlock, logjam, monotony, and stranglehold. These are quite idiomatic and don’t really show well the “core meaning” of break. On the other hand, the most frequent collocates when the MI threshold is set very low at 1.0 are down, into, up, and off, which again do not provide a good sense of its meaning. Finally, however, when we set the MI threshold to 2.5, we find the most frequent collocates are: heart, silence, rules, loose, leg, and barriers, which (for native speakers, at least), probably do relate more to the core meaning and usage of break. But getting the MI threshold set just right for each of the 5,000 headwords was a bit daunting, to say the least. We hope that the data found here agree with your intuitions of what these words mean and how they are used. The main frequency index The main index in this dictionary is a rank-ordered listing of the top 5,000 words (lemma) in English, starting with the most frequent word (the definite article the) and progressing through to warehouse, paradise, and nominate, which are the last three words in the list. The following information is given for each entry: rank frequency (1, 2, 3, . . . ), lemma, part of speech collocates, grouped by part of speech and ordered by frequency raw frequency, dispersion (0.00–1.00), (indication of register variation) As a concrete example, let us look at the entry for the verb break: 494 break v n •law, heart, news, •rule, silence, story, •ground, •barrier, leg, bone, •piece, •neck, arm, •cycle, voice• misc •into, •away, •free, •apart, •loose up marriage, •fight, boyfriend, meeting•, girlfriend, union, band, pass, •demonstration, •monotony down •into, •barrier, car•, •cry, •door, •tear, talk•, enzyme•, completely, negotiation• out war•, fight•, fire•, sweat, fighting•, riot•, violence•, •laugh, •hive off piece, talk, •engagement, negotiation, branch, abruptly, •relation 72917 | 0.97 This entry shows that word number 494 in our rank order list is the verb break. The last line of the entry shows the raw frequency for the lemma (72,917 tokens) and the dispersion (.97 in this case). The collocates are given in the intervening lines. As can be seen, they are partially grouped by part of speech. In the case of verbs, we see the noun collocates and then other parts of speech (miscellaneous). 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 6 10/14/09 4:23:59 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Introduction 7 Note also that for some collocates, there is an indication of the placement of the collocate. When the [ • ] is before the collocate, this means that the node word (headword) is typically found before that collocate (break the law, break into pieces ). When the [ • ] is after the collocate, this means that the node word is typically found after the collocate (her voice broke, all hell broke loose). This symbol can provide useful information, for example, on whether the collocates are subjects or objects of a given verb, or whether the node word noun acts as a subject or object of the verbal collocate. (Note, however, that with passives and relative clauses, the noun that is object of a verb will occur before the verb, which does confuse things a bit.) In order to display the [ • ] symbol, 80 percent or more of the tokens of a given collocate had to occur either before or after the node word. In the case of ADJ / NOUN and NOUN / ADJ, word order is typically so consistent (blue house, never *house blue) that the [ • ] is not used to show placement. Finally, as is seen above, in the case of some verbs that can act as phrasal verbs (break up, turn down, cut off, etc.), these are listed in bold (with their own collocates) at the end of the regular collocates list for verbs. Phrasal verbs are only listed when they have a frequency of at least 1,000 in the corpus, and when there are at least three collocates with a frequency of at least five occurrences each. Let us consider one other example: 3396 hypothesis n j null, following, consistent, alternative, working, general, initial, original, theoretical, competing n study, support•, result, test, research, testing, evidence, analysis, method, set v •predict, suggest, reject, examine, confirm, base, develop, formulate, •state, •explain 9282 | 0.82 A This entry is for hypothesis (word #3396 in our list). As before, the collocates are listed in frequency order and grouped by part of speech. In this case, however, note that there is an [ A ] at the end of the entry. This indicates that the lemma hypothesis occurs at least twice as frequently in the Academic genre as it does overall in the corpus (Spoken, Fiction, Magazines, Newspapers). Thematic vocabulary (“call-out boxes”) Placed throughout the main frequency-based index are 31 “call-out boxes”, which serve to display in one list a number of thematically related words. These include thematic lists of words related to the body, food, family, weather, professions, nationalities, colors, emotions, and several other semantic domains. There are also lists of words that are much more common in each of the five main genres (spoken, fiction, popular magazines, newspapers, and academic) than overall, as well as comparisons of American and British vocabulary, as well as new words in the language. Finally, there are lists related to word formation issues, such as irregular past tense and irregular plurals, and common suffixes to create nouns, adjectives, and verbs. In each case, the entries are, of course, ordered by frequency. Alphabetical and part of speech indexes The alphabetical index contains all of the words listed in the frequency index. Each entry includes the following information: 1) lemma 2) part of speech, and 3) rank order frequency. The part of speech index contains the 5,000 words from the frequency index and the alphabetical index. Within each of the categories (noun, verb, adjective, etc.) the lemma are listed in order of descending frequency. Because each entry is linked to the other two indexes via the rank frequency number, each of the entries in this index contains only the rank frequency and lemma. Electronic version As was noted in the first section, if you find this dictionary valuable and would like to have a similar electronic version (somewhat fewer collocates, but more of other features), feel free to visit http://www.americancorpus.org /dictionary. Delimitations 1 Frequency is form-based (lemma), not semantically based (homographs—bank, run; heterophones— lead “metal” vs. lead “be in front”, contract vs. contract, etc.). But our approach is an improvement over many similar frequency listings because the collocates give some indication of potential variant meanings. For example, take a look at the entries for lead (n) [entry 1598] and bow (n) [entry 4139]. For lead, there are collocates for the two meanings “metal” and “in front” and for bow there are collocates for bow in the context of “ship, arrow, hair, and violin”. 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 7 10/14/09 4:24:00 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 8 Introduction 2 Except in the case of high-frequency phrasal verbs, only single-word nodes were included. When a lemma occurs almost exclusively in a given multi-word expression (as far as, in charge of, lots of ), that multi-word expression is listed as part of the entry. 3 All collocates are single-word collocates. In cases such as in terms of, by means of, etc., each of the collocates are listed separately. 4 The most frequent form of a given collocate lemma may be an inflected form, not the head word form as listed (e.g. long as a collocate of no almost always appears as longer in the corpus). 5 In general, proper nouns were not included in the dictionary, either as node words or collocates. However, a few highly salient proper noun collocates were included for certain node words (e.g. Iraq as a collocate of invade; China as a collocate of export). References Carroll, J.B., Davies, P., and Richman, B. (1971) The American Heritage Word Frequency Book. New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., Inc. Cowie, A.P. (ed.) (1998) Phraseology: Theory, Analysis, and Applications. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Coxhead, A. (2000) A new academic word list. TESOL Quarterly, 34(2): 213–238. Crystal, D. (1995) The Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language. New York: Cambridge University Press. Francis, W.N., and Kucera, H. (1982) Frequency Analysis of English Usage: Lexicon and Grammar. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Gardner, D. (2007) Validating the construct of “word” in applied corpus-based vocabulary research: A critical survey. Applied Linguistics, 28(2): 241–265. Gardner, D., and Davies, M. (2007) Pointing out frequent phrasal verbs: A corpus-based analysis. TESOL Quarterly, 41(2): 339–359. Johansson, S., and Hofland, K. (1989) Frequency Analysis of English Vocabulary and Grammar: Based on the LOB Corpus: Volume 1: Tag Frequencies and Word Frequencies. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Leech, G., Rayson, P., and Wilson, A. (2001) Word Frequencies in Written and Spoken English: Based on the British National Corpus. London: Longman. Nation, I.S.P. (2001) Learning Vocabulary in Another Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Nesselhauf, N. (2005) Collocations in a Learner Corpus. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. Read, J. (2000) Assessing Vocabulary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Rinsland, H.D. (1945) A Basic Vocabulary of Elementary School Children. New York: The Macmillan Company. Thorndike, E.L., and Lorge, I. (1944) The Teacher’s Word Book of 30,000 Words. Columbia University: Teacher’s College. West, M. (1953) A General Service List of English Words. London: Longman. 9780415490641_4_000int.indd 8 10/14/09 4:24:00 PM Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index Format of entries Rank frequency (1, 2, 3, . . . ), lemma, part of speech Collocates Raw frequency | dispersion (0.00–1.00), (indication of register variation: Spoken, Fiction, Magazines, Newspapers, Academic) Note that the collocates are grouped by part of speech and ordered by frequency (most frequent first). The [ • ] symbol indicates pre/post placement with regards to the headword. the 1 a of, first, year, most, •world, over, •same, day, end, between, •United States, next, during• 20431716 | 0.99 be 2 v there, if, many, •able, long, always, likely, since, never, sure, often, •available, •aware, afraid 14338665 | 0.99 and 3 c her, their, other, up, between•, •then, both, back, over, year, down, off, family, friend 9893569 | 0.99 of 4 i out•, because•, front•, instead•, terms•, way, top•, ahead•, outside•, favor•, place, charge•, light, spite• 9585500 | 0.97 a 5 a •lot, •few, while, month, •single, •minute, •chance, •bit, •series, hour, •variety, •huge, •dozen, mile 8159297 | 0.99 in 6 i which, year, new, way, place, •world, life, school, country, case, •area, city, •United States, •fact 6475319 | 0.98 to 7 t in, want•, try•, back•, need•, able•, lead•, return•, allow•, enough•, continue, listen•, close•, refer• 5842936 | 0.99 have 8 v noun •trouble, •knack, •qualm, •repercussion, •recourse, •inkling, misgiving, •foresight misc already, •been, •done, •shown, •begun, •seen 4557421 | 0.98 to 9 i in, want•, try•, back•, need•, able•, lead•, return•, allow•, enough•, continue, listen•, close•, refer• 3561680 | 0.99 it 10 p think•, so, because, •seem, even, hard, •easy, •clear, whether•, •difficult, •possible, sound, worth, •impossible 3585308 | 0.97 I 11 p •think, know, like, •mean, •believe, love, guess, sure, myself, •remember, sorry, •wonder, wish, afraid 3655790 | 0.94 S F that 12 c fact•, believe•, suggest•, indicate•, argue•, realize•, note•, clear•, evidence•, ensure•, aware•, notion•, stuff, •correct 3174256 | 0.97 1. Animals Note that several of these animals are also the mascot for sports teams or have figurative meaning (e.g. pig, mole), which would increase their overall frequency, and most of these are marked with parentheses in the following list. [Top 80] dog n 49897, fish n 41277, bird 35610, horse 30042, chicken 23955, cat 20463, (bear) n 19980, fox 17303, turkey 15445, wolf 14452, deer 11259, (duck) n 11003, (tiger) 10210, cow 9755, mouse 9697, (eagle) 9395, snake 9387, lion 9260, rat 8115, (pig) 8048, (buffalo) 7678, cattle 7636, (hawk) n 7587, whale 6750, sheep 6172, bee 6148, shark 6035, rabbit 5927, monkey 5611, elephant 5562, goat 5330, worm n 5112, crab 4873, butterfly 4869, turtle 4667, crow n 4398, oyster 4328, frog 4304, goose n 4137, spider 4122, mosquito 4010, elk 3925, dolphin 3913, ant 3904, coyote 3850, lobster 3784, owl 3657, (falcon) 3626, mule 3111, (panther) 2972, (penguin) 2923, dove n 2906, squirrel 2832, camel 2825, (raven) 2673, (beetle) 2612, hog n 2298, moose 2231, pigeon 2225, ape 2203, pony 2194, swan 2059, donkey 1920, beaver 1895, (mole) 1860, gorilla 1694, alligator 1588, hare 1502, parrot 1456, crocodile 1426, bison 1327, leopard 1286, toad 1266, sparrow 1252, antelope 1168, quail 1122, ox 1117, raccoon 1092, gull 1068, heron 1057 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 16 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English most 145 r one•, •important, •thing, •part, •likely, •recent, perhaps•, •popular, for•, •common, the•, among, •powerful, •often 228469 | 0.96 another 146 d one, one•, yet•, •person, •reason, •example, •minute, month, •hour, •factor, •round, •option, •edition, •aspect 222798 | 0.99 much 147 d as, so•, too•, how•, that, very•, thank•, •more, spend•, •money, pretty•, love, thanks•, •less 226091 | 0.97 own 148 d their•, his•, her•, its•, my•, your•, our•, life, •experience, mind, •personal, •identity, •version, •sake 222619 | 0.98 family 149 n adj whole, extended, royal, entire, poor, nuclear, immediate, wealthy, middle-class, low-income noun member, friend, child, life, •history, support, parent, •planning verb live, raise, own, visit, gather, feed•, belong, extend, reunite, •flee 222823 | 0.96 out 150 i (out of) •of, get•, come•, way, run•, pull•, •door, •control, •car, walk•, •business, •bed, •sight, step• 223561 | 0.96 house 151 n adj empty, safe, halfway, two-story, haunted, Victorian, suburban, single-family, Republican, neat noun white•, •committee, •representative, Senate, speaker, •night, leader, chairman, majority, opera• verb build, leave•, buy•, pass, sell, enter•, clean•, burn, •vote, paint 223341 | 0.96 leave 152 v noun •room, •house, •office, •message, •town, •mark, note, photograph•, hour, •impression, •trail, •apartment, foot, gap, •wake misc •behind, before, •alone, •home, without, •open, soon, pack• over •from, money•, enough•, whatever•, plenty•, energy•, material•, debris• out feel•, detail, feeling•, •key, completely•, •critical, conveniently• 221568 | 0.96 put 153 v noun •hand, •money, •arm, •pressure, •foot, •finger, •risk, •position, effort, •perspective, •hold, •gun, •jail, •emphasis, •clothes misc •together, •away, •aside, •behind, •forward, simply, •forth down •root, •phone, •fork, •pen, •rebellion, •gun, •weapon, •knife out •fire, •hand, •statement, •cigarette, •album, press, •flag, •flame on •clothes, •weight, •suit, dress, •uniform, •clean, •fresh, •brave up •fight, •money, •sign, willing•, •sale, •fence, •poster, •adoption 219537 | 0.96 old 154 j noun year, man, woman, friend, day, age, house, lady, boy, world, school, building misc enough, tired, plain, wise, wooden, fashioned, dear, faithful 218220 | 0.96 on 155 r go•, what•, come•, take•, move•, put•, hold•, hang•, keep•, later•, carry•, •board, early• 218932 | 0.95 while 156 c •other, wait, •maintain, •simultaneously, alive, •retain, •await, asleep, •pregnant, •latter 215613 | 0.97 mean 157 v noun •disrespect, compliment misc really, •anything, •nothing, necessarily•, exactly, absolutely, obviously, literally, deal, basically, •harm, though•, interpret•, phrase, insult 222520 | 0.93 S let 158 v noun •look, minute, •break, •hook, •temperature, pan, oven•, •steam, •imagination, caller misc •me, •go, •him, just, •us, •ask, •talk, •tell, •start, •alone, •face, please•, •listen, •forget, •cool out •breath, •sigh, •long, •scream, school•, •little, •cry, •deep, •whoop, •loud 222257 | 0.93 S why 159 r •do, that, so, ask, •shall, reason•, explain•, understand•, wonder•, •choose, •anyone, •bother, explanation• 217080 | 0.95 S president 160 n adj past, elected, incumbent, outgoing, interim, executive, Republican, advisory, loyal, incoming noun vice•, year, office, •CEO, college verb elect•, sign, support, announce, appoint, name, •propose, declare, •veto, urge 226653 | 0.91 S keep 161 v noun •eye, •mind, •track, •secret, record, •pace, •mouth, promise, •peace misc •out, try, •alive, •off, •away, •open, enough•, •warm, •close, •low, •safe, •quiet, •busy, •clean, order• up •with, can•, try•, •good, •demand, struggle•, able• on just•, •until, •walk, •fight, hit, •push, •roll, •tick 212682 | 0.97 same 162 d •time, •as, •thing, •way, much•, •kind, •period, exactly•, share•, •true, •amount, apply, •size, exact• 206339 | 0.99 great 163 j noun deal, thing, power, number, job, idea, place, opportunity, story, depression, guy, success misc significantly, lesser, all-time, horned, seeing, vastly, all-around 207716 | 0.97 begin 164 v noun year, process, career, month, season, series, trial, construction, journey, •video, •clip, investigation, painting, search, minute misc before, already•, soon, immediately, •cry, •wonder, slowly, •realize 203712 | 0.98 big 165 j noun deal, problem, thing, man, company, city, question, difference, business, house, issue, game misc enough, ten, fat, bold, at-large, bid, hairy, accounting 207702 | 0.95 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 23 hour 279 n adj long, full, past, wee, extra, countless, endless, flexible, odd, awake noun •day, minute, mile•, •week, couple•, night, morning, •half, rush•, number• verb spend•, take, work, talk, wait, last•, drive, •pass, arrive 128061 | 0.96 often 280 r more, too•, most•, quite, every•, •refer, •difficult, stir•, •associate, •overlook, •cite, •accompany 129872 | 0.95 until 281 c minute•, wait•, year, about, •after, •now, •recently, stir, up•, cook•, •then, heat•, •tender, add 128867 | 0.95 political 282 j noun party, system, leader, power, science, process, issue, life, scientist, action, change, reform misc economic, social, military, cultural, religious, personal, legal, democratic 135970 | 0.90 A line 283 n adj bottom, long, front, straight, fine, offensive, multiple, thin, hot noun phone•, power•, story•, assembly•, product, party•, finish•, •equation verb draw, cross•, form, blur, step•, divide, connect, stretch, mark, cast 126004 | 0.97 end 284 n adj other, far, defensive, dead, very, low, tight, front noun year, •day, •war, •world, •century, week, beginning•, month, season, •result verb reach•, mark•, near•, signal•, •justify, trim, tuck•, discard•, dangle, prevail 123996 | 0.98 stand 285 v noun door, •side, •doorway, •line, moment, window, •chance, ground, •corner, •middle, guard, •trial, tree, •edge, kitchen misc •front, •behind, •before, •next, •outside, •beside, •watch, •around up •walk, •against, •straight, hair•, •front, slowly, •fight, •stretch, willing•, please out •front, vein•, particular•, •sharp, •sharply, stark, •amid 130063 | 0.93 F among 286 i •other, •them, •those, most, •group, •American, •member, difference•, •themselves, common•, rate•, relationship•, especially•, leader 127451 | 0.94 A game 287 n adj Olympic, all-star, final, fair, running, passing, previous, fun, complete, wild noun video•, season, football•, home, championship•, player, baseball, basketball•, •plan verb play, win•, lose, watch•, miss•, attend•, average, tie, finish, compete 134554 | 0.89 N ever 288 r than•, if•, •see, •since, before, one•, •hear, best•, anything, •again, •happen, nobody•, anyone 125145 | 0.96 lose 289 v noun •job, •weight, •money, •pound, game, •control, •sight, •interest, •mind, season, •thought, husband, •vote, •temper, •leg misc win•, •million, •everything, risk•, •billion, •forever, completely out will•, who•, •because, •there, may•, worker•, best, both, consumer• 123521 | 0.97 bad 290 j noun thing, news, guy, time, day, idea, luck, weather, situation, boy, habit, shape misc good, too, enough, pretty, that, smell, necessarily, ugly 123592 | 0.97 member 291 n adj other, national, senior, individual, fellow, active, democratic, various, key, founding noun family, group, board, staff•, faculty•, team, council verb •vote, elect, •participate, encourage, appoint, recruit•, invite, urge, interview, contact 124985 | 0.95 meet 292 v noun •need, •standard, eye, •requirement, •demand, •criterion, •goal, •challenge, friend, week, end•, leader, •press, •expectation, official misc in, order•, nice•, someone, fail• up •with, when•, where•, •again, •friend, •him, later, until, before• 120795 | 0.98 pay 293 v noun •attention, tax, price, •bill, money, fee, company•, •debt, dollar, cost, •rent, insurance, salary, cash, wage misc •for, much, •million, willing•, enough, agree•, •close, •extra, afford• off •debt, loan, work•, •mortgage, •card, •credit, effort•, investment•, •handsomely, gamble• down •debt, •national, budget•, credit, •mortgage, surplus• 123150 | 0.96 law 294 n adj federal, international, environmental, common, natural, criminal, constitutional, martial noun •enforcement, •school, state, •firm, professor, rule•, •order verb pass, require, break•, enforce•, violate•, •allow, change, protect, apply, sign• 124932 | 0.93 almost 295 r •year, •every, •as, •always, seem, •certainly, •impossible, •immediately, •half, •entirely, •ago, •exclusively, •everyone 118469 | 0.98 car 296 n adj used, electric, parked, luxury, Japanese, light, stolen, armored, fancy, classic noun police•, door, seat, •accident, sport•, rental, driver, street, window, race verb drive, buy•, pull, park, stop, sell, hit, steal, rent•, roll 123703 | 0.93 F later 297 r year•, day•, •on, month•, few•, week•, minute•, hour•, three•, moment•, sooner•, four•, five•, six• 117096 | 0.97 much 298 r •more, •than, very•, so•, as, how•, •better, thanks•, pretty•, •less, too, •same, •large, •easy 116429 | 0.98 name 299 n adj real, full, familiar, middle, maiden, proper, given, holy noun •address, man, brand•, family, father, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 30 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English market 414 n adj free, black, global, competitive, domestic, common noun stock•, •share, •economy, US, world•, price, •value, labor•, farmer• verb open, enter•, dominate, hit, expand, invest, gain, flood, •crash, decline 93505 | 0.91 stay 415 v noun •US, hotel, •course, •bed, month, •calm, •touch, •shape, apartment, guest, •motel, •inn, aunt, shelter, •midnight misc •here, •home, •there, long, •away, •tune up •night, •late, •all, •until, •watch, •later, •till, •past, •midnight, •dawn out •night, •late, •there, long, •until, •past, party, •till on long, •until, decide•, light•, •forever, •chairman, •indefinitely 89095 | 0.96 build 416 v noun house, home, system, company, plant, wall, bridge, road, community, •relationship, building, structure, plan•, model, facility misc new, help•, design•, •strong, •nuclear up •over, •force, military, pressure, •strength, gradually•, •muscle, slowly, •inside, •confidence 89178 | 0.96 nation 417 n adj other, European, African, top, western, Arab, entire, leading, foreign, developed noun talk•, world, state, •capital, •security, •news, history, •council, •Islam, ambassador• verb lead, face, address•, defend, divide, urge, sponsor, rebuild, sweep•, shock• 90757 | 0.93 fall 418 v noun •love, •percent, price, •category, snow•, rain•, •ground, •floor, rate, hair•, face, tree, stock•, •knee, •victim misc •into, •asleep, •apart, •short, •behind, •below off •horse, •cliff, •chair, •bike, wheel•, •ladder, •sharply, hat• down •dead, •well, drunk, bridge•, •onto, pant•, tear• back •into, •onto, head•, •sleep, •asleep, •earth, •upon out hair•, bottom•, tooth•, •onto, •clump, •patch 88948 | 0.95 F oh 419 u •my, •God, •yes, •no, •yeah, •sure, •absolutely, •OK, •gosh, •boy, •thank, •please, •dear, •sorry 95808 | 0.88 S F death 420 n adj sudden, scared, violent, tragic, premature, untimely, wrongful, civilian, near noun •penalty, life•, •row, cause•, •sentence, •rate, father, •toll verb die, shoot•, face•, beat•, •occur, starve• 86806 | 0.97 plan 421 n adj economic, comprehensive, original, strategic, ambitious, future, five-year, individual, grand, immediate noun health•, action, business•, game•, pension•, lesson•, retirement• verb develop, announce•, include, implement, approve, draw, discuss•, devise•, lay, prepare 88360 | 0.96 interest 422 n adj special, national, best, public, low, economic, particular, political, vested, growing noun •rate, •group, term•, conflict•, student, business, •payment, lack• verb •modify, show•, serve, protect, lose•, pay, express•, represent•, act•, define 88506 | 0.94 A someone 423 p •who, in, •else, love, kill, other, hire•, close, •steal, •whom, trust, •shout, case•, unless• 87261 | 0.95 experience 424 n adj personal, human, sexual, different, previous, past, educational, positive, early, religious noun year•, student, life, learning•, field•, teaching•, knowledge, training verb learn, share•, provide, base•, teach, gain, describe•, draw, reflect, lack• 89900 | 0.92 A cut 425 v noun tax, •piece, •cost, hair, budget, spending, tree, •deal, •slice, knife, •strip, •deficit, •corner, throat, •chunk misc •into, •through, •half, •short, peel•, •loose, •thin, deeply, propose• back force•, •spending, •forth, •production, •fat, sharply, drastically, •purchase, •salt, •travel off head, •supply, •aid, hair, •fund, completely, threaten•, •escape, abruptly out work•, •shape, cookie, •circle, tongue, •fat, biscuit, •middleman down tree, forest, •fat, •size, •net, •travel 89101 | 0.92 kill 426 v noun people, man, soldier, civilian, American, wife, father, son, person, police, husband, accident, animal, attack, bomb misc shoot•, someone, •wound, somebody, threaten•, nearly off by, •bacteria, •any, cell, character, cancer, •dinosaur, antibiotic•, •entire, nearly 85730 | 0.95 behind 427 i •him, •her, door, leave•, back, stand•, hide•, •bar, •scene, sit•, wall, •wheel, •desk, close• 87372 | 0.93 F reach 428 v noun hand, agreement, •point, •level, •conclusion, •goal, •age, •end, door, •top, •peak, arm, consensus, •height, •phone misc before•, until•, •across, finally•, once•, •beyond, forward, •critical out hand, •touch, •other, •grab, try, arm, •help, effort• over •touch, •pat, •grab, •shoulder, •squeeze, •gently, •stroke, •tap up •touch, •pull, •grab, •stroke, •brush, •rub, •pat, •grasp down •pick, •pull, •grab, •touch, •lift, •pet, •pat, •pluck 84993 | 0.96 F six 429 m •month, •year, •week, five•, after, about•, •day, •ago, •seven, last•, •foot, four, •hour, •eight 83613 | 0.97 local 430 j noun government, state, school, community, official, level, people, news, group, authority, station, police misc national, federal, regional, check, global, environmental, contact 85964 | 0.94 remain 431 v noun question, •mystery, second•, challenge, •calm, minute•, troop•, decade, focus, core, doubt, •secret, priority, inflation•, gap misc while, •until, •same, •silent, however, •open, •constant, •unchanged 84339 | 0.95 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 37 support 538 v noun family, evidence•, research, president, study, •effort, government, finding, hypothesis, data, •idea, result•, community, position, •claim misc strongly•, fully•, democratic, generally•, financially 70392 | 0.94 A space 539 n adj open, outer, public, empty, international, living, available, green, deep noun time, •station, •shuttle, •telescope, •program, •center, office•, air•, foot•, •flight verb create, fill, occupy, share•, stare•, fly•, rent•, design, define, transform 69223 | 0.95 player 540 n adj best, young, key, great, major, defensive, valuable, better, greatest, pro noun team, football•, basketball•, baseball•, league, CD•, school, tennis•, season, owner verb sign, name, recruit, •score, earn, draft, compete, trade, rush, scout 74983 | 0.88 N everyone 541 p •else, know, •agree, almost•, nearly•, •laugh, •except, •happy, surprise, virtually•, please, •involved, hello•, equal 68112 | 0.96 couple 542 n adj married, young, elderly, odd, interracial, infertile, unmarried, middle-aged, royal, homosexual noun •year, •day, •week, •time, •month, •hour, •minute verb spend, marry, adopt, •file, dance, divorce, last•, stroll, •wed, chat 68509 | 0.95 end 543 v noun war, year, season, month, career, marriage, week, relationship, •video, •divorce, •clip, quarter•, period•, •videotape, •violence misc fiscal•, soon, abruptly, eventually•, effectively•, •badly, officially•, •happily up •with, will•, •like, might•, •pay, •dead, •jail, •cost, usually•, eventually• 67329 | 0.97 base 544 v noun decision, study, data, research, system, information, •experience, model, value, result, evidence, •principle, theory, finding, •race misc •upon, largely, •solely, primarily 70237 | 0.93 A project 545 n adj large, public, special, involved, federal, joint, various, ambitious, current, proposed noun research•, development, housing•, construction•, •manager, director, pilot•, genome• verb work, include, complete, fund, •involve, support, undertake, finance, plan, participate• 69629 | 0.93 A produce 546 v noun •result, •effect, product, plant, image, energy, oil, film, food, change, material, good, cell, electricity, crop misc enough, •significant, similar, capable•, •positive, locally 69105 | 0.94 A site 547 n adj historic, archaeological, online, sacred, holy, grave, specific, various, historical, potential noun web•, Internet•, construction•, waste•, test•, park, crash•, visit, landing• verb •offer, check•, locate, •contain, identify, select, clean, maintain, launch, access 69287 | 0.93 situation 548 n adj bad, difficult, current, similar, political, social, economic, dangerous, whole, particular noun people, kind•, family, security•, emergency•, type•, response•, hostage•, variety• verb change, create, improve, handle•, face, deal•, describe, explain•, •involve, occur 67816 | 0.95 hit 549 v noun ball, •head, •ground, shot, car, •target, •road, •wall, •button, •floor, plane•, bullet, rock, hurricane, storm• misc •home, •hard, before•, •bottom, hardest, harder, somebody, kick, straight 67484 | 0.94 industry 550 n adj private, pharmaceutical, entire, heavy, nuclear, chemical, automotive noun oil•, tobacco•, auto•, music•, insurance•, entertainment•, airline•, •analyst verb develop, regulate, dominate, affect, employ, promote, deregulate, attract, invest, spawn 68750 | 0.93 half 551 d than•, about•, •hour, more•, year, •dozen, two•, only•, •million, •century, nearly•, over, cut•, •ago 65437 | 0.97 activity 552 n adj physical, other, sexual, economic, human, social, criminal, illegal, various, terrorist noun student, level, school, group, program, kind•, teacher, leisure•, education, brain verb engage•, include, participate•, involve, support, perform, plan, promote, conduct, focus 71827 | 0.89 A American 553 n adj native, average, native-born, patriotic, first- generation, overworked, provident noun percent•, majority•, number•, way, lot•, thousand• verb believe, kill, •live, •die, understand, •spend, •support, afflict, emulate, overrun 67727 | 0.94 eat 554 v noun food, •lunch, meal, •dinner, •breakfast, •meat, fish, •fruit, dog, •vegetable, restaurant, •sandwich, chicken, •egg, animal misc drink, sleep, enough, •healthy, exercise, cook up •by, •all, more, cost, •mile, •every, debt•, inflation, •profit, easily• out when•, •restaurant, meal, •frequently, afford• 67606 | 0.94 F itself 555 p manifest•, within, present•, lend•, process•, defend•, repeat•, reveal•, nature•, transform•, pride•, upon, express•, bill• 66722 | 0.95 A need 556 n adj special, social, specific, urgent, educational, desperate, economic, personal, immediate, particular noun student, child, people, family, community, health, teacher, interest, individual, population verb meet•, feel•, •change, address•, eliminate•, recognize•, satisfy•, serve•, emphasize• 68745 | 0.92 A Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 43 fire 652 n adj friendly, heavy, warm, machine-gun, anti-aircraft, rapid noun •department, police, forest•, firefighter•, •station, line, •truck, •escape verb set•, •burn, start, open•, catch•, light•, build•, fight•, destroy, kill 55188 | 0.95 close 653 v noun eye, door, •gap, hand, window, mouth, book, deal, office, store, stock•, month, poll•, lid, •loophole misc •behind, open, •enough, •together, •by, slowly, •lock, tightly, lean, inside• in •around, wall•, winter, police•, camera•, darkness•, quickly, fog• down •operation, plant, factory, shop, facility, •newspaper, industrial•, stock• up •shop, Dow•, throat•, average•, •tight 55989 | 0.93 F daughter 654 n adj young, old, teenage, beautiful, eldest, adopted noun son, mother•, wife•, father, husband, life, sister, marriage, baby, birth verb marry, raise•, •born, visit, •attend, adopt, bury, •graduate, divorce, hug 54836 | 0.95 involve 655 v noun case•, issue, process, student, study•, activity, •use, project•, research, parent, effort, decision, step, analysis, procedure• misc usually•, complex, directly, physical, actively•, typically•, •hundred 55342 | 0.94 A husband 656 n adj late, future, estranged, abusive, loving, devoted, beloved noun wife, child, father, woman, son, family, daughter, death, sister verb •die, kill, meet•, lose, marry, divorce, share, murder, sleep, cheat 54734 | 0.95 wrong 657 j noun thing, way, place, time, side, direction, answer, person, message, reason, turn, number misc what, something, there, nothing, anything, right, prove, maybe 54515 | 0.95 S certainly 658 r •not, well•, almost•, most, •hope, •true, •lot, •worth, •aware, •is, •entitle, •understandable, •plausible 55619 | 0.93 S increase 659 v noun number, •risk, rate, year, tax, price, cost, •amount, production, •chance, •likelihood, population, pressure, •size, power misc dramatically, significantly, continue•, greatly•, substantially 56165 | 0.92 A future 660 n adj near, foreseeable, bright, uncertain, better, immediate, distant noun past, child, country, vision•, present•, hope•, wave•, market, energy, prospect• verb •hold, plan•, predict•, face•, shape•, build•, determine•, •depend, worry•, promise 53959 | 0.95 south 661 n adj black, deep, rural, suburban, segregated, upper, tropical, polar, temperate, agricultural noun north, mile•, •side, west, city, new, street, area, •pole, •end verb head•, move•, live•, drive•, travel•, face, locate•, host, drift•, •secede 54674 | 0.94 medical 662 j noun center, school, care, association, treatment, service, record, doctor, examiner, research, student, problem misc American, receive, seek, chief, scientific, British, regional, dental 55101 | 0.93 call 663 n adj close, long-distance, tough, quick, incoming, repeated, frantic, urgent, domestic, numerous noun phone•, telephone•, wake-up•, information•, conference•, roll•, house, •center verb make, get•, take•, receive•, give•, return•, answer• 54282 | 0.95 board 664 n adj national, advisory, federal, editorial, medical, governing, diving, cutting, wooden, online noun member, school•, •director, •education, bulletin•, chairman, county• verb serve•, •meet, approve, •vote, cut, •decide, join•, appoint, elect, state 54600 | 0.94 N anyone 665 p •who, can, •else, than•, want, never•, tell, ever, why•, before, anything, better•, hurt, care 53317 | 0.96 deal 666 v noun •problem, •issue, drug, •situation, •blow, •crisis, matter, •reality, •stress, •threat, card, crime, •loss, •violence, •aspect misc •with, how•, difficult, •directly, effectively, prepare• 53382 | 0.96 S 6. Family child 323005, mother 163282, father 140176, (kid) 126054, parent 115339, wife 80380, son 77848, (baby) 65615, brother 60753, husband 57625, daughter 57551, sister 45904, mom 39021, dad 34364, uncle 18091, twin 15073, aunt 13184, grandmother 13045, daddy 12748, cousin 11640, mama 10838, grandfather 10663, ancestor 6336, sibling 5864, bride 5677, (widow) 5265, grandparent 5147, grandchildren 4846, grandma 4529, papa 4007, (guardian) 3755, groom 3458, nephew 3066, grandson 2853, grandpa 2810, orphan 2403, niece 2357, granddaughter 1871, ex-wife 1617, granny 1547, brother-in-law 1312, ex-husband 1260, mother-in-law 1253, godfather 1151, fiancé 1056, son-in-law 921, sister-in-law 863, fiancée 815, father-in-law 812, grandchild 785, daughter-in-law 656, triplet 628, (widower) 580, foster child 470, godmother 409 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 44 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English hospital 667 n adj medical, local, mental, psychiatric, public, military, nursing, nearby, regional, not-for-profit noun child•, doctor, •room, patient, •bed, care, center, state, emergency, home verb admit•, treat, rush•, visit, release, arrive•, enter•, discharge, volunteer, •diagnose 54778 | 0.93 rest 668 n adj eternal, well-deserved, well-earned, prolonged, much-needed, fitful, deserved noun •life, •world, day, •country, •room, •season, hour, •society, •history, minute verb spend•, lay•, separate•, enjoy•, compare•, isolate•, devote• 52316 | 0.97 seek 669 v noun •help, information, •support, •advice, •treatment, •refuge, •solution, •approval, •care, •assistance, justice, •term, •shelter, •truth, •employment misc actively•, professional, •avoid, •establish, desperately• out •new, people, •help, woman, actively•, •opportunity, •destroy, •advice, •enemy, aggressively• 54039 | 0.94 A myself 670 p I, find•, tell•, feel, ask•, consider•, kill•, remind•, force•, imagine•, introduce•, throw•, convince•, enjoy 54892 | 0.92 F county 671 n adj rural, surrounding, neighboring, urban, metropolitan, coastal, elected, historic, populous, fastest-growing noun school, city, •sheriff, district, •office, •official, •commissioner, •board, court, •attorney verb •vote, approve, locate, file, sue, contact•, elect, appoint, reside•, populate• 58889 | 0.86 N fight 672 v noun war, battle, •terrorism, •fire, force, soldier•, army, •crime, troop, drug, •cancer, enemy, •disease, American, •tear misc •against, other, hard, •each, continue•, die off •infection, •attack, •disease, •attempt, •attacker, •cancer, ability•, •virus, •sleep, successfully• back •tear, •against, try, decide•, industry•, urge, ready•, smile, courage• 52567 | 0.96 subject 673 n adj human, academic, favorite, male, female, particular, normal, various, healthy, sensitive noun •matter, study, •area, group, school, test•, number, knowledge, •debate, interest verb change•, teach, discuss, broach•, relate, •range, address, •participate, approach•, obtain 58051 | 0.87 A risk 674 n adj high, great, increased, low, developing, serious, significant, relative, greatest noun •factor, cancer, •disease, health, •heart, breast, •assessment, •behavior, •management, •injury verb take•, reduce•, increase•, run•, put•, associate, pose, involve, minimize•, consider• 55137 | 0.92 A order 675 n adj social, political, restraining, international, economic, natural, tall, moral, alphabetical, descending noun world•, court•, law•, executive•, thing, mail•, •business verb give, issue, follow•, place•, maintain•, restore, sign•, determine, •prevent 52744 | 0.96 west 676 n adj wild, far, due, arid, coastal, Antarctic, industrialized, intermediate, prosperous, mountainous noun •bank, •coast, east, •side, •street, •point, mile•, south, north, key• verb move•, head•, travel•, locate•, sail•, flow•, migrate•, situate• 53141 | 0.95 economy 677 n adj global, political, local, strong, national, growing, weak, booming, domestic, healthy noun world•, US•, fuel•, state, country, sector•, growth, nation, •scale, society verb •grow, slow, improve, stimulate•, affect, •recover, hurt, expand, boost•, •depend 54930 | 0.92 quickly 678 r as, very•, move•, more•, •become, too•, •possible, turn, learn, away, change, grow, act•, •enough 51995 | 0.97 throw 679 v noun •ball, •hand, •arm, •party, head, rock, •money, door, stone, •yard, window, •punch, light, •ground, floor misc •into, •away, •back, •down, •around out court, judge•, case, •window, ballot, appeal, conviction, •arm, lawsuit up •hand, •arm, bathroom, barrier, dust, sick•, barricade off •balance, •timing, •robe 53233 | 0.95 F bed 680 n adj asleep, empty, double, ready, warm, narrow, four-poster, unmade, king-size, separate noun night, hospital•, side•, foot•, edge•, time, breakfast, sheet, flower•, chair verb go•, get•, sit•, lie•, lay•, sleep, fall, climb• 55810 | 0.90 F officer 681 n adj chief, military, financial, senior, commanding, young, top, retired, medical, naval noun police•, executive•, army•, operating•, law•, intelligence•, enforcement• verb serve, shoot, train, •arrive, arrest, enlist, respond, •charge, hire•, appoint 53661 | 0.93 N represent 682 v noun •text, group, •percent, equation•, lawyer•, •interest, attorney•, figure, organization, change, line•, union, value, character•, district misc each, •significant, claim•, total, accurately•, adequately• 54477 | 0.92 A soon 683 r will, as, •after, too•, •possible, •become, may•, pretty•, •enough, begin, anytime•, follow, •realize, home 51960 | 0.96 top 684 n adj very, green, flat, tall, tight, convertible, sleeveless, matching, rounded, spinning noun •head, •list, •bottom, page, •percent, tank•, mountain, •stair, table, •hour verb reach•, rank•, climb•, finish•, rise•, sprinkle, cover, blow•, spread, pour 52867 | 0.94 M fill 685 v noun room, water, air, •gap, eye, form, space, •void, glass, tear, hole, tank, box, seat, role misc •with, enough•, empty, quickly, entire, suddenly•, completely Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 51 noun student, child, level, people, skill, confidence•, government, knowledge, individual, •achievement verb lose•, develop, limit•, affect•, demonstrate•, improve•, •control, enhance•, •communicate, •perform 47389 | 0.91 A dollar 795 n adj federal, top, silver, weak, additional, strong, multi-million, constant, falling, hard-earned noun thousand•, •year, tax, cent, •bill, value, taxpayer•, •month, money verb spend, pay, make, cost•, give, buy, save, lose, help, pour 45260 | 0.96 union 796 n adj civil, international, monetary, same-sex, gay, patriotic, striking, municipal, collective, postal noun state•, labor•, worker, member, trade•, •leader, •address, liberty•, credit•, teacher• verb join, represent, organize, form, fight, oppose, •collapse, negotiate, vote, preserve• 46796 | 0.92 disease 797 n adj infectious, chronic, cardiovascular, transmitted, coronary, deadly, fatal, certain, vascular noun heart•, •control, center•, risk•, cancer, •prevention, patient, diabetes, treatment, death verb cause, prevent•, die•, treat•, develop, spread, affect, cure•, diagnose•, fight• 48003 | 0.90 M everybody 798 p know, •else, want, talk, love, •agree, everything, welcome, •happy, hi•, kind, •laugh, hate, thanks• 47348 | 0.91 S wonder 799 v noun observer•, critic•, awe•, viewer, skeptic•, amazement, pundit• misc I•, •if, •what, she, •how, •why, •whether, begin• 46444 | 0.93 F election 800 n adj presidential, general, federal, democratic, local, special, primary, close, multiparty, Iraqi noun year, day, •campaign, result, week, candidate, month, •official, •commission, midterm• verb win•, lose•, vote, steal, participate•, influence•, conduct, contest•, organize, sweep 46982 | 0.92 S loss 801 n adj net, total, significant, potential, heavy, tragic, terrible, devastating, key, consecutive noun weight•, hearing•, •life, job, memory•, vision, sense•, hair•, bone verb suffer•, cause, result, lead, report•, experience, prevent•, mourn•, •occur, post• 45699 | 0.94 box 802 n adj cardboard, black, wooden, empty, light, rectangular, safe-deposit noun •office, •page, ballot•, lunch, music•, dialog•, shoe•, boom• verb open, •contain, fill, carry, check, place, pack, hand, grab•, line 45632 | 0.94 deal 803 n adj great, big, good, new, real, better, whole, raw, fair, five-year noun •time, money, budget•, business•, book•, peace•, •attention verb make, cut•, sign•, strike, spend•, close, negotiate•, announce, seal•, involve 45217 | 0.95 herself 804 p she, her, find•, pull•, allow•, throw•, force•, kill•, smile, remind•, •mirror, push•, introduce•, imagine• 47988 | 0.89 F fund 805 n adj mutual, federal, international, monetary, public, legal, private, available, general, environmental noun stock, trust•, pension•, hedge•, •manager, bond•, defense•, year verb raise, invest, receive, manage, establish, support, sell, allocate, contribute, state 50551 | 0.85 M miss 806 v noun •game, •point, •opportunity, •chance, •beat, season, •mark, •cut, month, •boat, •deadline, plane, foot, •start, throw misc never•, narrowly•, completely, barely•, •terribly, •entirely out •on, •some, •opportunity, may•, •something, might•, afford•, stuff, •valuable 44536 | 0.96 pretty 807 r •good, •much, •well, •soon, •sure, •bad, •clear, actually, guy, •close, •tough, •quickly 45846 | 0.93 S region 808 n adj different, central, economic, entire, southern, northern, administrative, geographic, particular, various noun country, state, city, border•, mountain•, economy, peace•, stability•, troop•, presence• verb vary•, dominate, locate, divide, spread•, populate, destabilize•, inhabit, occupy, concentrate• 47374 | 0.90 A feeling 809 n adj strong, bad, personal, negative, hard, positive, warm, mixed, general, strange noun people, thought, guilt, child, gut•, kind, fear, attitude, •stomach, depression verb express•, share•, experience, describe•, reflect•, shake•, overwhelm, stir, enhance, sense 44054 | 0.97 lay 810 v noun •bed, •hand, •egg, •foundation, •groundwork, head, •claim, •eye, table, plan, •blame, blanket, track, female•, snow misc there, •across, •ahead, •beside, •bare, •upon, •awake out plan, •case, •vision, •agenda, •detail, clothes, clearly, carefully•, •scenario down •law, •arm, rule, •beside, •sleep, •next, •weapon, condition, guideline off worker, employee, •thousand, fire, •hundred 45367 | 0.94 F training 811 n adj military, formal, basic, professional, medical, vocational, on-the-job noun •program, •camp, education, teacher, job•, spring•, •session, •center verb provide, receive•, require, offer, complete•, attend•, focus, undergo•, enhance, •consist 46068 | 0.92 A message 812 n adj clear, strong, wrong, mixed, simple, positive, powerful, brief noun e-mail•, people, phone, •board, text•, president, machine, kind•, •hope verb send•, get, leave•, deliver, receive, convey, carry•, communicate, spread•, intend 43978 | 0.96 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 58 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English firm 925 n adj private, big, financial, foreign, local, architectural, top, pharmaceutical, commercial, industrial noun law•, investment•, research•, accounting•, partner, company, business, brokerage•, security•, management verb hire, represent, •specialize, join, own, account, invest, •operate, •handle, found 42171 | 0.89 N huge 926 j noun amount, number, problem, difference, crowd, success, fan, tree, impact, increase, profit, sum misc wooden, massive, loom, potentially, atop, concrete, underground, hairy, incredibly 38891 | 0.96 respond 927 v noun student, need, •request, participant•, •survey, police•, •demand, chance•, opportunity•, ability•, letter, •criticism, •situation, officer, •concern misc how•, quickly, fail•, immediately, •positively, •differently 38955 | 0.96 popular 928 j noun culture, music, vote, support, program, show, book, song, art, form, science, movement misc most, become, very, among, increasingly, remain, contrary, especially, wildly 39541 | 0.94 hard 929 r work•, so•, how•, very•, try, as•, hit•, too•, find, •enough, push•, press, play•, fight• 39133 | 0.95 F physical 930 j noun education, activity, health, teacher, fitness, educator, evidence, program, abuse, class, therapy, condition misc mental, emotional, psychological, social, such, sexual, teach, spiritual 47006 | 0.79 A talk 931 n adj small, tough, straight, direct, middle, cheap, bilateral, late-night, high-level, Israeli noun •show, •nation, radio, peace•, •host, hour•, kind• verb let•, hear•, listen•, resume, engage•, stall, •collapse 39888 | 0.93 S traditional 932 j noun value, way, role, family, method, culture, approach, system, practice, form, music, school misc more, such, Chinese, modern, religious, beyond, African, cultural 40499 | 0.92 A contain 933 v noun material, information, quote•, table, product•, percent, article, •item, food, •error, book, box•, •element, •amount, word misc each•, •herein, •within, •less, barely• 39815 | 0.93 A peace 934 n adj international, quiet, lasting, inner, comprehensive, relative, regional, permanent noun •process, •talk, war, world, •corps, •agreement, justice, •mind, •conference, •treaty verb make•, bring•, keep•, live•, sign, achieve, rest•, resume, reject•, •prevail 39932 | 0.93 green 935 j noun onion, bean, light, eye, pepper, tea, grass, card, space, tomato, party, salad misc red, blue, white, yellow, dark, wear, chop, bright 39558 | 0.94 thanks 936 (PL) n adj special, sincere, heartfelt, generous, deepest, effusive, hearty, profuse noun time, •call, year•, guy, day•, man, pleasure, gentleman, world• verb •join, •watch, appreciate, welcome, express•, nod•, extend, deserve•, owe•, murmur 42160 | 0.88 S control 937 v noun government, •cost, system, ability•, •behavior, effort•, Congress, party, variable, computer, •access, •effect, process, movement, •flow misc •by, •over, able•, tightly•, carefully•, difficult•, unable•, own•, effectively• 39094 | 0.95 A Democrat 938 n adj liberal, conservative, moderate, top, senior, incumbent, lifelong noun Republican, house, Senate, Congress, party, percent, time verb vote, •win, support, control, •oppose, elect, accuse, favor, blame, defeat 42221 | 0.88 S base 939 n adj military, naval, economic, broad, industrial, solid, democratic, conservative noun air•, knowledge•, data•, power, home•, •camp, tax•, •price verb build•, establish, steal•, cover, expand•, reach•, touch•, operate, attack, secure 38430 | 0.96 impact 940 n adj environmental, economic, negative, significant, positive, big, great, potential, major noun study, •student, health, •statement, •environment, •economy, •crater, assessment, project, point verb have•, assess•, reduce•, examine•, minimize•, consider• 39915 | 0.92 A structure 941 n adj social, political, organizational, large, economic, complex, basic, internal, existing, narrative noun power, family•, system, factor•, •function, process, knowledge, force•, class•, building verb build, create, change, form, determine, examine•, establish, alter•, maintain, define 41126 | 0.90 A tonight 942 r us•, here•, news•, show, report•, story, join•, finally•, tomorrow, dinner, summary• 43161 | 0.85 S note 943 n adj accompanying, mental, final, personal, handwritten, positive, promissory, brief, cautionary, additional noun editor•, •text, program•, author•, suicide•, page, ransom•, type•, thank-you•, letter verb take•, write, leave, read, send•, compare•, hit•, strike•, record, issue 41349 | 0.89 direction 944 n adj opposite, right, different, wrong, future, general, positive, spiritual noun step•, change, wind, sense•, policy, speed, stage•, pasta•, move• verb give•, head•, follow•, point•, provide•, face, pull•, push•, match 38040 | 0.97 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 65 beat 1061 v noun egg, heart•, team, sugar, •death, drum, •butter, white, •odds, •wife, mixture, police, flour, vanilla, cream misc •until, hard, lightly•, badly up •on, get•, kid, guy, •wife, pretty, someone, badly, cop, threaten• down sun•, •door, rain•, •upon out issue•, decliners, •advancer, •competition 35222 | 0.93 nor 1062 c neither•, •any, •ever, •anyone, •deny, •necessarily, confirm•, fully, entirely, •merely, sufficient, surprising, •inclination, desirable 34818 | 0.95 A modern 1063 j noun art, world, time, museum, history, life, society, technology, science, state, era, medicine misc early, ancient, traditional, western, industrial, thoroughly, urban, democratic, European 35754 | 0.92 A vote 1064 n adj electoral, popular, final, presidential, single, close, unanimous, total, necessary noun percent•, Senate, majority•, Republican, election, •confidence, Congress, count, candidate, number verb get•, cast, win, lose•, receive, support, delay•, tally 36477 | 0.90 S sing 1065 v noun song, voice, music, choir, bird•, •praise, •tune, hymn, church, •anthem, •blue, love, heart, singer•, gospel misc •along, together, softly, musical, •sweet, shout, •loudly, •favorite, •Spanish, chant, beautifully, accompany 35859 | 0.92 cancer 1066 n adj ovarian, cervical, pancreatic, colorectal, testicular, terminal, endometrial noun breast•, risk, prostate•, lung•, •patient, disease, woman, colon•, •cell, treatment verb die•, cause•, diagnose•, prevent•, develop•, treat•, •spread, cure•, kill, reduce 36767 | 0.89 M finger 1067 n adj long, little, middle, left, cold, tiny, thin, bony, gloved, broken noun hand, index•, •lip, hair, ring•, thumb, tip•, eye, •toe, arm verb point, put•, run•, hold, snap•, touch, keep•, stick•, press, lift• 37148 | 0.88 F lake 1068 n adj great, clear, nearby, frozen, shallow, freshwater, man-made, artificial, arctic, sparkling noun salt•, •city, water, river, shore, forest, area, mile, mountain, view verb overlook•, swim, head, surround, fish, flow•, feed, drain, •freeze, •dry 35614 | 0.92 wish 1069 v noun •luck, author•, birthday, reader, •harm, •happiness, holiday, educator•, instructor•, retrospect•, •fulfillment, hindsight•, •farewell, •grandpa, majesty• misc I, •can, well, •thank, sometimes•, someone, anyone 34575 | 0.95 F marriage 1070 n adj gay, same-sex, happy, previous, interracial, traditional, arranged, legal, civil, failed noun year, child, family, •divorce, couple, sex•, relationship, love, daughter, institution verb end, •last, save•, ban•, recognize, fail, oppose•, enter, define, perform 34739 | 0.94 victim 1071 n adj alleged, sexual, innocent, potential, female, dead, violent, intended, helpless, sacrificial noun family, crime, rape, abuse, murder•, accident, police, AIDS, disease verb become•, fall•, help•, blame•, kill, identify, claim•, treat, •suffer, shoot 34313 | 0.95 task 1072 n adj difficult, easy, daunting, simple, specific, complex, impossible, challenging, joint, main noun •force, performance, time, •hand, group, •orientation, teacher, difficulty, type, activity verb perform•, complete, accomplish•, face, •require, assign, set, •involve, carry, undertake 36492 | 0.90 A 9. Nationalities Note that many of these words may also refer to languages: English, Chinese, Russian, German, etc. [Top 80] American 278042, Indian 41558, English 38009, French 37332, African 36181, British 33924, Chinese 33374, Russian 30042, German 29115, Japanese 28757, Iraqi 25042, Israeli 24824, Arab 23866, Palestinian 23689, Jewish 19412, Mexican 17571, Italian 16418, Spanish 15707, Canadian 15542, Latin 15443, Korean 10619, Irish 10570, Greek 9748, Cuban 8424, Polish 7858, Native American 6941, Iranian 6656, Dutch 6449, Egyptian 5640, Australian 5240, Turkish 4350, South African 4238, Brazilian 4238, Bosnian 4168, Vietnamese 4116, Swiss 3804, Pakistani 3270, Haitian 3177, Czech 3174, Swedish 3109, Syrian 3090, Serbian 2876, Lebanese 2747, Serb 2736, Kuwaiti 2721, Thai 2689, Dominican 2425, Danish 2293, Puerto Rican 2292, Portuguese 2285, Scottish 2271, Norwegian 2202, Albanian 2196, Indonesian 2042, Hungarian 2008, Colombian 1849, Austrian 1820, Jordanian 1795, Belgian 1736, Lithuanian 1720, Argentine 1713, Filipino 1707, Nigerian 1682, Yugoslav 1647, Croatian 1643, Ethiopian 1630, Somali 1543, Chilean 1487, Croat 1471, Spaniard 1466, Armenian 1444, Ukrainian 1417, Taiwanese 1352, Welsh 1346, Peruvian 1338, Jamaican 1320, (Georgian) 1212, Arabian 1205, Romanian 1120, Finnish 1113 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 72 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English touch 1177 v noun hand, •arm, •shoulder, •face, finger, •hair, •ground, foot, •cheek, •heart, lip, story•, •base, knee, nose misc her, him, reach•, never•, almost•, lightly, barely•, gently down plane•, tornado•, helicopter•, wheel•, •near, tornadoes•, jet•, twister•, flight•, chopper• off •wave, crisis, •storm, •series up makeup, •paint, •root 32084 | 0.92 F variety 1178 n adj wide, great, available, wider, rich, infinite, endless, broad, resistant noun •way, •reason, •source, •activity, •food, •factor, •show, •style, •material, •form verb use•, offer•, include, provide•, produce, develop, •range, perform•, represent• 31904 | 0.92 A deep 1179 j noun breath, water, voice, inch, space, sleep, pocket, trouble, end, throat, snow, root misc take, blue, draw, wide, dark, red, brown, purple 30888 | 0.95 F text 1180 n adj preceding, accompanying, literary, original, written, biblical, full, religious, cultural noun note•, •message, image, reader, reading, book, page, meaning, history, graphics verb •check, represent•, read, convert•, produce, accompany, interpret, translate, print, mention 34853 | 0.84 A wide 1181 j noun range, variety, receiver, eye, world, foot, array, mouth, area, smile, door, arm misc long, across, spread, open, enough, awake, tall, deep 30767 | 0.95 credit 1182 n adj extra, full, academic, partial, preceding, cheap, stolen, closing, proper, online noun •card, tax•, line, bank, company, •union, number, •report, debt, reservation• verb give•, get•, take•, use, deserve•, •accept, pay, receive•, claim•, include 31112 | 0.94 nine 1183 m •year, •month, eight•, •day, after, out, about•, •ago, •old, •ten, •hour, seven, five, •o’clock 30383 | 0.97 sleep 1184 v noun night, bed, hour, day, baby, morning, bedroom, wife, dog, husband, tent, dream, trouble•, foot, •cot misc back, eat, •together, •soundly, better, drift• in •room, •bedroom, •until, •weekend, •Sundays 32186 | 0.91 F investigation 1185 n adj criminal, federal, ongoing, internal, independent, congressional, present, thorough noun police, department, result•, murder, government, research, subject•, justice, office, crime verb conduct, begin, continue, lead, launch•, •reveal, complete, •determine, cooperate•, focus 31405 | 0.93 S hope 1186 n adj high, only, best, greatest, faint, renewed, dashed, vain noun •future, people, fear, glimmer•, sense•, •peace, faith, message•, reason•, sign• verb give•, offer•, hold•, lose•, raise, bring, express•, pin• 30012 | 0.97 announce 1187 v noun •plan, president, company•, government•, decision, •intention, official•, •retirement, department•, result, Monday, administration•, •candidacy, •resignation, agreement misc recently•, yesterday, early, publicly, formally•, officially• 30798 | 0.95 N by 1188 r •now, go•, •far, •no, •means, stand•, come•, •large, pass•, •most, stop•, walk•, drop•, •about 30207 | 0.96 completely 1189 r •different, almost•, •out, change, cover, until•, lose, understand, ignore, cool•, agree, •forget, rack, •destroy 29825 | 0.98 vote 1190 v noun people•, Republican, election, Democrat, right•, candidate, house•, Senate•, Congress•, percent, board•, voter•, •resolution, primary, •impeachment misc •for, •against, register•, •favor, likely•, •unanimously on •by, Congress, today, debate•, actually•, award down proposal, council•, Senate, •amendment, committee out committee, •article, •incumbent 31969 | 0.91 S conduct 1191 v noun study, research, survey, interview, test, investigation, experiment, business, group misc •by, •determine, similar, recent•, •extensive 31930 | 0.91 A conflict 1192 n adj ethnic, armed, potential, Arab-Israeli, internal, military, violent, civil, religious, direct noun •interest, resolution, role, family, management, situation, source•, class•, value verb resolve•, avoid•, •arise, create, end, lead, involve, cause, deal•, •occur 32441 | 0.90 A replace 1193 v noun system, •one, window, worker, column•, coach, equipment, machine, candidate•, •receiver, fuel, unit, engine, •bulb, roof misc •by, •old, •traditional, repair, •current 30334 | 0.96 attend 1194 v noun •school, •college, •meeting, student•, •university, •class, child•, •conference, •church, •service, •event, •funeral, •session, •workshop, •ceremony misc high, •public, plan•, •private, regularly 30648 | 0.95 participant 1195 n adj high, active, female, male, low, sexual, potential, likely, individual, significant noun study, method•, group, number, program, sample, condition, research, table, data verb ask, •complete, indicate, include, •receive, •respond, select, require, assess, present 36167 | 0.8 A argument 1196 n adj closing, strong, oral, legal, moral, compelling, persuasive, main, powerful, convincing noun court, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 79 apartment 1304 n adj small, two-bedroom, one-bedroom, tiny, empty, high-rise, one-room noun •building, •complex, •night, house, door, new, street, block, floor, window verb live•, move•, rent•, leave•, share, build, enter•, buy, •overlook, •smell 28453 | 0.92 F farm 1305 n adj large, organic, collective, nearby, commercial, working, urban, abandoned, corporate, industrial noun family, •worker, animal, dairy•, fish•, •bill, tree•, •subsidy, •boy verb live•, buy•, own, sell, raise, visit•, operate, bet•, plant, convert 27764 | 0.94 flight 1306 n adj long, commercial, short, direct, daily, connecting, manned, powered, cheap, canceled noun •attendant, airline•, •stair, space•, air, hour, plane, •deck, •crew, •path verb cancel, catch•, fly, board•, book•, miss•, arrive, climb•, •land, check 27453 | 0.95 shape 1307 n adj good, bad, better, different, great, dark, simple, various, terrible, physical noun size, color, body, form, thing, variety•, kind•, tree, design, weight verb take•, help•, change•, stay•, cut, determine, bend•, assume•, fit, retain• 28083 | 0.93 M demand 1308 n adj growing, increased, increasing, strong, public, domestic, popular, global, physical, pent-up noun supply, energy, consumer•, market, price, oil, world, •product, growth, increase verb meet•, create, reduce•, place, satisfy•, respond•, rise, face, exceed, generate 28548 | 0.91 A strength 1309 n adj physical, military, greatest, full, economic, inner, financial, muscular, individual noun •weakness, •training, muscle, •endurance, size, source•, arm, courage, •character, speed verb give•, gain•, build•, increase•, draw•, gather•, regain•, combine, possess, enhance 27335 | 0.95 village 1310 n adj small, little, remote, global, nearby, tiny, Olympic, entire, whole noun town, home, fishing•, street, mountain, life, •voice, mile, resident, chief verb live, return•, visit, destroy, surround, travel•, arrive, attack, settle, flee 28249 | 0.92 operate 1311 v noun company•, system, program, plant, facility, •level, force•, market, center, organization•, store, vehicle, machine, principle, site misc •under, •within, continue•, •independently, •efficiently 27477 | 0.94 reporter 1312 n adj investigative, unidentified, foreign, western, regional, veteran, female, top, consistent, fellow noun news, newspaper, new, editor, TV, question, post, television•, court•, camera verb tell•, ask, talk, •cover, speak•, •write, interview, •visit, answer, •travel 28429 | 0.91 N share 1313 n adj fair, large, total, outstanding, disproportionate, foreign, equal, mutual, additional, growing noun market•, cent•, •price, company, percent, stock, lion•, earnings•, fund, option• verb sell, buy•, hold•, pay•, own•, increase, receive•, gain•, earn, •compare 29211 | 0.89 N guard 1314 n adj national, old, armed, senior, junior, left, red, private, rear, offensive noun security•, coast•, point•, prison•, •troop, border•, •unit, air•, •duty, honor• verb stand, shoot, kill, •protect, hire, •patrol, post, order, approach, surround 27846 | 0.93 observe 1315 v noun student, behavior, teacher, change, star, astronomer•, •site, researcher•, phenomenon, object, •session, telescope, condition, interaction, earth misc directly, closely, carefully, frequently, •record, easily• 28656 | 0.90 A deliver 1316 v noun message, speech, service, •baby, •news, address, •promise, food, lecture, •good, paper, mail, report, package, ability• misc able•, fail•, •directly, personally 26685 | 0.97 count 1317 v noun vote, •number, ballot, •money, second, •blessing, minute, hour, census, sperm•, machine, breath, income, •sheep, voter misc •on, •among, •hundred, •lucky, •dozen, •heavily, accurately 26653 | 0.97 inside 1318 r go•, •out, •outside, back•, door, step•, turn, both•, deep•, once•, stay•, peer•, trap•, window 28237 | 0.91 F advantage 1319 n adj competitive, great, full, big, political, comparative, unfair noun •opportunity, home•, •disadvantage, people, technology, •situation, tax, cost, price, number verb take•, offer•, gain•, provide, enjoy, seek•, confer, press•, outweigh, •accrue 27183 | 0.95 wild 1320 j noun animal, card, thing, man, horse, turkey, mushroom, rice, bird, salmon, plant, place misc run, grow, crazy, scenic, domestic, woolly, edible, truly 27074 | 0.95 previous 1321 j noun year, study, research, experience, day, finding, generation, month, night, result, work, week misc than, during, consistent, suggest, base, compare, indicate, support 27575 | 0.93 A average 1322 j noun age, year, rate, price, person, cost, income, number, score, percent, fund, size misc than, annual, American, per, high, about, above 27643 | 0.93 emerge 1323 v noun pattern•, theme•, leader, picture•, difference•, figure, •data, consensus•, form, evidence•, •bankruptcy, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 86 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English quarter 1432 n adj French, living, close, past, fiscal, cramped, private, final, Jewish, tight noun •century, year, percent, •mile, •dollar, •hour, earnings, revenue, •moon, •inch verb •end, cut•, drop, account•, cost•, decline, peel•, confine•, toss, comprise• 25089 | 0.94 N review 1433 n adj national, judicial, recent, favorable, institutional, environmental, comprehensive, independent, physical, extensive noun literature, book, •board, law•, •process, article, new•, research, peer•, study verb write, conduct, read, publish, base•, receive•, conclude, approve, present, obtain 25633 | 0.92 A faith 1434 n adj good, Christian, religious, Catholic, strong, bad, personal, blind noun people, community, family, church, leap•, article•, matter, practice, act•, tradition verb keep•, lose•, put•, place•, share, restore•, test, sustain, convert•, justify 25859 | 0.91 move 1435 n adj smart, bold, right, wrong, recent, risky, wise, strategic, unusual, unprecedented noun career•, •direction, family, kind•, series•, business, dance•, surprise• verb make•, watch•, follow, plan•, •protect, oppose, announce, repeat, criticize, signal 24517 | 0.96 speed 1436 n adj high, low, top, full, medium, average, maximum, breakneck noun •limit, mixer, •mph, •light, power, wind•, •mile, sound, size, direction verb beat, increase, pick•, move•, run, reduce•, set, travel•, slow, fly 25662 | 0.91 M engage 1437 v noun •activity, student, •behavior, •sex, •conversation, •kind, •discussion, •dialogue, individual•, community, •debate, effort, •research, person•, participant• misc •in, •sexual, actively•, likely•, fully•, directly 25515 | 0.92 A broad 1438 j noun range, shoulder, spectrum, support, sense, daylight, category, smile, term, area, definition, array misc across, cover, tall, flat, encompass, narrow, thick, deep 24965 | 0.94 A perspective 1439 n adj different, historical, theoretical, broad, global, unique, cultural, critical, multiple, proper noun thing•, student, life, time, woman, sense, experience, article, value, health verb put•, provide, offer•, keep•, change, view, gain•, share, represent, adopt 26056 | 0.90 A slightly 1440 r •than, only•, •different, •more, •less, •high, head•, •large, bend, •low, until•, forward 24660 | 0.95 growing 1441 j noun number, season, population, concern, body, demand, problem, interest, economy, market, pain, evidence misc fastest, among, rapidly, reflect, despite, economic, face, contribute 24788 | 0.94 view 1442 v noun other, American•, teacher, participant•, •context, society, object, behavior, •videotape, •video, lens, •suspicion, film, culture, scene misc •as, •themselves, tend•, widely•, generally•, likely•, •differently 25308 | 0.92 A function 1443 n adj important, different, discriminant, primary, normal, cognitive, sexual, immune, specific, physical noun brain•, form, structure•, body, role•, school, cell, lung•, management verb perform, serve•, improve, vary•, fulfill•, affect, attend•, identify, relate, assess 26526 | 0.88 A construction 1444 n adj new, social, cultural, commercial, residential, heavy, proposed, complex noun •worker, •site, •project, •company, building, •industry, road, design•, material, cost verb begin, complete, finance•, oversee•, halt, supervise•, fund•, approve•, slow 25041 | 0.93 egg 1445 n adj large, beaten, hard-boiled, fertilized, fried, raw, green, golden, hot, female noun •white, cup, •yolk, sugar, milk, nest•, mixture, bowl, chicken, vanilla verb beat, lay•, add•, eat•, whisk•, hatch, stir, combine, remove, throw• 25378 | 0.92 M charge 1446 v noun •murder, fee, •crime, price, critic•, company, police•, •count, battery, agency•, •assault, bank, prosecutor•, interest, customer misc •with, arrest•, highly•, emotionally•, politically• 24384 | 0.95 wave 1447 n adj new, tidal, gravitational, huge, light, recent, current, crashing, successive, gentle noun shock•, radio•, heat•, sound•, •future, water, brain•, crime• verb ride•, send•, hit, break, •sweep, •crash, roll, create, catch•, cause 24486 | 0.95 female 1448 j noun student, athlete, body, figure, voice, participant, character, role, member, coach, player, subject misc male, both, sexual, athletic, traditional, genital, mostly, predominantly 25627 | 0.91 A murder 1449 n adj attempted, guilty, mass, first-degree, second- degree, brutal, double, bloody noun •case, trial, charge, rape, •weapon, crime, •rate, degree, •victim, death verb commit, convict•, accuse•, solve•, arrest•, •occur, investigate•, link•, plead, connect• 25704 | 0.90 S tape 1450 n adj audio, red, yellow, adhesive, scotch, electrical, magnetic, secret, measuring noun proofread•, •recorder, duct•, video•, cassette•, •recording, masking•, broadcast, piece•, •player verb play, listen•, hear, watch•, record, catch•, roll, send, wrap, bind 24983 | 0.93 S burn 1451 v noun fire•, house, eye, fuel, body, candle•, flag, light•, •ground, sun, coal, •death, face, oil, •fat misc •off, hot, •away, badly, •alive Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 93 tall 1562 j noun foot, man, tree, building, woman, grass, glass, window, tale, order, guy, pine misc stand, as, thin, six, grow, five, black, slender 22967 | 0.91 F shut 1563 v noun door, eye, mouth, window, plant, engine, operation, camera, gate, bedroom, factory, lid, drawer, trap, jaw• misc keep•, •behind, •off, slam•, open, pull•, squeeze•, snap•, •tight, close, tightly down government, plant, system, operation, engine, production, factory, airport, completely, reactor up oh•, •listen, please, •bitch 22809 | 0.92 F lots 1564 p (lots of) •of, there•, •people, •thing, park•, •money, parking•, •different, vacant•, •fun, •stuff, drink•, space, empty• 22009 | 0.95 Indian 1565 j noun tribe, people, woman, reservation, community, culture, government, art, nation, population 24753 | 0.84 A respect 1566 n adj due, great, mutual, tremendous, deep, utmost, proper, similar noun people, lot•, •right, lack•, dignity, other, love, trust, admiration, •authority verb show•, pay•, treat•, earn•, deserve, gain•, command• 21627 | 0.96 colleague 1567 n adj democratic, professional, close, senior, longtime, academic, dear, conservative, esteemed, scientific noun friend, student, Republican•, work, Senate, patient, institute, finding, client, respect• verb •report, describe, •study, share, •discover, urge•, •publish, discuss, •propose, remind• 22430 | 0.93 writing 1568 n adj creative, early, historical, critical, academic, popular, collaborative, selected, ancient, native noun student, process, reading, •skill, •program, letter, style, •wall, •desk, piece• verb read, teach, improve, influence, inspire, explore, emphasize, submit•, •prompt, analyze 23148 | 0.90 A rain 1569 n adj heavy, cold, light, tropical, pouring, driving, steady, freezing noun •forest, acid•, wind, day, snow, inch•, cloud, window, drop verb •fall, •stop, bring, •pour, wash, pelt, blow, listen•, pray•, smell• 22349 | 0.93 F fast 1570 r as, so•, too•, •enough, how•, move•, run•, very•, grow•, happen•, hold• 21909 | 0.95 F football 1571 n adj pro, professional, American, Canadian, high-school, collegiate, intercollegiate noun •player, •team, •game, college•, •coach, •league, •field, school•, basketball, baseball verb play•, watch•, win, throw•, love, attend 23319 | 0.89 N welcome 1572 v noun •show, gentleman, •guest, •visitor, •opportunity, arm, •reader, newcomer, move, stranger, guideline•, •arrival, initiative, hero, announcement misc good, •home, everybody, •both, please•, everyone, open, warmly, pleased• back break•, •talk, •our, •everybody, •everyone 23536 | 0.88 S domestic 1573 j noun violence, policy, product, issue, market, politics, problem, abuse, agenda, production, program, economy misc foreign, gross, international, political, economic, both, well, external, imported 22809 | 0.91 A pool 1574 n adj large, indoor, deep, outdoor, shallow, potential, heated, common noun swimming•, water, •table, •blood, gene•, •hall, car•, edge verb swim, play•, shoot•, lie•, dive, overlook, jump, surround, climb, drain 21700 | 0.95 literature 1575 n adj American, English, scientific, recent, current, professional, modern, existing, medical noun review, child•, art, study, history, research, body•, language, science, music verb •suggest, read, report•, teach, describe, •indicate, •reveal, discuss, base, examine 24290 | 0.85 A extra 1576 j noun time, money, hour, point, cost, pound, mile, weight, effort, work, credit, cash misc give, need, pay, little, add, few, provide 21807 | 0.94 M northern 1577 j noun alliance, state, hemisphere, city, part, region, university, area, town, border, light, coast misc southern, central, across, along, near, western, eastern, Kurdish 22084 | 0.93 desire 1578 n adj sexual, strong, natural, burning, male, female, intense, overwhelming, genuine, sincere noun need, object•, man, woman, heart•, •change, expression•, feeling, •revenge, lack• verb express•, reflect•, motivate•, satisfy•, drive, share, indicate•, •avoid, •maintain, act 22213 | 0.92 A direct 1579 v noun attention, film, effort, movie, program, question, research, •traffic, project, energy, policy, production, activity, anger, action misc •by, •toward, •against, •towards, specifically 21474 | 0.96 fight 1580 n adj big, tough, legal, bitter, fair, involved, huge, uphill, civil noun •terrorism, food•, scene, street, title•, •AIDS, •cancer, •song verb lead•, win, pick•, break, lose, continue, join•, end, wage, •ensue 21340 | 0.96 corporate 1581 j noun executive, tax, culture, profit, world, sponsor, headquarters, governance, interest, manager, client, office misc vice, private, financial, top, global, individual, environmental, senior, average 22374 | 0.92 N Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 100 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English train 1694 n adj high-speed, electric, runaway, elevated, express, moving, oncoming noun •station, car, track, freight•, •wreck, •thought, commuter•, •ride verb take, run, stop, •pull, •move, board•, catch•, travel, arrive, wait 20258 | 0.94 F brown 1695 j noun hair, eye, sugar, paper, rice, bag, skin, dwarf, face, trout, leather, bear misc until, dark, golden, light, black, white, turn, wear 20699 | 0.92 F basically 1696 r •same, •conservative, •sort, •unchanged, bunch, •decent, •harmless, •identical, intact, •irrelevant, •lazy 21463 | 0.88 S last 1697 v noun •year, •day, •hour, •month, •minute, •week, •lifetime, marriage•, war•, period, •decade, session•, trial•, interview•, relationship• misc long, will•, •than, only, •about, •until, •forever 19548 | 0.97 average 1698 n adj national, industrial, grade-point, annual, long-term, daily, weighted noun percent, year, point, grade•, batting•, hour, state•, score, month, industry• verb spend, compare, earn•, pay•, rise, fall, cost, drop, increase•, receive 20567 | 0.92 ring 1699 n adj key, outer, concentric, polar, golden, inner, nice, familiar, dark noun phone•, wedding•, •finger, diamond•, engagement•, gold•, bell verb wear•, answer, form, remove•, enter•, surround, place, slip, step•, blow• 20264 | 0.93 F mark 1700 v noun •anniversary, year, •end, •beginning, •point, •spot, line, event, •change, •boundary, •start, moment, •location, sign, calendar misc •by, •first, •turning, clearly•, •significant out path, boundary, territory, line, place off space, area, boundary up •price, •bill, •cost 19703 | 0.96 locate 1701 v noun area, city, town, community, source, •street, building, county, island, object, •target, gene, •origin, •prey, •relative misc •near, •within, •outside, centrally•, able•, conveniently•, unable• 20170 | 0.94 A search 1702 n adj desperate, thorough, extensive, quick, frantic, massive, nationwide, house-to-house, intrusive noun •result, •engine, •warrant, job•, •truth, Internet•, •team, talent•, •committee verb modify•, begin, conduct, •narrow, continue, launch•, obtain•, execute, •reveal, complete 20867 | 0.91 largely 1703 r •because, remain•, •ignore, base, due, result, •responsible, depend•, •determine, thanks, •unknown 20452 | 0.92 A possibly 1704 r can•, how•, •even, quite•, everything•, •imagine, except•, •due, •dangerous, thousand, hundred, soon, •illegal, •greatest 19355 | 0.97 anymore 1705 r do, not•, want, talk•, anything•, care•, around•, nothing•, nobody•, matter•, exist•, hardly•, worry•, bother• 20087 | 0.94 F generate 1706 v noun revenue, electricity, power, heat, •interest, energy, income, idea, money, job, business, information, force, field, ability• misc •more, •million, enough, economic, •additional, •significant 20596 | 0.91 A regional 1707 j noun center, office, director, power, government, development, level, security, cooperation, conflict, company, organization misc local, national, global, economic, international, such, base, environmental 21475 | 0.88 A obvious 1708 j noun reason, question, answer, way, problem, thing, difference, choice, example, fact, sign, solution misc most, become, seem, less, pretty, despite, quite 19452 | 0.97 angry 1709 j noun man, voice, woman, face, letter, mob, parent, crowd, word, voter, response, look misc get, very, feel, frustrate, sad, sometimes, sound, frustrated 19908 | 0.94 F analyst 1710 n adj political, senior, military, financial, legal, retail, western, foreign, Chinese, top noun industry•, news•, policy•, security, research, stock, company, intelligence• verb •believe, •predict, •estimate, •agree, •project, •forecast, •doubt, •cite, •blame, •attribute 21212 | 0.89 N accident 1711 n adj fatal, serious, tragic, terrible, involved, nuclear, freak, unfortunate noun car•, traffic•, automobile•, auto•, scene, victim, rate, month, investigation, motorcycle• verb •happen, kill, die•, cause, •occur, •involve, injure, prevent•, investigate•, suffer 19511 | 0.96 trend 1712 n adj current, recent, growing, general, economic, long-term, social, significant, major, downward noun year, population, industry, •line, analysis, fashion, change, development, use, rate verb continue, reverse•, follow•, reflect, identify, indicate, buck•, •emerge, accelerate 20395 | 0.92 A like 1713 j noun family, mind, manner, heaven, magic, chocolate, paradise misc feel, sound, it, what, taste, know, more, imagine, hey, wow, oh, rather 19781 | 0.95 S appearance 1714 n adj physical, public, personal, outward, sudden, recent, rare, brief, final noun court•, television, TV, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 107 late 1812 r as, •night, too•, •last, •year, •afternoon, stay•, day, until•, work•, in•, arrive•, •week 18305 | 0.96 frequently 1813 r more•, most•, use, less•, occur, stir•, •cite, mention, appear, •used 19160 | 0.92 A blame 1814 v noun problem, •victim, government, death, other, media, official, Congress, •failure, Republican, Democrat, •lack, •loss, attack, critic misc •her, •him, themselves, •everything 18312 | 0.96 sheet 1815 n adj white, clean, thin, prepared, single, top, blank, baking, folded, soft noun •paper, balance•, cookie•, ice, •music, •metal verb place, cover, pull, lay, wrap, remove•, line, cut, contain, lie 18891 | 0.93 estimate 1816 v noun •percent, year, •number, official•, study•, model, earnings, expert•, rate, value, analyst•, size, department•, loss, researcher• misc •million, cost, •about, •billion, total, •approximately 19041 | 0.92 A relief 1817 n adj great, humanitarian, international, comic, federal, temporary, welcome, sharp noun tax•, sigh•, •effort, •worker, pain, •agency, disaster• verb provide•, feel, breathe•, bring•, seek•, offer•, express•, •flood, •wash, organize 18149 | 0.96 combination 1818 n adj different, various, possible, right, unique, rare, unusual, perfect, powerful, strange noun •factor, drug, color, •therapy, variable, •lock, method, speed, •element, characteristic verb use•, offer•, involve•, result, contain•, test, consist, employ•, mix 18592 | 0.94 A investor 1819 n adj foreign, individual, institutional, small, private, potential, real, long-term, financial, average noun stock, fund, group, •confidence, share, bond, value, interest, investment, estate• verb •buy, sell, attract•, own, seek, protect•, recommend•, advise•, close•, scare• 20674 | 0.85 M N due 1820 i (due to) •to, may•, •fact, •lack, high, change, difference, part•, loss, effect, largely•, partly•, increase, low 19540 | 0.89 A silence 1821 n adj long, awkward, stunned, dead, uncomfortable, sudden, total, complete, eerie, deafening noun moment, minute, sound, code•, second, wall•, conspiracy• verb break, sit•, •follow, fall, fill, stand•, walk•, listen, eat•, drive• 19621 | 0.89 F manner 1822 n adj good, similar, timely, consistent, bad, appropriate, efficient, following, professional, traditional noun table•, bedside•, •death, style, speech, comedy•, custom verb •speak, act•, teach•, behave•, respond•, mind•, proceed•, address, dress, handle 18618 | 0.94 A muscle 1823 n adj abdominal, strong, low, smooth, skeletal, lean, tight, pulled, increased, taut noun •group, back, bone, body, heart, strength, •mass, tissue, arm, •cell verb use, build•, flex•, relax, help, stretch, move, strengthen•, cause, contract 20417 | 0.85 M branch 1824 n adj legislative, broken, olive, judicial, local, military, dead, bare, various, green noun executive•, tree, •government, bank, •office, library, spring•, •manager verb open, hang, cut, close, remove, snap, bend, swing, establish•, extend 18239 | 0.96 chain 1825 n adj large, big, key, retail, fast-food, major, heavy, complex, golden, nuclear noun food•, store, •command, •reaction, link, gold•, restaurant, supply•, •event verb break, set, pull, hang, wear•, own, form, attach, bind, dangle 18272 | 0.95 long 1826 c (as long as) as, for•, stay, keep, •remember, live, remain, continue, last, fine•, month, hour, alive, care 17843 | 0.98 telephone 1827 n adj cellular, local, long-distance, mobile, regular, unlisted, cordless, standard noun •number, •company, •interview, •line, •service, •conversation, •pole verb •call, use•, •ring, talk, answer•, pick•, speak•, receive•, return•, disconnect 18398 | 0.95 investigate 1828 v noun study•, case, police•, research•, •effect, committee•, commission•, •relationship, department, •allegation, researcher•, •crime, issue, •complaint, •matter misc •whether, far, begin•, •possible, thoroughly, independent•, fully 18608 | 0.93 A German 1829 j noun government, shepherd, army, company, chancellor, soldier, troop, state, unification, force, society, Jew 19061 | 0.91 A percentage 1830 n adj high, small, large, low, total, great, daily, certain, significant, winning noun •point, •student, table, •population, •people, time, •woman, rate, increase, •respondent verb show•, report, win•, represent•, indicate, spend, express•, decline, reflect, •range 19099 | 0.91 A outcome 1831 n adj positive, negative, possible, important, successful, desired, likely, final, better, academic noun student, •measure, •variable, health•, election, learning•, treatment, program, performance, result verb affect•, determine, predict•, influence•, achieve, produce•, improve•, lead•, report, depend 20363 | 0.85 A Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 114 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English rest 1940 v noun hand, head, arm, eye, minute, •peace, chin, back, elbow, •second, table, side, body, soul, floor misc •against, put•, •upon, •assured up while, before, week•, need•, •tomorrow 17411 | 0.94 F hero 1941 n adj national, local, unsung, super, tragic, unlikely, greatest, romantic, genuine, revolutionary noun war, action•, sport•, folk•, •heroine, role, •journey, •worship, status verb become•, honor, hail•, celebrate, welcome, regard•, rescue, depict•, cheer•, •stride 16967 | 0.96 bomb 1942 n adj atomic, nuclear, dirty, smart, homemade, terrorist, German, British, guided, thermonuclear noun car•, time•, roadside•, •attack, •threat, atom•, hydrogen• verb drop, •explode, kill, use, build•, •fall, detonate, plant, set, hit 17461 | 0.93 S below 1943 i just•, •level, •surface, •average, well•, •line, fall•, foot•, far•, •poverty, above•, percent•, price, rate 17037 | 0.95 rating 1944 n adj high, low, mean, overall, favorable, negative, significant, top, individual, sexual noun approval•, star, •scale, teacher•, percent, •system, credit•, TV, president•, parent verb base, receive•, determine•, indicate, compare, average•, assign, •drop, earn•, peer• 18241 | 0.89 A busy 1945 j noun day, street, schedule, life, man, work, week, night, season, road, weekend, intersection misc too, keep, so, very, stay, pretty, extremely, working 16991 | 0.96 cite 1946 v noun example, study, reason, case, report, evidence, source, article, •concern, court, official•, research, •lack, author, figure misc •as, often•, frequently•, •above, among, widely• 17602 | 0.92 A corporation 1947 n adj major, big, multinational, American, international, private, public, federal, nonprofit, giant noun government, development•, business, broadcasting, individual, tax, service, insurance•, money, trust• verb own, •pay, control, operate, form, benefit, •invest, sue, acquire, •announce 17680 | 0.92 representative 1948 n adj elected, local, national, democratic, congressional, special, various, federal, official, sole noun house•, state, US•, trade•, industry, senator, group, sales•, service• verb meet, include•, send•, elect, •vote, pass, serve, attend, contact•, act 17245 | 0.94 everywhere 1949 r there, look, •else, seem, almost•, blood•, fly•, sign•, everything, •except, note•, nowhere, scatter•, available• 16825 | 0.96 soil 1950 n adj organic, rich, fertile, moist, poor, well-drained, foreign noun water, •erosion, plant, surface, moisture, •conservation, nutrient, •sample, •scientist, type verb grow, improve, cover, reduce, •contain, increase, till, enrich, •dry, fill 18942 | 0.86 M A highway 1951 n adj national, interstate, federal, main, two-lane, busy, four-lane, coastal noun •safety, road, •traffic, state•, •administration, •system, •patrol, car, mile, side• verb drive, build, head, cross, travel, connect, hit•, block, roll, •link 17290 | 0.94 N frame 1952 n adj wooden, single, cold, internal, main, lanky, slight noun time•, •reference, •mind, door•, window•, picture•, aluminum, •house verb build, enter•, fill•, freeze•, hang, fit, lean•, exit•, feature, extend 18616 | 0.87 M stretch 1953 v noun arm, leg, hand, •mile, muscle, back, line, •limit, neck, body, bed, minute, field, exercise, floor misc •across, •far, •over, •thin, long, •before, •toward, •beyond out his, her, arm, •hand, leg, long, •before 17420 | 0.93 F oppose 1954 v noun •war, group•, •abortion, government, president, •bill, •plan, Republican, •idea, policy, right, Democrat•, •tax, party, administration misc to, •any, strongly•, adamantly•, vigorously• 17311 | 0.93 Catholic 1955 j noun church, school, bishop, priest, university, teaching, faith, tradition, charity, community, theology, family 19014 | 0.85 cloud 1956 n adj dark, white, black, low, thick, gray, red, huge, heavy, molecular noun dust, sky, •smoke, gas, storm•, rain, •cover, mushroom•, light verb move, form, rise, •hang, •gather, break, watch•, drift, •roll, blow 17792 | 0.91 F initial 1957 j noun offering, stage, reaction, investment, study, response, phase, cost, report, step, result, analysis misc after, during, public, follow, despite, beyond, minimum 17637 | 0.91 A variable 1958 n adj dependent, independent, other, demographic, significant, social, dummy, continuous, key, environmental noun study, analysis, predictor•, •table, outcome•, number, control•, result, criterion•, set• verb include, relate, measure, examine, affect, identify, explain, determine 20585 | 0.78 A essential 1959 j noun part, element, component, oil, service, ingredient, skill, acid, role, information, feature, nature misc absolutely, provide, consider, understand, human, fatty, successful 17651 | 0.91 A Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 121 athlete 2070 n adj female, high, professional, male, young, Olympic, great, black, best, competitive noun sport, coach, student, school, college, team, elite•, woman, study, level verb •compete, indicate, •participate, train, •receive, •perform, identify, examine, influence•, reveal 21786 | 0.69 A convince 2071 v noun •people, •jury, •public, •voter, •American, •judge, •Congress, official, evidence, doctor, administration, campaign•, •juror, •reader, argument misc try•, •myself, •himself, able• 15555 | 0.97 alternative 2072 n adj other, only, viable, traditional, better, best, attractive, effective, cheap, healthy noun program, policy, education, energy, treatment, response•, transportation•, •violence, •prison verb offer•, provide•, consider, suggest, develop•, choose, present, propose, •exist, discuss 16159 | 0.93 A pepper 2073 n adj red, black, green, hot, white, cracked, grilled, stuffed, Italian, tender noun salt•, teaspoon, bell•, cup, onion, ground•, garlic, cayenne, sauce, tablespoon verb •taste, add, chop, dice, sprinkle, roast, crush•, grind•, peel, drain 17923 | 0.84 M N cream 2074 n adj sour, whipped, heavy, light, cold, shaving, whipping noun ice•, cup, •cheese, vanilla, butter, chocolate, sugar, tablespoon, sauce, milk verb whip•, add, serve, eat•, beat, stir, shave•, •soften, fill, melt 16688 | 0.90 M land 2075 v noun •job, plane, •airport, helicopter, •role, troop, •Mars, fish, aircraft, floor, •contract, •jail, flight•, ball, ground misc •on, before•, •near, •safely, fly•, •softly, crash 15787 | 0.95 technical 2076 j noun assistance, support, skill, problem, information, difficulty, college, expertise, school, training, issue, term misc provide, scientific, financial, economic, require, highly, professional, legal 16572 | 0.91 A square 2077 n adj public, central, main, downtown, ordinary, tiny, mean, wide, gray, framing noun time•, •garden, town•, city, market•, street, red•, park, center, village• verb cut•, fill, place, form, gather•, overlook•, cross•, surround, locate, frame 15750 | 0.95 plenty 2078 p (plenty of) •of, there•, •time, •room, still•, leave, •water, •money, •opportunity, sure•, offer•, •space, food, drink• 15886 | 0.94 M behind 2079 r leave•, from•, far•, fall•, stay•, close•, child•, lag•, follow•, remain•, trail•, grab•, step•, •payment 15824 | 0.95 F invest 2080 v noun money, company, fund, •stock, dollar, business, capital, •technology, energy, •future, amount, resource, firm, •education, saving misc •million, •heavily, much, billion, mutual, willing•, save•, fully•, private, •wisely 16521 | 0.91 M mind 2081 v noun •business, •asking, •store, •manner, joke, •saying, •cold misc do•, you, never•, if, come•, bring•, •own, seem•, immediately•, spring•, nobody• 16021 | 0.93 F potential 2082 n adj great, full, human, economic, enormous, greatest, tremendous, future, commercial, significant noun growth, •conflict, development, technology, market, energy, profit, •abuse, •violence, •success verb realize•, reach•, develop, recognize•, offer•, create, reduce, increase, •exist, maximize• 16267 | 0.92 A regard 2083 v noun American•, •suspicion, expert, •threat, critic, being, •expression, •skepticism, observer•, colleague, scholar, historian, •symbol, •hero, tendency• misc •as, highly•, widely•, generally•, •themselves, tend• 15856 | 0.94 A intervention 2084 n adj military, early, effective, divine, direct, human, medical, humanitarian, surgical, foreign noun •program, government•, group, •strategy, state, US•, child, prevention, effect, assessment• verb design, require, implement, develop, support, suggest, focus, •reduce, target, •address 18820 | 0.79 A illegal 2085 j noun drug, immigration, alien, activity, use, abortion, law, worker, act, trade, border, weapon misc legal, nothing, anything, hire, declare, engage, immoral, immigrant 15912 | 0.94 lower 2086 v noun •rate, head, •voice, •cost, •price, •level, eye, •risk, tax, •cholesterol, •pressure, •interest, •standard, hand, •temperature misc •your, raise•, slowly, •himself, •onto, •until 15816 | 0.94 compete 2087 v noun team, company, athlete•, player, game, •attention, chance•, firm, economy, •marketplace, •space, •championship, •tournament, competition, •prize misc •with, •against, •each, •other, able•, must•, allow•, successfully 15941 | 0.93 N talent 2088 n adj great, young, special, musical, artistic, natural, top, local, raw noun •development, ability, •show, pool, •search, lot•, •scout, interest, •agency verb develop, recognize, discover•, display•, possess, attract•, lack•, hide, acquire, encourage 16183 | 0.92 guilty 2089 j noun jury, charge, murder, plea, verdict, crime, defendant, party, court, pleasure, manslaughter, fraud misc not, plead, feel, find, innocent, until, proven, on-line 16221 | 0.91 S living 2090 j noun thing, condition, space, room, quarter, will, area, organism, creature, expense misc every, dead, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 128 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English tension 2197 n adj racial, high, ethnic, social, sexual, growing, inherent, constant, religious, creative noun muscle, source•, lot•, conflict, surface•, stress, level, •headache verb create, feel, ease, reduce•, cause, rise, increase, build, relieve•, •exist 14566 | 0.94 A chapter 2198 n adj new, local, final, late, entire, short, concluding, sad, regional noun book, •history, •bankruptcy, •protection, •verse, state, society, club, opening•, title verb write, read•, file•, include, devote, open, •entitle, close, present, summarize 15171 | 0.91 A bother 2199 v noun thing•, conscience, injury, •folk, fly, cold•, headache•, makeup, •knocking, arthritis, •answering misc do•, •me, why•, even•, never•, really•, seem• 14643 | 0.94 F curriculum 2200 n adj national, general, academic, regular, integrated, existing, hidden noun school, education•, student, •development, teacher, study, core•, music, part•, art verb develop, teach, include, design, integrate•, focus, implement, emphasize, plan, support 17881 | 0.77 A consist 2201 v noun group•, •item, sample•, •student, system•, study•, part, team•, scale•, program•, series, set, participant, section, subject misc •of, •mostly, •primarily, •mainly, largely 15440 | 0.89 A immigrant 2202 n adj illegal, new, legal, Mexican, recent, undocumented, European, American, Russian, German noun child, number•, group, wave•, nation, influx•, generation, citizen, worker, benefit verb arrive, •live, settle, •enter, hire•, •seek, deny, welcome•, deport, absorb• 16336 | 0.84 A enable 2203 v noun •student, system•, technology•, program•, teacher, •user, information, •researcher, skill•, software•, •individual, process•, development, •scientist, tool• misc will•, •us, develop, design•, thus• 15117 | 0.91 A faculty 2204 n adj part-time, full-time, academic, senior, junior, tenured, diverse, mental, elementary, essential noun •member, student, university, college, •staff, community, administrator, school, education, program verb teach, join•, hire, involve, encourage, participate, evaluate, engage, recruit, conduct 18307 | 0.75 A steel 2205 n adj stainless, heavy, cold, structural, galvanized, corrugated, welded noun •mill, •industry, •door, iron•, glass, aluminum, US•, •frame, concrete, •plate verb produce, reinforce, protect, bend, replace, attach, construct, feature•, cast, surround 14797 | 0.93 M desert 2206 n adj high, vast, dry, Saudi, hot, open, empty noun •storm, operation•, •shield, mountain, •island, sand, night, middle•, •floor, •sun verb drive•, cross•, wander•, rise, surround, survive, stretch, strand•, bloom 14610 | 0.94 asset 2207 n adj net, valuable, real, greatest, personal, foreign, military, economic, current, natural noun fund, value, •management, company, stock, •allocation verb sell, freeze, buy•, protect•, manage, seize, acquire, hide•, exceed, •total 15403 | 0.89 slow 2208 v noun growth, economy, rate, pace, car, •process, heart, breathing, progress, development, •progression, population misc •stop, economic, speed, •bit, •considerably, dramatically, significantly, eventually down economy, stop, •process, even, start, growth, sign• 14319 | 0.95 housing 2209 n adj public, affordable, new, urban, federal, low-income, fair, permanent, subsidized noun •development, •project, •market, •authority, unit, city, program, job, •complex, community verb build, provide, live•, construct, afford, subsidize, improve 14840 | 0.92 N transform 2210 v noun life, world, society, process, experience, •economy, landscape, image, space, energy, technology•, culture, industry, •relationship, nature misc •into, •itself, •themselves, radically•, human, completely•, gradually•, cultural 14609 | 0.93 A regarding 2211 i information•, question•, issue, decision•, policy•, •use, student, concern•, provide•, teacher, data•, research•, knowledge, finding• 15672 | 0.87 A perceive 2212 v noun student, teacher, •threat, individual•, other, ability, parent, athlete•, risk, participant•, need, level, public, relationship, role misc •as, •themselves, may•, social, often• 15677 | 0.87 A depression 2213 n adj great, major, clinical, severe, economic, deep, manic, tropical, mental noun anxiety, symptom, disorder, level, war, stress, postpartum•, •score, treatment•, risk• verb suffer•, treat•, cause, experience, associate, relate, predict•, indicate, affect, result 15349 | 0.89 A inform 2214 v noun public, student, parent, •decision, patient, •reader, policy, participant, research, teacher, consumer, Congress, •risk, agency, theory misc •about, keep•, fully•, fail•, regret•, properly•, adequately• 14424 | 0.95 A formal 2215 j noun education, training, room, program, structure, garden, system, dining, process, schooling, rule, complaint misc no, more, informal, less, without, receive, file, legal 14977 | 0.91 A Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 135 concentrate 2334 v noun effort, •area, power, work, attention, mind, •task, ability•, •region, population•, production, thought, inability•, •painting, wealth misc •on, try•, instead, hard, tend•, able•, highly•, heavily 13310 | 0.96 accomplish 2335 v noun •goal, mission, thing, •task, •objective, feat, work, •purpose, •aim, method, learning, function, tool•, achievement, sanction misc can•, •through, •something, try•, •anything, able•, hope•, order•, easily 13404 | 0.95 previously 2336 r than•, •report, mention, •unknown, describe, note, United States, discuss, •publish, identify, •serve, material 13937 | 0.92 A symbol 2337 n adj religious, national, powerful, cultural, potent, visible, universal, ultimate, very, key noun ticker•, status•, sex•, system, sign, set, flag, culture, •hope, peace verb become•, use, represent, •transcribe, serve•, remain•, recognize, display, interpret•, employ 13701 | 0.93 A bureau 2338 n adj federal, Indian, national, central, assistant, statistical, Australian noun census•, •chief, US•, •statistics, •investigation, new, visitor•, •land, •management, •labor verb •report, contact•, establish, •estimate, head•, •welcome, cite, oversee, administer•, •project 13678 | 0.93 laboratory 2339 n adj national, clinical, marine, biological, scientific, educational, industrial, living, planetary, academic noun research•, study, •test, •experiment, propulsion•, jet•, science, •animal, scientist, school verb conduct, produce, perform, establish, analyze, measure, design, demonstrate, confirm, investigate 14305 | 0.89 A attach 2340 v noun importance, wire, end, side, cable, body, •wall, meaning, line, condition, back, rope, arm, significance, piece misc still•, •themselves, emotionally•, firmly, securely• 13460 | 0.95 M fundamental 2341 j noun change, right, question, problem, principle, issue, difference, value, nature, skill, law, shift misc most, more, between, human, basic, economic, raise, address 14131 | 0.90 A whenever 2342 r •possible, •want, •feel, wherever, •someone, ready, visit, •anyone, occur, •choose, avoid•, •mention, •wish, whatever• 13320 | 0.96 arrangement 2343 n adj new, living, institutional, political, social, floral, economic, cooperative, complex, contractual noun security•, flower, funeral•, kind•, business•, seating•, travel• verb make, •allow, create, involve, discuss•, negotiate, enter•, establish, handle, accept• 13558 | 0.94 A investigator 2344 n adj private, federal, principal, chief, criminal, senior, medical, independent, primary, British noun police•, evidence, department, government•, team•, report, information, research, lawyer, homicide• verb tell, •find, •believe, hire, lead, •determine, •conclude, •examine, •discover, send• 13778 | 0.92 mark 2345 n adj high, German, high-water, low, top, indelible, short, distinguishing, blue, dark noun question•, quotation•, face, punctuation•, stretch• verb say, make, leave•, give, •shield, hit•, miss•, set, receive•, bear• 13373 | 0.95 another 2346 p one, yet•, •person, •reason, •example, •minute, month, •hour, •factor, •round, •option, •edition, •aspect 13310 | 0.96 shock 2347 n adj electric, initial, total, economic, sudden, electrical, complete, septic noun •wave, state•, culture•, oil•, •absorber, •therapy, •treatment, •value verb send•, absorb•, cause, stare•, •wear, receive•, express•, experience•, react•, recall 13452 | 0.94 adjust 2348 v noun eye•, •inflation, •seasoning, rate, •position, body, taste•, •height, control, mirror, •glass, •heat, color, temperature, setting misc •accordingly, must•, quickly, automatically• 13387 | 0.95 employer 2349 n adj large, private, prospective, potential, current, previous, willing, medical, legal, future noun employee, worker, insurance, plan, •mandate, health, company, contribution, benefit, •sanction verb •pay, require, •hire, •provide, offer, allow, sue•, •match, force, •contribute 13745 | 0.92 visible 2350 j noun light, eye, sign, star, world, window, part, wavelength, surface, spectrum, sky, presence misc most, more, become, no, highly, through, barely, clearly 13665 | 0.93 pass 2351 n adj free, short, single, perfect, incomplete, backstage, light, deep, narrow, forward noun touchdown•, mountain•, day, •rush, •rusher, season, •defense, play, run verb catch•, throw•, complete•, require, let•, intercept•, drop, cross, •fail, allow 14195 | 0.89 N priest 2352 n adj Catholic, high, Jesuit, Episcopal, local, religious, orthodox, abusive, Anglican, active noun parish, church, bishop, woman, father, abuse, minister, number•, shortage verb become•, ordain•, •accuse, marry, •molest, perform, bless, remove, confess, pray 13996 | 0.91 volunteer 2353 n adj local, healthy, active, trained, medical, male, unpaid, willing, female, global noun •work, group, program, community, student, organization, corps, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 142 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English toss 2462 v noun salad, head, bowl•, •ball, mixture, pasta, bag, •hair, pepper•, coin, oil, •air, paper, vegetable, ingredient misc •into, •out, •back, •aside, •coat, over, •onto, •away, gently 13104 | 0.91 F publication 2463 n adj other, recent, original, available, scientific, major, official, numerous, scholarly, various noun book, year, article, trade•, journal, research, magazine, date, number, editor verb include, write, accept•, follow, consider•, submit•, consult•, produce, receive, cease• 13124 | 0.91 A nearby 2464 j noun town, school, village, star, park, city, tree, table, building, hospital, area, island misc where, visit, locate, relatively, elementary, lots, distant, rural 12703 | 0.94 consideration 2465 n adj important, other, political, serious, economic, special, careful, social, major, financial noun factor, policy, cost, security, design, decision, health, interest, •role, race verb take•, give, require•, base•, deserve•, include, receive•, suggest, involve, withdraw• 13262 | 0.90 A rather 2466 c (rather than) •than, one, individual, focus, •later, sooner•, •simply, rule, rely, specific, exception, •risk 12598 | 0.95 A holy 2467 j noun spirit, land, grail, war, place, church, cross, city, day, man, shit, site misc Muslim, Roman, Christian, Islamic, Catholic, Shiite, Jewish, sacred 12949 | 0.92 enterprise 2468 n adj free, private, black, small, commercial, large, whole, criminal, human, entire noun business, •system, •zone, company, resource, development, scholar•, starship•, •planning, firm verb create, own, state•, operate, promote, privatize, establish, manage, engage, launch 12933 | 0.92 A due 2469 j noun process, respect, date, course, time, diligence, credit, month, tax, payment, clause, baby misc all, in, part, next, lack, large, before, without 12315 | 0.96 inner 2470 j noun city, circle, life, ear, working, tube, self, voice, thigh, system, strength, door misc outer, own, solar, reveal, spiritual, touch, explore, rural 12571 | 0.94 watch 2471 n adj close, digital, expensive, Swiss, terrorist, careful, constant noun pocket, gold•, •list, night•, neighborhood•, wrist, group, •minute, hour, •program verb look•, keep•, check•, glance•, stand•, wear•, set, turn, work, consult• 12888 | 0.92 F Indian 2472 n adj American, native, wild, Cherokee, hostile, ancient, tribal, Sioux, Hopi, drunken noun plain•, group, tribe, cowboy•, Pueblo•, number•, mission verb •live, •remain, trade, attack, claim, convert, portray, inhabit, •occupy, •lack 13874 | 0.86 A pray 2473 v noun •God, night, prayer, father, church, •peace, knee•, Jesus, •miracle, •rain, •soul, hour, Muslim•, mosque, Christian• misc •for, hope•, together, •hard, sing, kneel•, silently 12696 | 0.93 F creek 2474 n adj clear, dry, deep, nearby, narrow, muddy, tidal, frozen noun rock•, park, river, road, water, mill•, willow•, spring, trail, •bed verb cross•, •flow, feed, visit, wind, overlook•, hike, splash, swim•, border 13410 | 0.88 N supply 2475 v noun water, information, food, company, power, energy, •percent, oil, data, service, material, contract, electricity, •answer, plant misc •by, demand, enough, local, necessary, natural, •missing 12505 | 0.95 boot 2476 n adj black, rubber, red, knee-high, brown, muddy, blue, stiff, left, wet noun •camp, cowboy•, pair•, leather•, ski, heel, work•, toe, coat, jacket verb wear•, put, pull•, fit, kick, buy, lace, remove•, crunch, ride• 13793 | 0.86 F M whisper 2477 v noun •ear, voice, word, •name, mother, girl, boy, breath, prayer, wind, secret, sister, mom, mouth, dad misc •something, lean•, hear•, over, softly, smile, •urgently, •hoarsely, stare 14002 | 0.84 F resist 2478 v noun •temptation, •urge, •pressure, •effort, •change, •attempt, •arrest, •impulse, •disease, •pull, •occupation, •desire, tendency, •proposal, •peer misc can•, hard•, able•, long, unable•, first, continue•, initially• 12383 | 0.95 journey 2479 n adj long, spiritual, personal, difficult, arduous, final, incredible, safe noun end, life, night, leg•, hero•, train, step•, return•, mile, faith verb make•, begin, start, continue, embark•, complete•, resume•, •last, progress, •span 12316 | 0.96 flag 2480 n adj American, red, white, national, yellow, green, blue, checkered, waving noun Confederate•, state, battle•, •football, symbol, •pole, allegiance•, prayer•, •pin, •imagery verb fly, wave, raise•, burn, carry•, hang, plant, drape, •flutter, wrap• 12486 | 0.95 disorder 2481 n adj mental, bipolar, other, psychiatric, genetic, neurological, obsessive-compulsive, rare, affective, statistical noun eating•, personality•, attention•, deficit•, stress•, anxiety•, child, sleep• verb suffer•, treat•, cause, diagnose•, develop, •affect, associate, prevent, relate, identify 13466 | 0.88 A designer 2482 n adj interior, graphic, young, industrial, chief, floral, leading, expensive, professional, European Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 149 effectively 2590 r more•, use, work•, most•, deal, communicate, function•, manage, ability•, able•, teach, efficiently 12264 | 0.91 A fast 2591 j noun food, track, lane, fact, car, pace, break, restaurant, friend, start, growth, speed misc too, real, furious, slow, hard, eat, easy, drive 11754 | 0.95 schedule 2592 v noun meeting, day, hearing, election•, week, trial, month, •appointment, •release, event, •may, hour, class, launch, •fall misc •begin, originally•, •later, tentatively•, •early 12002 | 0.93 N buck 2593 n adj big, young, mature, extra, quick, fast, dominant, eight-point, almighty noun couple•, thousand•, bang•, deer, •hour, •month, trophy•, season verb make, pay•, •stop, spend, cost•, pass•, save•, spot•, •travel, rattle 12781 | 0.87 M tube 2594 n adj inner, feeding, top, fallopian, Eustachian, rubber, optical, neural noun test•, plastic•, end, seat•, vacuum•, aluminum•, glass•, toothpaste, •throat, •assembly verb feed, insert, remove, place, attach, connect, pull, contain, squeeze, form 12533 | 0.89 M refugee 2595 n adj Palestinian, high, political, Haitian, Cuban, Afghan, international, Jewish, Vietnamese, economic noun •camp, thousand•, problem, number•, country, nation•, status, •crisis verb •flee, return, live, arrive, resettle, settle, accept•, protect•, •cross, •pour 12377 | 0.90 depth 2596 n adj great, maximum, emotional, psychological, dark, various, murky, average, historical, strategic noun •inch, •foot, width•, water, breadth, •field, ocean, surface, •perception, •chart verb add•, reach•, understand, plumb•, explore•, reveal•, emerge•, vary, extend, descend• 12037 | 0.93 flat 2597 j noun tax, surface, rock, land, side, voice, back, fee, face, rate, stone, ground misc fall, lay, large, relatively, lie, across, wide, broad 11943 | 0.93 M precisely 2598 r •what, •because, more•, •same, •why, •where, •kind, •point, •reason, yet•, •moment, •opposite, define, measure 12042 | 0.93 A mad 2599 j noun cow, dog, scientist, hell, dash, magazine, rush, mom, dad, scene, doctor, king misc at, get, me, make, because, really, drive, enough 11933 | 0.93 F alternative 2600 j noun energy, medicine, source, fuel, school, program, way, approach, method, strategy, explanation, model misc provide, offer, develop, such, create, suggest, minimum 12309 | 0.90 A disability 2601 n adj physical, developmental, severe, mental, social, visual, multiple, specific, low, special noun student•, child•, people•, learning•, individual•, •act, •insurance verb serve, identify, cause, suffer, relate, affect, diagnose•, accommodate•, define, overcome• 13359 | 0.83 A destruction 2602 n adj mass, environmental, human, total, assured, nuclear, personal, natural, creative, massive noun weapon•, death•, habitat, property, forest, document, ozone, evidence, politics•, violence• verb cause, lead•, result, prevent•, threaten, involve•, •occur, witness•, wreak, possess• 11840 | 0.94 dream 2603 v noun girl, sleep•, future, •success, career, •competition, nightmare, athlete•, butterfly, astronomer•, dreamer, •flying, rat, escape, •dragon misc •about, never•, always• up can•, •by, who•, •new, •way, •idea, something, never, scheme, might• 11959 | 0.93 F drop 2604 n adj big, vertical, sharp, steep, single, significant, dramatic noun •blood, percent, water, foot, •oil, price, •bucket, rate, pressure, temperature verb •fall, add•, cause, •hit, experience•, spill, squeeze•, drink, place•, shake• 11703 | 0.95 assumption 2605 n adj basic, underlying, different, fundamental, implicit, common, certain, economic, general, reasonable noun set•, value, question, •nature, belief, •power, data, method, homogeneity, behavior verb make, base•, •underlie, operate•, rest•, support, proceed•, predicate•, imply, undermine• 12571 | 0.88 A normally 2606 r will, •associate, function•, •distribute, •require, •difficult, eat, cell, •reserve, breathe•, •occur, his•, hour, behave• 11458 | 0.97 angel 2607 n adj blue, fallen, avenging, dark, littl, bright, holy, dirty, destroying noun guardian•, •wing, •food, •cake, •death, •hair, •fire, voice, •pasta verb sing, fall, fly, dance, •descend, hover, •fear, wrestle, summon, rescue 11791 | 0.94 F pop 2608 v noun head, eye•, question, •pill, •mind, cork, top, bubble, ear, trunk, ball, window, summer, •oven, button misc •out, •into, •open, •off, suddenly•, •onto, tiny, tire up •all, •over, keep•, name•, •everywhere, •around, head, •again 11901 | 0.93 F criteria (PL) 2609 n adj following, important, specific, different, objective, certain, primary, major, multiple, main noun selection, performance, inclusion, •variable, study, student, •measure, set•, •validity, eligibility• verb meet•, base, include, determine, develop, satisfy•, fit• 13159 | 0.84 A Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 156 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English •adversity, effort•, •feeling, •opposition, weakness misc help•, must•, able•, difficult• 10913 | 0.95 A virus 2718 n adj human, deadly, cold, positive, live, lethal, specific, known noun AIDS•, bacteria, computer•, flu•, influenza•, infection, hepatitis•, cell, immunodeficiency•, disease verb cause, infect, spread, carry, kill, contract•, transmit, attack, •mutate 11441 | 0.91 stranger 2719 n adj total, complete, perfect, mysterious, handsome, tall, intimate, familiar, gentle, passing noun friend, kindness•, eye, street, face, group, •town, sex, •controversy, •train verb talk•, meet, stare, approach, share, welcome, trust•, sleep, introduce, touch 11232 | 0.93 F retain 2720 v noun •control, •power, •right, student, ability, •water, •moisture, •information, •identity, •employee, •heat, interest, memory, •status, •title misc while•, still•, attract•, •original, able• 11187 | 0.93 A match 2721 n adj perfect, good, shouting, better, exact, final, close, waterproof noun winner, wrestling•, soccer•, •play, tennis•, boxing•, cup•, box•, championship verb win•, find, light, strike•, lose, meet•, prove, •burn, •last, touch 11140 | 0.93 prize 2722 n adj grand, big, top, international, prestigious, ultimate, literary, coveted, nifty noun •winner, peace•, •money, year, award, •physics, cash•, •literature, consolation•, •chemistry verb win•, receive•, offer, share•, earn•, claim•, honor, •total, •elude 10944 | 0.95 string 2723 n adj long, consecutive, thin, endless, broken, knotted, unbroken noun •quartet, •theory, •bean, purse•, bead, •pearl, guitar, piece•, instrument, band verb pull•, •attach, tie, hold, hang, cut, pluck•, stretch, vibrate, control• 10986 | 0.95 exhibition 2724 n adj international, major, recent, annual, traveling, current, retrospective noun art, museum, •game, gallery, work, •space, works, solo•, artist, painting verb include, organize, open, present, feature, mount, •entitle, enter, accompany, represent 12767 | 0.81 M expansion 2725 n adj economic, rapid, major, far, international, future, global, existing, industrial, urban noun •team, universe, plan, program, rate, •franchise, market, trade, growth, period• verb support•, cause, oppose•, finance•, slow, limit•, increase, prevent•, halt•, accelerate 11351 | 0.91 A tremendous 2726 j noun amount, pressure, impact, opportunity, power, growth, number, change, energy, problem, success, support misc there, create, under, cause, because, economic, generate, financial 11013 | 0.94 S bunch 2727 n adj whole, wild, fresh, diverse, rowdy, lively, friendly noun •people, •guy, •kid, •thing, •stuff, •grape, •flower, •money verb buy•, hang, throw, gather, sound•, score•, hand•, hire• 11109 | 0.93 assistant 2728 n adj special, personal, administrative, digital, editorial, medical, top, dental, legislative noun research•, deputy•, •secretary, •president, teaching•, graduate•, executive•, physician• verb serve•, hire•, employ, train, •handle, assign, •administer, •hand, appoint•, instruct 10976 | 0.94 initially 2729 r least, at, although•, appear, •refuse, •focus, •oppose, •skeptical, •resist, •identify, •reluctant, •intend, •attract, design 11106 | 0.93 A accurate 2730 j noun information, description, picture, assessment, data, count, prediction, measurement, estimate, way, diagnosis, representation misc more, most, provide, less, fair, complete, highly 11036 | 0.94 A cheek 2731 n adj left, pink, right, pale, round, hot, sunken, smooth, full, flushed noun tear•, hand, eye, lip, kiss•, hair, nose, color, tongue•, forehead verb touch•, turn, run•, feel, roll•, press, brush•, stroke•, rub•, puff 12061 | 0.86 F index 2732 n adj composite, fit, right, economic, major, leading, body-mass, various noun •finger, •fund, price•, stock, consumer•, body•, mass•, •card verb •rise, measure, •fall, provide, calculate, •close, track, •drop, •indicate, •gain 11540 | 0.90 A occupy 2733 v noun •position, space, place, land, territory, house, building, room, mind, country, office, center, Iraq, troop, force misc •by, •same, once•, •central, •entire 10952 | 0.95 gear 2734 n adj high, low, protective, full, outdoor, electronic, shifting, high-tech, switching, running noun fishing•, landing•, •photography, car, camping•, rain•, bag, type, •ratio, riot• verb shift•, put•, switch•, wear•, carry, kick•, pack•, change•, grind, haul• 11907 | 0.87 M guarantee 2735 v noun right, loan, •accuracy, security, constitution, •success, •safety, law, government, freedom, job, amendment, protection, •access, health misc will, can•, virtually•, million, •equal, order•, necessarily•, practically• 10833 | 0.95 chocolate 2736 n adj hot, dark, white, bittersweet, rich, melted, unsweetened noun •cake, •chip, milk, •cookie, cream, •bar, cup, butter, ice, •mousse verb melt, eat•, stir, add, pour, buy, drink•, contain, taste, spread 11324 | 0.91 M Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 157 ceremony 2737 n adj religious, closing, traditional, annual, private, formal, civil, brief, solemn, ribbon-cutting noun opening•, award•, wedding•, graduation•, day, master•, marriage•, white, signing• verb hold, attend•, perform, open•, conduct, honor, follow, •mark, participate•, •celebrate 11008 | 0.94 button 2738 n adj hot, red, mute, wrong, blue, off, left, nuclear noun belly•, shirt, push•, elevator, finger•, door, touch•, •mushroom, call•, panic• verb hit•, punch•, click•, wear•, release, pop, fasten 11353 | 0.91 F 22. American vs. British English The Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA: http://www.americancorpus.org) is the largest balanced corpus of American English, and the British National Corpus (BNC; http://www.natcorp.ox.ac.uk/ ) is the largest, balanced corpus of British English. This list shows the difference in vocabulary in these two corpora, and is based on the implementation of the BNC found at http://corpus.byu.edu/bnc. Some of the differences in vocabulary in the two dialects are related to culture, society, politics, or current events (e.g. Am Republican, congressional, baseball, Iraqi; Br Tory, parliamentary, Victorian), some are just different words for the “same” concept (e.g. store/shop, attorney/solicitor, apartment/flat, mom/mum), and some words in COCA (1990–2008) refer to things that are too new to have made it into the pre-1993 BNC (e.g. web, Internet, high-tech, online). +American (COCA) / -British (BNC) The following are just a sampling of the words that are much more common in COCA than in the BNC. In all cases, the word is at least twice as far down the list in the BNC wordlist as in COCA (e.g. #2000 in COCA, #5000 in BNC). Verb: call, report, focus, guess, sign, step, figure, roll, fire, hire, file, oppose, wrap, interview, accomplish, testify, bake, track, evolve, violate, target, pitch, flip, ruin, hike, invade Noun: student, president, percent, kid, guy, nation, photo, arm, American, Republican, phone, movie, store, lawyer, Democrat, professor, expert, senator, break, camera, coach, item, mom, dream, attorney, scientist, web, camp, truck, apartment, bowl, baseball, internet, basketball Adjective: American, federal, tough, native, Iraqi, crazy, smart, Israeli, Mexican, congressional, elementary, online, gifted, athletic, ongoing, African-American, suburban, Hispanic, scary, high-tech, cute, nonprofit, immigrant, skeptical, aging, low-income, interstate +British (BNC) / -American (COCA) The following are just a sampling of the words that are much more common in the BNC than in COCA. In all cases, the word is at least twice as far down the list in the COCA wordlist as in the BNC (e.g. #2000 in the BNC, #5000 in COCA). Verb: ensure, suppose, regard, voice, bind, retain, undertake, phone, wan, allocate, knit, book, abolish, envisage, incur, fancy, commence, enclose, enquire, sack, adjourn, tidy, query, retort, queue, nick, remand, smelt Noun: council, minister, union, pound, scheme, shop, principle, village, provision, sector, appeal, parliament, mum, tea, lord, cabinet, pension, flat, expenditure, solicitor, coal, crown, castle, pub, parish, tenant, councillor, countryside, plaintiff, autumn, cottage Adjective: British, European, English, royal, French, industrial, Scottish, lovely, working, bloody, parliamentary, alright, statutory, keen, Welsh, Tory, socialist, unemployed, delighted, Victorian, liable, superb, working-class, compulsory, splendid, post-war, dreadful, redundant, inland, wee Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 163 sink 2842 v noun heart•, ship, •tooth, sun•, foot, boat, •ground, •floor, head, •putt, •seat, stock•, submarine, •root, •earth misc •into, •down, •low, •deep, •deeper, slowly, •onto in let•, begin•, really•, word•, start•, slowly•, reality•, finally•, message•, realization• back •into, •down, •onto, •against down •into, •onto, slowly 10578 | 0.93 F counter 2843 n adj front, wooden, retail, stainless-steel, cosmetic, fast-food, floured noun kitchen•, lunch•, ticket•, bean•, checkout•, girl, store, glass, sink, stool verb sit•, stand•, lean•, walk, reach, set, sell•, wipe•, head, cross 10788 | 0.91 F Bible 2844 n adj holy, English, Catholic, favorite, weekly, illustrated, leather-bound noun •study, story, •school, •belt, verse, reading, •class verb read•, teach, believe, open, quote•, carry•, contain, •forbid, inspire, •condemn 10737 | 0.91 license 2845 n adj medical, commercial, valid, suspended, artistic, personal, poetic, nonresident, professional, issuing noun driver•, •plate, •number, marriage•, •fee, car, pilot•, liquor• verb get•, give, lose•, obtain•, revoke, drive, suspend, require, renew•, apply• 10303 | 0.95 tragedy 2846 n adj terrible, great, personal, human, real, national, horrible noun family, death, comedy, triumph, kind•, history, week, victim•, sense•, loss verb •happen, •strike, •occur, prevent•, end•, •unfold, cause, suffer, deal•, •befall 10374 | 0.94 S assistant 2847 j noun professor, coach, secretary, director, attorney, manager, editor, principal, chief, superintendent, administrator, commissioner misc general, former, managing, clinical, serve, vice, head 10586 | 0.92 N dialogue 2848 n adj national, political, interreligious, intergroup, ongoing, constructive, genuine, internal noun kind•, scene, policy, •race, line•, character, religion, conversation, partner, cooperation verb engage•, open•, continue, create, promote•, enter•, encourage•, establish, facilitate•, resume 10821 | 0.90 A mutual 2849 j noun fund, respect, stock, friend, company, understanding, interest, trust, benefit, support, aid, insurance misc between, invest, among, buy, base, other, each, manage 10850 | 0.90 loose 2850 j noun end, hair, cannon, ball, change, skin, woman, rock, soil, shirt, confederation, powder misc break, let, cut, turn, hang, wear, shake, pull 10467 | 0.93 F external 2851 j noun factor, force, pressure, control, threat, source, environment, affair, canal, debt, validity, influence misc internal, such, auditory, both, economic, require, domestic 11557 | 0.85 A pride 2852 n adj great, national, gay, civic, ethnic, cultural, personal, certain, racial noun sense•, source•, •joy, •place, lot•, point•, •prejudice, matter•, •parade verb take•, feel, swallow•, swell•, beam•, express•, shine, •blind 10161 | 0.96 awareness 2853 n adj public, environmental, great, growing, increased, heightened, global, cultural, social noun level, student, program, •issue, knowledge, need, education, lack•, •campaign, skill verb raise•, increase•, develop•, create•, heighten•, promote•, bring, focus, foster•, contribute 10936 | 0.89 A electricity 2854 n adj running, static, solar, cheap, renewable, reliable, retail, wind-generated noun water, price, gas, power, percent•, cost, fuel, generation, market, energy verb generate, produce, provide, sell, convert•, restore, •flow 10896 | 0.90 diverse 2855 j noun group, student, population, community, background, culture, need, school, society, country, interest, sample misc more, as, culturally, most, ethnically, such, among, cultural 10953 | 0.89 A advanced 2856 j noun technology, system, degree, study, student, research, placement, course, program, class, country, age misc more, most, technologically, such, develop, industrial, international, require 10766 | 0.91 A free 2857 v noun slave, hostage, prisoner, •mind, •prison, •fund, soldier, •bail, capital, task, •bond, soul, •shackle, •foreigner misc •from, •himself, last, set•, •themselves, •herself, struggle•, •itself, finally• up •money, •more, •space, •time, •resource, •fund, •cash, •capital, •dollar, •land 10074 | 0.97 faster 2858 r •than, much•, move•, grow•, time•, run•, even•, little•, walk•, far, lot•, rise•, heart•, beat• 10388 | 0.94 M conservative 2859 n adj Christian, fiscal, black, political, compassionate, economic, strong, southern, staunch, mainstream noun liberal, Republican, party, •tank, lot•, issue, moderate, Congress, movement, voter verb •believe, win, support, •oppose, •argue, vote, •agree, criticize, attack, appeal• 10826 | 0.90 S online 2860 j noun service, course, site, discussion, company, information, group, resource, magazine, business, music, community misc available, offer, such, provide, free, visit, commercial 10845 | 0.90 M assault 2861 n adj sexual, aggravated, physical, deadly, frontal, amphibious, military, final noun •weapon, •rifle, charge, ban, robbery, rape, victim, air•, •battery, murder verb launch•, report, lead•, convict•, aggravate•, •occur 10297 | 0.95 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 170 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English load 2961 v noun truck, base, item•, gun, bag, food, back, weapon, data, gear, film, pack, machine, •ambulance, stuff misc •into, •onto, fully•, heavily, ready up car, •truck, •stock, •wagon, •plate, •debt, cart, bus, gun, grocery 9901 | 0.95 singer 2962 n adj popular, famous, female, favorite, professional, legendary, talented, choral noun country•, lead•, opera•, jazz•, blues•, gospel•, •songwriter, folk• verb •sing, •perform, feature•, record, train•, accompany, •entertain, •croon, honor, imitate 10300 | 0.91 distribute 2963 v noun •information, food, company, money, product, material, fund, weight, •news, service, film, copy, power, •picture, data misc evenly, •among, widely•, •throughout, •across, million 9996 | 0.94 A ton 2964 n adj metric, estimated, solid, dry, nuclear, hazardous, radioactive, toxic, additional, chemical noun •waste, •money, •food, •carbon, •material, •dioxide, •oil, •coal, •steel, •brick verb weigh•, produce, carry•, generate, dump•, emit, haul, import•, contain•, bury• 10302 | 0.91 24. Comparing words One of the challenges for a language learner is to acquire a sense of the nuances between two related words—where one would be used, but not the other. With the Corpus of Contemporary American English, this is quite easy. Users simply enter the two words, and then the corpus shows which collocates (nearby words) occur with one word but not the other, and vice versa. For example, the following table shows just a fragment of the output for small versus little. We will not explain all of the numbers here, though that explanation is available online. For our purposes, we see that small occurs with business and amount, for example, while little occurs with league and secret. Word 1 (W1): small (35.5%) Word 2 (W2): little (64.5%) 1 amounts 828 7 0.99 2.80 1 while 2115 10 1.00 1.54 2 fraction 517 5 0.99 2.79 2 bit 15677 94 0.99 1.54 3 percentage 902 10 0.99 2.79 3 league 1045 7 0.99 1.54 4 firms 422 5 0.99 2.79 4 brother 1062 10 0.99 1.54 5 businesses 2199 32 0.99 2.78 5 sister 908 11 0.99 1.53 6 telescopes 119 2 0.98 2.77 6 sympathy 142 2 0.99 1.53 7 fee 175 3 0.98 2.77 7 secret 367 6 0.98 1.52 With the web interface, users can compare any set of words, to see semantic (meaning) differences, as well as cultural differences in the use of two related words. The following table gives just a small sampling of some of these searches. [A] [B] Collocate POS Collocates with [A] Collocates with [B] 1 [boy] [girl] [j*] growing, rude sexy, working 2 Democrats Republicans [j*] open-minded, fun mean-spirited, greedy 3 Clinton Bush [v*] confessed, groped, inhale assure, deploying, stumbles 4 utter.[j*] sheer [nn*] silence, despair beauty, joy 5 ground.[n*] floor.[n*] [j*] common, solid concrete, dirty 6 [rob].[v*] [steal].[v*] [nn*] bank, store cars, money Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 177 appointment 3084 n adj judicial, political, special, presidential, federal, scheduled, follow-up, dental, academic, joint noun doctor, court, president, book, •counsel, judge, faculty•, cabinet, recess•, •process verb make•, announce, keep•, schedule•, set•, cancel•, miss•, accept•, arrive, attend 9184 | 0.96 fund 3085 v noun program, project, research, government, study, money, school, grant, tax, foundation, education, company, group, department, organization misc •by, •through, fully•, federally•, publicly• 9359 | 0.94 conviction 3086 n adj religious, criminal, strong, moral, political, deep, firm, absolute noun court, murder, felony•, courage•, arrest•, •rate, case, sentence, appeal, drug verb overturn, lead•, base, share•, win•, uphold, reverse, result•, express•, strengthen 9178 | 0.95 myth 3087 n adj Greek, ancient, popular, urban, modern, racial, religious, Christian, African, classical noun legend, •reality, history, creation•, origin, culture, ritual, version, rape• verb dispel•, perpetuate•, debunk•, base, •surround, explode•, shatter•, destroy•, promote, relate 9506 | 0.92 A solar 3088 j noun system, wind, energy, power, panel, cell, planet, eclipse, radiation, mass, flare, technology misc our, inner, outer, total, thermal, such, install, electric 10617 | 0.82 M vessel 3089 n adj naval, broken, ceramic, Japanese, empty, foreign, tiny, coronary, French, British noun blood•, pressure•, fishing, •wall, research•, heart, ship, water, size, nerve verb •carry, cause, constrict, sail, operate, dilate, contain, sink, damage, board• 10204 | 0.86 A wealthy 3090 j noun family, people, man, tax, country, nation, woman, individual, businessman, class, corporation, suburb misc very, powerful, poor, cut, enough, fabulously, extremely, independently, relatively 9223 | 0.95 friendship 3091 n adj close, cross-sex, personal, social, emotional, civic, lifelong, unlikely, beautiful noun relationship, love, family, •network, quality, group, closeness, treaty, bond•, respect verb develop, form, maintain•, forge, establish, build, strike•, renew•, share, •last 9343 | 0.94 membership 3092 n adj full, annual, cultural, honorary, total, general, permanent noun group, organization, club, union, •fee, church, party, society, community, •due verb include, •grow, increase, apply•, offer, claim•, seek•, expand, maintain•, •cost 9654 | 0.91 A craft 3093 n adj small, contemporary, traditional, local, Indian, alien, native, handmade, ancient, unmanned noun art•, museum, •store, •movement, •show, landing•, food, •shop, college• verb learn•, land•, sell, teach, practice, feature•, hone•, master•, •orbit 10725 | 0.82 M qualify 3094 v noun student•, job, team, •loan, •Medicaid, •benefit, •car, •aid, teacher, person, candidate, background•, credit, income, position misc •for, •as, who•, enough•, highly•, must, order•, fail•, uniquely• 9268 | 0.94 N French 3095 n adj fluent, classic, excellent, broken, passable, impeccable, high-school noun English, German, Italian, •subtitle, word, century•, •toast verb speak, learn•, translate•, teach•, study•, fight, open, publish•, lead, attack 9242 | 0.95 earnings (PL) 3096 n adj annual, high, corporate, future, strong, average, quarterly, net, projected noun •growth, company, year, percent, time•, •share, quarter, stock, rate, analyst verb report, increase, estimate, expect, •grow, •rise, •fall, boost•, base•, •decline 10946 | 0.8 M N waste 3097 v noun •time, money, energy, life, water, resource, hour, minute, effort, •breath, tax, space misc •away, •precious, •little, •valuable, lay•, afford• 9136 | 0.96 asleep 3098 j noun bed, night, wheel, couch, chair, baby, morning, minute, right, class, dinner, dawn misc fall, she, when, still, while, sound, fast, until 9935 | 0.88 F porch 3099 n adj front, screened, wooden, wide, screened-in, covered, sleeping, enclosed noun back•, step, house, •light, door, •swing, chair, floor, side, roof verb sit•, stand•, walk, wait, lean, climb, •overlook, hang, cross, paint 10067 | 0.87 F controversial 3100 j noun issue, decision, figure, program, topic, book, case, subject, plan, proposal, film, policy misc most, more, very, become, highly, remain, less, somewhat 9267 | 0.94 painful 3101 j noun experience, memory, process, thing, death, lesson, decision, reminder, past, moment, procedure, period misc very, more, too, most, less, long, often, difficult 9118 | 0.96 congressman 3102 n adj democratic, conservative, veteran, influential, disgraced, distinguished, incumbent noun Republican•, senator, new, office, committee•, question, •thanks, freshman• verb let, thank, agree, vote, introduce, welcome, elect, sponsor, chair, excuse 10614 | 0.82 S mama 3103 n adj big, hot, happy, dear, sick, sweet, red-hot noun daddy, •Papa, •boy, baby, day, •bear, kitchen, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 184 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English economics 3204 n adj international, supply-side, trickle-down, neoclassical, agricultural, applied, ecological noun professor, politics, law•, school•, science, business, home•, degree•, market•, history verb teach, study•, major•, apply, specialize, •dictate, dominate, revolutionize•, concern 9083 | 0.91 A cabin 3205 n adj main, small, tiny, forward, aft, one-room, first-class noun log•, door, night, wood, room, passenger, mountain, •fever, window, light verb build, stay, fill, enter•, share, rent, hide, •feature, emerge•, •accommodate 9195 | 0.90 F print 3206 v noun paper, newspaper, name, letter, •money, page, copy, book, story, color, image, article, •ad, photograph, form misc fit•, •recycled, save, electronic, •directly, privately•, neatly, original, publish 8827 | 0.94 orange 3207 j noun peel, bowl, zest, light, rind, grove, tree, slice, glow, blossom, jumpsuit misc bright, yellow, grate, wear, red, blue, black 8881 | 0.93 wander 3208 v noun mind•, •street, eye•, •house, night, •hall, attention•, •road, •desert, •town, gaze•, thought•, dog•, park, •aisle misc •around, •through, •into, •off, •away, let•, •about, •among, •far, •aimlessly 9021 | 0.92 F taxpayer 3209 n adj American, local, wealthy, average, individual, common, middle-income, middle-class, middle, huge noun •money, •dollar, cost•, expense, year, government, •fund verb pay, spend, save•, subsidize, protect•, waste•, support, allow, •foot, require 9140 | 0.90 N romantic 3210 j noun comedy, relationship, love, partner, life, notion, interest, poet, dinner, image, music, movie misc most, sexual, less, French, beautiful, English, classical, hopeless 8831 | 0.93 devote 3211 v noun time, •life, attention, resource, •energy, year, effort, •hour, issue, chapter, study, section, site•, research, organization• misc •to, •more, •himself, •entire, •themselves, •exclusively, •entirely 8760 | 0.94 inflation 3212 n adj low, high, economic, annual, double-digit, general, runaway, rampant noun rate, percent, year, unemployment, price, interest, growth, economy, wage, cost verb adjust•, keep•, rise, fall, reduce, •remain, cause, control•, fight•, index• 9214 | 0.89 furthermore 3213 r study, research, •although, process, •suggest, data 9594 | 0.86 A pine 3214 n adj white, tall, green, yellow, lone, towering, knotty noun •tree, •forest, •nut, •needle, oak, •cone, mountain, fir, stand•, wood verb grow, cut, smell•, cover, plant, surround, whisper•, line, sprinkle•, dominate 9014 | 0.91 M agriculture 3215 n adj sustainable, American, urban, commercial, intensive, organic, irrigated noun department, US•, food, industry, secretary, state•, ministry, water, •organization, land verb support•, affect, promote•, engage•, employ, clear•, relate, destroy, decline, •account 9320 | 0.88 A legacy 3216 n adj historical, enduring, colonial, political, cultural, lasting, greatest, rich noun part•, family•, life, •slavery, father, apartheid, system, generation, •carrier verb leave, continue, carry•, create, build, pass, preserve•, inherit, overcome•, reflect• 8693 | 0.95 extension 3217 n adj cooperative, natural, logical, agricultural, full, two-year, one-year, five-year, direct, indefinite noun contract•, •service, •cord, life, leg, program, •agent, hip•, research, knee verb sign•, grant, file•, support•, seek•, represent•, oppose•, •expire, strengthen 8972 | 0.92 A barrel 3218 n adj wooden, double, huge, rifled, golden, fluted, octagonal, adjusting noun •oil, •day, gun, pork•, rifle, price, stock, bottom•, shotgun, •chest verb produce•, point, stare•, fill, sell, drop, rise, fire, stick, place 8935 | 0.92 arrival 3219 n adj new, recent, late, dead, imminent, international, unexpected, impending, expected, scheduled noun time, departure, month•, age, hour•, immigrant, spring, •troop, minute•, •European verb await•, announce•, wait•, greet•, prepare•, celebrate•, signal•, coincide, anticipate•, •prompt 8571 | 0.96 register 3220 v noun voter, face, •degree, car, thermometer•, offender, mind, •complaint, •surprise, gun, •Republican, •course, poll, citizen, Democrat misc •vote, require•, barely•, million, fail•, insert•, officially• 8524 | 0.96 flavor 3221 n adj rich, sweet, strong, fresh, mild, intense, full, nutty, subtle, smoky noun texture, color, food, dish, fruit, aroma, tomato, ice, chocolate, chicken verb add, blend, bring•, enhance, develop, retain•, taste, impart•, enjoy•, •meld 9335 | 0.88 M N versus 3222 i percent, issue, low, per, debate, continued•, Roe•, male, difference, nature, private, poor, benefit 9136 | 0.90 A risk 3223 v noun •life, perception, reduction, consequence, •death, •limb, •injury, •loss, •career, •damage, •wrath, •confrontation, •reputation, •neck, exposure misc •lose, willing•, rather•, •everything, decide•, worth• 8483 | 0.97 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 191 criminal 3307 n adj violent, convicted, common, dangerous, hardened, petty, international, tough, habitual, serious noun war•, crime, career•, justice, law, street, police, master•, adult•, officer verb treat•, catch, violate, prosecute•, •commit, arrest, •proceed, act, execute, identify• 8349 | 0.95 widespread 3308 j noun use, support, problem, belief, practice, acceptance, concern, corruption, abuse, attention, adoption, perception misc there, more, among, become, most, despite, cause, lead 8669 | 0.92 A transformation 3309 n adj social, political, economic, radical, personal, cultural, major, dramatic, profound, structural noun process, •society, change, economy, conflict•, data, market, strategy verb undergo•, •occur, involve, lead, require, describe, experience, witness•, achieve•, perform 8925 | 0.89 A physically 3310 r mentally, emotionally, •active, •abuse, •fit, both•, feel, psychologically, •demand, sexually, •disabled, spiritually 8325 | 0.95 provider 3311 n adj other, large, medical, private, primary, social, leading, preferred, financial, content noun service•, care•, health•, Internet•, healthcare•, abortion•, family, child, company, cable• verb •offer, require, pay, choose, check, •charge, compete, •assess, link, assist 9407 | 0.84 A admire 3312 v noun work, man, •view, •courage, artist, •beauty, •ability, quality, writer, •handiwork, •scenery, •honesty, critic, politician, visitor• misc •her, •him, much, most, always•, greatly, really• 8330 | 0.95 headline 3313 n adj late, big, national, front-page, tabloid, front, international, quick, sensational, top noun news, newspaper•, story, day, week, morning, health•, banner•, page, look• verb make•, read, grab•, run, scream, dominate•, •announce, hit, blare, proclaim 8577 | 0.92 S miracle 3314 n adj economic, medical, modern, minor, alive, near, greatest, absolute noun •worker, •cure, •drug, •boy, kind•, •baby verb •happen, work•, perform•, believe•, expect•, hope•, pray•, •occur, witness•, produce 8357 | 0.95 institutional 3315 j noun investor, change, structure, board, review, arrangement, effectiveness, support, framework, policy, church, reform misc political, social, revolutionary, such, within, personal, individual, economic, cultural 9630 | 0.82 A homeless 3316 j noun people, shelter, man, child, woman, family, person, youth, city, population, street, program misc help, leave, live, poor, among, million, mentally, ill, house 8625 | 0.92 N impressive 3317 j noun result, number, record, list, array, performance, collection, victory, figure, display, gain, achievement misc most, more, very, even, as, pretty, less 8322 | 0.95 M chef 3318 n adj top, head, French, personal, local, award-winning noun executive•, pastry•, restaurant, food, owner, kitchen, recipe, celebrity•, •knife, master• verb cook, prepare, teach, hire•, train, name, feature, •whip, inspire, •mix 8977 | 0.88 N tactic 3319 n adj new, political, military, aggressive, effective, diversionary, strong-arm, similar, legal, common noun strategy, scare•, campaign, guerrilla•, war, pressure, sales•, use verb employ, •work, change, adopt, switch•, engage•, resort•, defend, •fail, apply 8345 | 0.95 measurement 3320 n adj accurate, precise, direct, curriculum-based, standard, objective, actual, quantitative, physical, recent noun error, system, instrument, data, method, model, performance, •technique, study, •period verb make, take, base, include, obtain, compare, allow, determine, •indicate, perform 9490 | 0.83 A identification 3321 n adj early, positive, ethnic, personal, strong, religious, specific, organizational noun •number, process, •card, problem, system, •procedure, level•, team, form• verb require, lead•, include, base, allow, indicate, carry•, facilitate•, obtain, correlate 9163 | 0.86 A province 3322 n adj southern, northern, Canadian, eastern, central, Serbian, maritime, sole, exclusive, various noun state, capital, governor•, area, home•, frontier•, village•, Sunni, renegade•, authority verb visit•, locate, •border, divide, populate•, administer, govern, tour•, •secede 8664 | 0.91 A moderate 3323 j noun Republican, Democrat, level, exercise, activity, amount, heat, correlation, leader, party, intensity, risk misc more, high, severe, low, conservative, expensive, under, liberal 8487 | 0.93 consensus 3324 n adj general, national, broad, political, scientific, international, growing noun building, group, lack•, issue, policy, decision, •view, •conference, panel, •builder verb reach, build•, •emerge, achieve, develop, •exist, reflect•, base, seek•, support 8695 | 0.91 A lovely 3325 j noun woman, lady, girl, wife, day, face, eye, place, man, house, home, garden misc young, little, such, oh, beautiful, quite, blue, sweet 8548 | 0.92 F comedy 3326 n adj romantic, musical, stand-up, black, best, dark, divine noun •series, show, •club, drama, situation•, film, TV, music, tragedy, •writer verb direct, feature, perform, mix•, air, •ensue, •concern, •depict 8742 | 0.90 N Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 198 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English noun study, support•, result, test, research, testing, evidence, analysis, method, set verb •predict, suggest, reject, examine, confirm, base, develop, formulate, •state, •explain 9282 | 0.82 A upset 3405 v noun •balance, stomach, •cart, order, fan, •status, •equilibrium, •stability, •ecosystem misc so, •because, her, really•, little•, •over, extremely•, terribly•, visibly•, bit•, particularly•, •delicate, clearly•, deeply•, easily• 7946 | 0.95 acceptable 3406 j noun level, behavior, way, risk, standard, reliability, solution, limit, range, form, alternative, result misc more, socially, find, consider, become, perfectly, within 8189 | 0.93 A favor 3407 n adj sexual, special, big, political, personal, huge, divine, enormous, royal noun party•, curry•, percent, odds•, champagne, vote•, argument•, gift, toast, scale• verb do•, ask, return•, fall•, work•, find•, gain•, rule• 7811 | 0.97 couch 3408 n adj asleep, comfortable, living-room, comfy, overstuffed, lumpy, sagging, upholstered noun room, •potato, chair, living, leather•, back, arm, cushion, •TV, bed verb sit•, sleep•, lie•, lay•, fall•, settle•, lean, seat•, •face, sprawl• 8484 | 0.89 F defendant 3409 n adj guilty, criminal, black, federal, corporate, individual, potential, particular, indigent, attractive noun case, court, right, trial, jury•, plaintiff, lawyer, evidence•, judge, action verb find•, convict, represent, allow, name•, •plead, claim, prove, deny, •face 8764 | 0.86 A compose 3410 v noun music, group, student, song, letter, piece, poem, team•, committee•, •member, image, force•, melody, picture, element misc •herself, •entirely, •mostly, primarily, largely, •mainly 8321 | 0.91 A cool 3411 v noun minute, rack, water, pan, air, heat, hour, •heel, cake, cookie, engine, skin, cup, •degree, planet misc •down, •completely, •slightly, allow•, •before, aside•, until, let• off after, •bit, weather 8243 | 0.92 M ballot 3412 n adj military, secret, disputed, presidential, provisional, statewide, primary, confusing, questionable, manual noun absentee•, •box, initiative, voter, state, measure, election, name•, paper•, issue verb cast•, count, vote, appear•, recount, place•, stuff•, •arrive 8610 | 0.88 S N related 3413 j noun issue, problem, service, article, activity, group, study, question, species, field, research, health misc other, closely, such, including, special, well, separate, involve 8540 | 0.88 A cluster 3414 n adj globular, open, large, dense, distant, double, tight, individual, similar, blue noun star, galaxy, •analysis, flower, •bomb, member, •office, •building, core, peer• verb form, •contain, lie, identify, produce, surround, consist, gather, group, observe 9229 | 0.82 M pie 3415 n adj homemade, economic, baked, perfect, humble, favorite, prepared noun apple•, pumpkin•, piece•, •crust, pecan•, •plate, cream, •pan, slice•, pot• verb bake, eat•, serve, fill, cook, place, cover, throw, prepare, •cool 8177 | 0.92 concern 3416 v noun issue•, question•, problem•, safety, •relationship, research•, •effect, data•, debate•, aspect, •nature, quality, article•, factor, attitude misc •about, most, •itself, •themselves, especially•, •ourselves, •yourself, particularly•, environmental, deep•, specific, directly 8100 | 0.93 A recording 3417 n adj audio, live, digital, original, early, magnetic, available, electronic, cast, professional noun •studio, tape•, •industry, •artist, video•, sound, •session, •contract verb make, play, listen•, hear, release, sing, produce, feature, obtain, review 8312 | 0.91 rail 3418 n adj light, high-speed, top, bottom, front, wooden, heavy noun •line, •system, •car, commuter•, road, side•, bus, •service, •yard, •station verb lean•, ride•, stand, build, cut, connect, grab•, •link, climb•, grip• 8257 | 0.91 decrease 3419 v noun •percent, number, rate, level, •risk, •amount, cost, behavior, size, pressure, activity, •chance, •likelihood, population, body misc significantly, •during, actually•, slightly, dramatically 8579 | 0.88 A rape 3420 n adj sexual, attempted, statutory, alleged, brutal, marital, mass, forcible noun victim, murder, case, date•, woman, •incest, charge, crime, assault, •trial verb report, commit, accuse•, convict•, •occur, involve, deal, arrest•, prevent• 8301 | 0.91 S interrupt 3421 v noun thought, moment, conversation, voice, girl•, •flow, phone, sound, call, sleep, reverie, career, cycle, silence, dinner misc •by, let•, sorry•, hate•, suddenly•, rudely•, frequently, briefly 8116 | 0.93 F architect 3422 n adj chief, local, principal, famous, renowned, naval, Italian, French noun landscape•, designer, engineer, building, design, artist, project, course•, golf•, generation verb build, hire, train, commission, select, renovate, practice, •specialize, collaborate, •sketch 8345 | 0.90 M N sigh 3423 v noun •relief, shoulder, •pleasure, forehead, •resignation, •exasperation, •frustration, •satisfaction, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 205 economy, state, verge•, regime, •empire, market, price, building verb lead•, follow•, cause, prevent•, result, avoid•, suffer•, •occur, trigger•, crush 7726 | 0.93 snake 3533 n adj poisonous, venomous, brown, deadly, red, giant, live, coiled noun head, •oil, water, eye, •charmer, garter•, skin, •pit, coral• verb bite, kill, •slither, eat, catch, coil, •crawl, writhe, hiss, •shed 7850 | 0.92 F march 3534 v noun army•, parade, •Washington, soldier•, thousand•, troop•, line, •mile, •step, road, king, protester•, demonstrator•, •town, saint• misc •into, •through, •up, •toward, •across, •off 7630 | 0.94 experimental 3535 j noun group, condition, study, design, control, drug, treatment, research, result, procedure, program, subject misc theoretical, receive, conduct, test, clinical, assign, significant 8391 | 0.85 A civilization 3536 n adj western, American, ancient, human, modern, European, advanced, early, Islamic noun clash•, history, world, culture, society, cradle•, end, course, progress, decline verb build, destroy, create, renew•, save•, •exist, threaten, advance, •depend, •survive 7863 | 0.91 A classical 3537 j noun music, jazz, tradition, art, theory, world, style, ballet, musician, form, model, concert misc play, modern, contemporary, listen, western, Greek, Chinese, traditional 7961 | 0.90 A fold 3538 v noun arm, hand, paper, •chest, mixture, leg, chair, edge, egg, seat, •lap, clothes, wing, table, •tent misc •into, •over, •across, •back, neatly, gently• down top, rear, back 7902 | 0.91 F weakness 3539 n adj human, major, economic, relative, greatest, inherent, potential, physical, individual, moral noun strength•, sign•, muscle, system, area, moment•, control, economy, •lack, pain verb show•, identify, exploit, expose•, reveal•, overcome, point•, discuss, demonstrate, •spread 7584 | 0.94 A corridor 3540 n adj long, narrow, main, dark, empty, central, short noun room, end•, door, •night, hospital•, •power, wall, floor, street•, hotel• verb walk•, lead, move, connect, enter, line, light, fill, echo•, •stretch 8303 | 0.86 F harsh 3541 j noun reality, word, condition, light, voice, drug, environment, critic, winter, expression, criticism, punishment misc too, under, little, sound, face, particularly, pretty 7428 | 0.96 retail 3542 j noun store, price, sales, outlet, business, space, market, food, chain, industry, shop, office misc sell, suggest, wholesale, national, suggested, square, commercial, residential 7929 | 0.90 N mortgage 3543 n adj adjustable-rate, low, fixed-rate, monthly, reverse, fixed, residential noun rate, •payment, home, loan, interest, •lender, •company, •broker verb pay, refinance, buy, rise, qualify•, afford, apply•, cover•, •average 8137 | 0.88 N harder 3544 j noun time, line, job, question, drug, edge, look, task, worker, wood, sell, surface misc it, make, than, get, much, work, find 7430 | 0.96 developer 3545 n adj private, local, real-estate, financial, urban, prominent, independent, leading, nonprofit, principal noun estate•, software•, land, property, city, project, builder, curriculum•, home, game verb •build, sell, require, •create, •buy, allow•, plan, seek, •agree, own 8121 | 0.88 N legend 3546 n adj urban, living, local, ancient, Indian, golden, Arthurian, famous, medieval noun myth, stuff•, history, music•, rock, blue•, baseball•, jazz• verb become•, •grow, •surround, inspire, bear•, replace•, print, feature•, •persist, •circulate 7623 | 0.93 excitement 3547 n adj sexual, full, growing, initial, tremendous, nervous, sheer, intellectual noun lot•, sense•, eye, voice, kind•, energy, air, level, fear, fun verb feel, generate, create•, add•, bring•, contain•, share•, fill, experience, •surround 7483 | 0.95 enforce 3548 v noun •law, rule, •regulation, state, right, standard, policy, government•, court, power•, •agreement, order, police•, •sanction, authority• misc •environmental, federal, strictly•, •existing, difficult•, fail•, responsible•, vigorously, rarely• 7746 | 0.92 A murder 3549 v noun people, man, wife, child, woman, father, husband, mother, daughter, son, brother, girl, parent, police, night misc brutally•, accuse•, kill, torture, attempt•, whose•, allegedly• 7726 | 0.92 S occasional 3550 j noun series, use, visit, article, call, problem, piece, trip, tree, appearance, sound, visitor misc only, even, except, despite, well, punctuate, than 7485 | 0.95 cowboy 3551 n adj black, urban, gay, wild, authentic, lonesome, lone, pointy-toed, aging noun •hat, •boot, movie, •Indian, jeans, shirt, rodeo•, bowl, season, team verb wear•, •win, •ride, watch•, sing, beat, dress•, feature•, marry•, •rank 7917 | 0.90 N minimum 3552 j noun wage, standard, requirement, level, size, age, investment, number, amount, increase, tax, sentence Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 212 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English hurry 3643 v noun door, •room, •street, car, •kitchen, •hall, •step, foot, window, crowd, hallway, footstep, daddy misc •out, •off, •toward, •away, •through, •over, •past, •across, better•, please• up •wait, better•, •finish, please 8055 | 0.86 F insect 3644 n adj other, beneficial, small, aquatic, tiny, flying, dead, certain, native, giant noun plant, bird, •pest, disease, species, •repellent, scale•, fish, •bite, food verb eat, kill•, feed, attract, control•, catch, •fly, •crawl, collect, swarm 8282 | 0.83 M arena 3645 n adj political, new, public, international, main, global, downtown, electoral noun sport•, •stage, policy, stadium, •football, center, league, basketball•, ice•, hockey• verb enter•, build, fill, step•, compete, pack, dominate, house, finance, constitute• 7444 | 0.92 A drift 3646 v noun eye•, cloud, mind•, smoke•, thought•, boat, snow, water, •room, air, •sleep, window, •current, sea, music• misc •into, •away, •through, •toward, let•, •across off •sleep, •into, •again, voice•, thought, last•, •wake, herself•, slowly•, •somewhere back •sleep, mind•, thought•, •toward 7667 | 0.90 F notice 3647 n adj short, public, written, special, prior, advanced noun moment•, day, advance•, hour•, week, eviction•, month•, •appeal verb take•, give•, put•, receive•, escape•, send, serve•, post, issue, attract• 7199 | 0.96 domain 3648 n adj public, eminent, private, specific, different, affective, academic, cognitive, exclusive, various noun •name, knowledge, life, decision, policy•, score, development, sport, loss•, source• verb enter•, relate, define, exercise, register, extend, expand, address, establish, assess 8023 | 0.86 A cave 3649 n adj dark, mammoth, deep, nearby, underwater, prehistoric, shallow, secret noun wall, mouth, entrance, •painting, mountain, bat, snow•, floor, rock, wind verb live•, hide, explore, enter•, discover, crawl•, visit•, sleep, •belong, occupy 7657 | 0.90 F African-American 3650 j noun community, student, history, study, culture, voter, people, population, experience, art, artist 7978 | 0.86 consistently 3651 r •high, show, •low, report, •support, study•, level, apply, research•, •rank, poll•, produce, fail, •demonstrate 7461 | 0.92 A leap 3652 v noun heart•, •air, flame•, car, water, tree, door, arm, dog•, window, mind, fire, wall, •conclusion, cat• misc •from, •into, •out, •over, •onto, •forward, •ahead, toward, •grab 7813 | 0.88 F final 3653 n adj regional, national, open, sectional, consecutive, 100-meter, all-American noun game, conference•, year, cup•, team, •minute, •week, tournament•, point verb reach•, win, play, lose, advance•, contain, •consist, score, miss•, include 8072 | 0.85 N effectiveness 3654 n adj institutional, instructional, overall, relative, organizational, long-term, perceived noun program, study, teacher, intervention, safety, cost•, research, measure, treatment, strategy verb evaluate•, determine•, assess•, improve•, increase•, demonstrate•, enhance•, examine•, reduce, depend 8204 | 0.84 A maximum 3655 j noun rate, amount, number, security, speed, level, sentence, benefit, value, prison, score, efficiency misc possible, reach, provide, achieve, allow, minimum, set, allowable 7567 | 0.91 A array 3656 n adj wide, vast, broad, large, impressive, diverse, dizzying noun •service, •program, •option, •product, •color, telescope, sensor, •choice, •material verb offer•, provide, include•, produce•, contain, face•, feature•, consist, •range, •measure 7537 | 0.91 A unexpected 3657 j noun way, place, event, result, finding, turn, death, change, problem, twist, effect, development misc something, most, happen, totally, expect, sudden, completely 7084 | 0.97 curtain 3658 n adj heavy, final, sheer, thick, thin, gauzy, yellow, beaded, front, light noun window, iron•, shower•, lace•, side, velvet•, •call, •rod, door verb draw, pull, open, close, hang, •fall, part, lift, •rise, watch 7590 | 0.90 F sandwich 3659 n adj grilled, cold, fresh, favorite, peanut-butter, half- eaten, green, toasted, delicious, tasty noun cheese•, salad, butter•, peanut•, chicken•, turkey•, ham•, tuna•, •shop verb make, eat•, serve, order•, bring•, buy, finish•, munch•, sell•, place 7441 | 0.92 F peaceful 3660 j noun solution, resolution, world, means, settlement, coexistence, way, life, place, transition, change, protest misc more, nuclear, quiet, democratic, relatively, political, stable, seek 7279 | 0.94 humanity 3661 n adj common, full, shared, basic, very, essential, modern, suffering noun crime•, habitat•, nature, rest•, future, history, whole, sense, genocide, piece• verb commit, deny, save, face, recognize, benefit•, destroy•, •survive, unite, diminish 7533 | 0.91 A prediction 3662 n adj dire, accurate, true, early, future, theoretical, significant, correct, optimistic, general noun model, result, accuracy, climate, weather•, •outcome, analysis, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 218 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English 30. Phrasal verbs Phrasal verbs present a problem for non-native speakers in English because these verbs are often so idiomatic. For example, in the following phrases the phrasal verb (bold) does not literally mean out, up, or over: the play turned out well, I didn’t make up the answer, they took over the city. The following is a list of the 100 most frequent phrasal verbs in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. Note that the part of speech tagger does not attempt to separate more literal and more figurative meanings (he looked up the ladder / he looked up several words; she went on a boat / she went on and on), and so the following frequencies include both types of meanings. Note also that these frequencies do not include separated phrasal verbs (pick it up, wake the children up). Finally, note that these are grouped by lemma, so come back = come / comes / came / coming back, etc. Frequency Phrasal verb Frequency Phrasal verb Frequency Phrasal verb 56638 go on 11233 be back 5489 come over 40285 come back 10733 wake up 5446 hold on 37168 come up 10698 look back 5274 line up 35719 go back 10328 go away 5254 hang on 33613 pick up 10038 take off 5251 go through 28067 find out 9841 carry out 5222 turn up 26705 come out 9092 look down 5214 pay off 26094 go out 8851 take up 5194 bring in 25268 grow up 8736 look out 5182 turn back 23949 point out 8266 take over 5156 hang up 23563 come in 8033 pull out 5039 put out 23284 turn out 7932 hold up 4998 break up 21711 set up 7619 move on 4992 lay out 19900 end up 7511 go in 4958 hang out 18558 give up 7458 catch up 4944 welcome back 18207 make up 7457 open up 4874 build up 17658 be about 7381 reach out 4853 start out 17375 sit down 7342 turn around 4822 slow down 17356 look up 7237 look around 4817 sit up 16116 come on 7056 take out 4792 get away 15388 get up 6846 go off 4719 move in 14697 take on 6693 put up 4513 look over 14609 go down 6378 set out 4481 pull up 14505 figure out 6376 break down 4472 walk away 14368 show up 5981 keep up 4413 call out 13668 get back 5915 bring up 4346 hold out 12733 come down 5891 check out 4193 cut off 12618 go up 5736 wind up 4164 take away 12600 get out 5690 clean up 4017 bring about 12559 stand up 5557 shut down 3981 come along 3952 run out 3901 stand out 3826 sign up 3935 bring out 3827 set off 3804 back up 11512 work out 5491 go over Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 219 grip 3763 n adj firm, strong, tight, overhand, better, powerful, underhand noun hand, arm, •power, death•, edge•, bar, iron•, strength, finger, pistol• verb come•, get•, lose•, tighten, loosen•, keep•, release•, hold, relax•, break• 7104 | 0.92 F profound 3764 j noun effect, change, impact, implication, sense, difference, influence, consequence, experience, question, loss, transformation misc more, most, such, social, human, express, economic, undergo 6967 | 0.94 A trigger 3765 v noun •reaction, •response, event, •memory, attack, change, war, alarm, action, •release, crisis, stress, explosion, process, death misc likely•, nuclear, immune, certain, automatically• 6987 | 0.94 M stuff 3766 v noun pocket, mouth, hand, envelope, turkey, chicken, •face, bill, •cheese, food, clothes, tomato, rice, meat, ball misc •into, •them, •inside, •under, •full, •themselves 7042 | 0.93 F uncertainty 3767 n adj great, economic, political, scientific, future, strict, considerable, verbal noun risk, •principle, fear, level•, lot•, condition•, period•, sense, situation, degree• verb create, reduce•, •surround, face, add•, remain, cause, •exist, remove•, express 7155 | 0.91 A driving 3768 j noun force, range, rain, record, distance, school, tour, test, experience, condition, skill, habit misc behind, drunk, drunken, keep, reckless, within, arrest, intoxicate 6834 | 0.95 enthusiasm 3769 n adj great, full, infectious, initial, contagious, youthful, renewed, unbridled, popular noun energy, lack•, student, lot•, interest, level, excitement, project, passion verb share•, show•, dampen•, generate, lose•, express•, curb•, greet•, •wane, inspire 6781 | 0.96 complexity 3770 n adj great, increasing, social, human, cognitive, political, cultural, growing, increased, full noun system, level•, •life, issue, size•, task, •relationship, diversity, depth, cost verb understand•, add•, increase, reduce•, reveal•, recognize•, capture•, illustrate•, •arise, ignore• 7279 | 0.90 A excuse 3771 n adj good, lame, poor, perfect, convenient, sorry, valid, legitimate noun explanation, •failure, sort•, justification, abuse, list•, •inaction verb make•, use•, give•, find•, provide•, •avoid, stop, accept•, •ignore, invent• 6793 | 0.96 cafe 3772 n adj outdoor, grand, downtown, nearby, crowded, favorite, open-air noun restaurant, street, •standard, bar, sidewalk•, table, Internet•, coffee, owner, •society verb sit, open, •serve, eat, own, drink, hang, line, enter•, •host 7226 | 0.90 N survey 3773 v noun student, •scene, study, area, •room, group, teacher, •damage, American•, university•, •landscape, analyst•, land, field, researcher misc •report, recently•, •determine, •indicate, nearly, •regarding, conduct, briefly 6937 | 0.94 A virtual 3774 j noun reality, world, community, tour, environment, space, monopoly, computer, network, technology, machine, library misc create, become, real, unknown, actual, electronic, interactive, digital 7123 | 0.91 undermine 3775 v noun effort, •credibility, •authority, •confidence, system, •ability, policy, •support, •legitimacy, democracy, •stability, regime, attempt, •integrity, •claim misc try•, far•, threaten•, public, economic, seriously•, •traditional, seek•, tend•, military, severely• 7174 | 0.91 A unity 3776 n adj national, political, Christian, cultural, racial, visible, thematic noun government, church, sense•, party, diversity, organization•, family, •purpose, peace, principle verb maintain•, achieve, promote•, create•, form•, preserve•, seek, depend, •prevail 7378 | 0.88 A chaos 3777 n adj economic, total, political, social, complete, civil, utter, controlled noun order, •theory, war, confusion, violence, anarchy, kind•, midst•, disorder verb create•, bring, cause, lead, •follow, •reign, descend•, throw•, result, •ensue 6748 | 0.96 commonly 3778 r most•, •use, more•, •used, •call, •find, •refer, •associate, •hold, •report 7287 | 0.89 A endless 3779 j noun possibility, stream, hour, supply, series, list, cycle, line, variety, war, summer, number misc seemingly, seem, almost, spend, blue, gray, virtually 6845 | 0.95 rhetoric 3780 n adj political, classical, inflammatory, harsh, nationalist, religious, empty, common, fiery, official noun kind•, campaign, •reality, war, action, lot•, policy, art, politics, gap• verb use, •suggest, match, employ, •surround, •sound, avoid•, soften•, •emphasize, combine 7284 | 0.89 A trait 3781 n adj common, certain, positive, human, cultural, genetic, personal, different, specific, desirable noun personality•, •anxiety, character•, gene, measure, value, scale, behavior, individual, plant verb share, associate, possess•, exhibit•, identify, inherit, develop, pass, define, reflect 7450 | 0.87 A Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 226 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English chronic 3888 j noun disease, pain, illness, condition, fatigue, problem, patient, syndrome, health, infection, stress, treatment misc suffer, acute, such, cause, treat, medical, obstructive, pulmonary 7390 | 0.84 A evil 3889 j noun spirit, man, empire, eye, people, thing, force, person, act, scientist, twin, power misc good, off, inherently, truly, intrinsically, dead, Soviet 6545 | 0.95 handsome 3890 j noun man, face, woman, boy, guy, feature, prince, building, son, hair, husband, couple misc young, very, tall, strong, dark, rich, charming, quite 6878 | 0.90 F finish 3891 n adj best, second-place, third-place, strong, smooth, predicted, fourth-place, top, original, fifth-place noun •line, start•, race, matte•, photo•, point, season, place, surface•, color verb let•, cross•, apply, paint, reach•, fight• 6801 | 0.91 M N hug 3892 v noun arm, mother, •knee, father, mom, body, •tree, girl, •ground, •wall, boy, •wife, •coast, baby, dad misc •her, •him, she, •me, kiss, •other, •each, around, •tightly, hold, •hard 6873 | 0.90 F wow 3893 u oh•, really, yeah, bow•, OK, yes, •thank 7202 | 0.86 S pursuit 3894 n adj hot, trivial, relentless, intellectual, academic, individual, active, common, aggressive, single-minded noun •happiness, liberty•, •truth, goal, •knowledge, •justice, leisure•, •excellence, team, •pleasure verb continue•, follow, engage•, abandon•, encourage•, facilitate•, devote•, justify• 6566 | 0.94 A residence 3895 n adj private, permanent, primary, official, current, principal, temporary, legal noun •hall, place•, age•, year, ambassador, artist•, home, length•, location, occupation• verb take•, enter, maintain•, establish•, occupy, secure, search•, grant•, •resemble 6620 | 0.94 loud 3896 r out•, laugh•, so•, •enough, too•, •clear, hear, as•, read•, cry•, voice, very•, talk•, music 6843 | 0.90 F promising 3897 j noun result, research, future, approach, career, technology, drug, area, treatment, student, development, sign misc most, look, new, more, young, seem, several, appear 6502 | 0.95 disk 3898 n adj hard, floppy, compact, herniated, solar, optical, flat noun •drive, computer•, •space, accretion•, file, galaxy, data, •jockey, plastic, surface verb form, surround, appear, •contain, store, save•, remove, rotate, spin, flatten• 7589 | 0.82 M doorway 3899 n adj open, arched, dark, narrow, empty, front, lighted noun room, kitchen, bedroom, window, office, hall, step•, bathroom, parlor verb stand•, appear•, watch, stop, walk, lean•, •lead, pause•, fill 7307 | 0.85 F diagnosis 3900 n adj differential, early, medical, clinical, psychiatric, accurate, initial, definitive, correct noun •treatment, cancer, year•, patient, disorder, disease, doctor, symptom, age•, depression verb make, confirm, receive•, •base, include, establish, support, accept•, obtain, vary 7764 | 0.8 A scout 3901 n adj pro, local, chief, longtime, veteran, lunar, experienced noun boy•, girl•, •troop, eagle•, life•, •leader, talent• verb earn, join, send, •prepare, attend, impress•, sue, hire, •ride, recruit 7955 | 0.78 M cancel 3902 v noun flight, •trip, •plan, show, •contract, •order, •appointment, •subscription, service, airline•, official, tour, month, concert, performance misc after, last, •each, •other, force•, delay•, decide•, threaten•, abruptly• 6479 | 0.95 desire 3903 v noun information, result, outcome, weight, goal, top, mixture, peace, seed, minute, privacy, unity, reduction, happiness, •grace misc leave•, whatever•, place, •immediately, additional, fresh, truly•, sexual 6807 | 0.91 A amid 3904 i stand•, •chaos, set•, •report, sit•, •concern, •growing, resign•, •tree, •allegation, •charge, •controversy, •economic, •crowd 6579 | 0.94 N envelope 3905 n adj stamped, self-addressed, white, sealed, brown, thick, outer, business-size noun manila•, hand, letter, return, back, paper, •pocket, stamp, address, coin• verb push•, open•, •contain, put, send, pull, hold, seal, pick, place 6673 | 0.93 F sooner 3906 r •later, •than, no•, •rather, come•, much•, •better, happen•, start, die, expect, lot•, maybe, •expected 6437 | 0.96 beam 3907 n adj high, wooden, narrow, exposed, low, main, single, powerful, heavy, x-ray noun laser•, •light, flashlight, electron•, ceiling, steel•, balance• verb use, focus, shine, sweep, •hit, shoot, support, direct, send, produce 7196 | 0.85 F reluctant 3908 j noun official, leader, witness, reader, warrior, hero, decision, smile, acquiescence misc very, may, seem, talk, leave, often, accept 6377 | 0.96 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 233 shortage 4029 n adj severe, critical, chronic, serious, nursing, acute, special, future, widespread, foreign noun food, water, labor•, teacher, housing, worker, power•, area, priest verb face•, cause, create, suffer•, lead, experience•, result, address•, •force, reduce 6300 | 0.93 reception 4030 n adj warm, cool, critical, mixed, enthusiastic, chilly, hostile noun •area, wedding•, •room, •desk, cocktail•, •dinner, •hall, touchdown• verb hold, receive, include•, follow, attend•, host, feature, enter•, honor, •celebrate 6300 | 0.93 offering 4031 n adj public, initial, new, late, burnt, secondary, academic, traditional, recent, current noun stock, course•, •price, program, share, service, product•, peace•, market, college verb •include, expand•, raise, place, •range, complete, accept, improve, enhance, •attract 6350 | 0.92 huh 4032 u uh•, •yeah, no, •oh, pretty•, •yes, bad•, cool•, nice•, •OK, stuff•, funny• 7050 | 0.83 S F credibility 4033 n adj instant, scientific, moral, institutional, perceived, academic, added noun •problem, issue, witness, lot•, •gap, loss•, •public, source, legitimacy verb lose•, give•, undermine•, establish•, lend•, gain•, damage•, restore•, destroy•, lack• 6313 | 0.93 S chin 4034 n adj double, pointed, strong, sharp, cleft, bearded, pointy noun hand, nose, eye, •chest, head, cheek, hair, finger, shoulder, lip verb lift•, rest, rub•, tuck, raise, scratch•, stroke•, tilt, jut, drop 6760 | 0.87 F physics 4035 n adj nuclear, theoretical, applied, modern, fundamental, atomic, high-energy noun law•, chemistry, professor, particle•, quantum•, •department, student, science, biology, prize• verb teach, study•, understand, predict, •assume, earn•, defy•, govern, •dictate, solve 8709 | 0.67 A vanish 4036 v noun •air, face, smile•, light•, moment, month, tree, fear•, sun•, sky, minute, screen, •crowd, grin•, pain• misc before, seem•, simply•, •without, quickly 6477 | 0.91 F blend 4037 v noun mixture, egg, color, ingredient, flavor, bowl, flour, sugar, oil, butter, salt, blender•, cream, sound, processor• misc •with, until•, •into, well, stir, •together in •with, well, •better, almost•, able•, easily, perfectly, ability•, •among, seamlessly 6606 | 0.89 M noon 4038 n adj high, past, hot, bright, following, sunny noun day, morning, time, sun, hour, •night, sale• verb begin, start•, arrive, sleep•, wake, finish, drink• 6648 | 0.88 N precious 4039 j noun time, metal, life, resource, stone, thing, commodity, moment, gift, child, water, gold misc most, few, more, too, something, waste, lose, spend 6130 | 0.96 command 4040 v noun •attention, •respect, force, •price, army, general, troop, God•, voice, •support, officer, division, king•, authority, colonel misc •high, special•, military, top, naval 6246 | 0.94 wake 4041 n adj Irish, immediate, deadly, devastating, turbulent, foaming noun •war, •attack, •hurricane, •scandal, boat, •death, •disaster, •tragedy, •bombing, •island verb leave•, follow•, trail•, emerge•, attend•, form•, suffer• 6093 | 0.96 flip 4042 v noun •switch, •page, •light, •coin, book, hair, hand, head, •channel, car, side, •card, paper, air, radio misc •over, •through, •open, then•, •off, •back, down, •onto, •upside, •forward 6510 | 0.90 F scary 4043 j noun thing, movie, part, story, thought, place, stuff, guy, situation, face, feeling, experience misc it, very, really, little, pretty, too 6245 | 0.94 S pizza 4044 n adj frozen, local, grilled, fresh, leftover, cold, refrigerated noun slice, •crust, •parlor, cheese, •dough, •box, •delivery, pasta, pepperoni•, •place verb eat•, order•, deliver, serve, bake, pick, sell, taste 6330 | 0.92 toilet 4045 n adj portable, public, composting, chemical, closed, marine noun •paper, •seat, water, •bowl, roll, shower, sink, •training, bathroom, •tank verb flush, use•, sit•, clean•, throw, scrub, install, •train, fix•, overflow 6336 | 0.92 F representative 4046 j noun sample, government, democracy, group, committee, body, data, institution, example, figure, system, sampling misc nationally, truly, select, democratic, broadly, obtain, fairly 6495 | 0.90 A silk 4047 n adj black, white, red, blue, green, fine, yellow, embroidered, pink, raw noun •dress, •shirt, •scarf, •tie, •blouse, cotton, •gown, suit, jacket, •robe verb wear•, wrap, cover, remove, hang, pull, drape, weave, line 6474 | 0.90 F bid 4048 n adj presidential, low, hostile, winning, Olympic, unsuccessful, successful, failed, automatic noun •committee, re-election, city, price, takeover•, reelection verb make•, lose•, win, submit, accept, receive, reject•, fail, launch•, solicit• 6525 | 0.90 N Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 240 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English equip 4169 v noun computer, force, kitchen, device, army, •technology, •equipment, •radio, •video, facility, •weapon, engine, •bag, classroom, •knowledge misc •with, better•, fully•, well•, train 5985 | 0.93 M wagon 4170 n adj old, covered, red, horse-drawn, welcome, empty, wooden, mule-drawn noun station•, •train, •wheel, horse, back•, road, family, paddy•, ride, hay• verb pull, drive, circle•, load, fall•, hitch•, •roll, carry, haul, push 6145 | 0.91 F besides 4171 i other•, something•, one, only, else•, •fact, anything•, anyone•, someone•, factor•, •obvious, option•, •usual, •myself 5729 | 0.97 output 4172 n adj total, high, economic, industrial, low, maximum, current, annual, agricultural, cardiac noun input•, power•, percent, level, energy•, growth, price, rate, oil•, signal verb produce, reduce, measure, provide, boost•, decline, •fall, •rise, raise, require 6667 | 0.83 A withdrawal 4173 n adj unconditional, immediate, complete, military, social, full, early, total noun troop, •force, •symptom, timetable•, plan, bank, water•, reason, date, sport verb call•, begin, lead, announce•, demand•, follow, allow, occur, trigger 6099 | 0.91 elder 4174 n adj tribal, young, Asian, traditional, Indian, respected, male, ethnic, chief, rural noun village•, minority•, family, church, community, surgeon, •statesman, council, party•, leader verb speak, respect•, teach, •die, listen, share, interview, gather, honor•, •participate 6320 | 0.88 A cage 4175 n adj gilded, empty, wooden, indoor, golden, loose, locked, ornate noun rib•, bird•, wire•, door, batting•, bar, metal•, steel• verb open, rattle•, place, clean•, •contain, hang, lock•, build, pull, escape• 6092 | 0.91 F coastal 4176 j noun area, water, city, state, town, region, community, zone, development, wetland, island, forest misc along, marine, southern, northern, arctic, inland, protect, plain 6338 | 0.88 A patience 4177 n adj little, thin, infinite, endless, exaggerated, considerable, enormous, incredible noun time, lot•, virtue, perseverance, persistence, skill, love, practice, understanding, tolerance verb lose•, require, need•, run, try, learn•, show•, wait, •wear, test• 6050 | 0.92 shallow 4178 j noun water, dish, bowl, pan, pool, lake, grave, baking, breathing, end, breath, area misc into, large, wide, place, deep, relatively, near, along 5995 | 0.93 M earthquake 4179 n adj major, strong, devastating, powerful, massive, natural, future, huge, deadly noun fire, magnitude, flood, hurricane, damage, victim, fault, •insurance verb •hit, •strike, cause, •occur, shake, follow, kill, destroy, trigger, survive• 6180 | 0.90 S voting 4180 n adj electronic, early, conservative, congressional, liberal, weighted, computerized noun •right, •record, •machine, •booth, •act, •system, •bloc, member, percent•, election verb consider•, prevent•, influence•, extend, affect•, abstain•, lower•, restore, •consist 6023 | 0.92 input 4181 n adj public, sensory, direct, agricultural, visual, significant, creative, organic, parental noun •output, data, student, level, signal, energy, process, community, •device, teacher verb provide•, use, require, seek•, receive, base•, include, solicit•, •differ, generate 6529 | 0.85 A canvas 4182 n adj large, white, blank, black, stretched, entire, green noun oil•, •bag, paint, painting, color, paper, •tent, acrylic•, panel, artist verb cover, stretch, tone, hang, carry, mount, capture, prepare, depict, stare• 7232 | 0.77 M slide 4183 n adj original, downward, electric, downhill, slow, linear, steep noun •show, color•, water•, •film, •presentation, division, •competition, •projector, •rule verb use, send, stop•, project, present, reverse•, prepare, place, view, shoot 7249 | 0.76 A click 4184 v noun •button, site, heel, door, •link, icon, tab, mouse, •tongue, box, camera•, file, phone, folder, lock misc •off, •on, something•, open, •away, •shut, •together, choose, select, online 6609 | 0.84 F M sword 4185 n adj double-edged, two-edged, short, flaming, magic, ceremonial, bloody noun hand, blade, hilt, shield, samurai•, arm, fire•, •fight, •scabbard, •sheath verb draw•, hold, raise, swing•, carry•, fall, hang, pull•, wield•, •cut 6493 | 0.85 F mate 4186 n adj running, potential, perfect, ideal, suitable, prospective, chief noun soul•, male, choice, female, band•, selection, office•, cell•, •class verb find•, choose•, attract•, meet•, pick•, seek•, select•, •possess, guard, cheat 5978 | 0.93 M portfolio 4187 n adj diversified, average, entire, professional, overall, electronic, personal, senior, balanced noun stock, •manager, investment, fund, assessment, bond, company, loan•, growth, •management verb include, diversify•, build•, hold, manage, invest, create•, develop, buy, •contain 6975 | 0.79 M Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 247 ambitious 4310 j noun plan, project, program, goal, effort, man, agenda, woman, undertaking, politician, proposal, campaign misc most, more, young, too, less, far, overly 5573 | 0.94 actively 4311 r •involved, participate, •engage, •seek, student, •involve, work, •support, •promote, •pursue, become•, encourage 5790 | 0.91 A flexibility 4312 n adj great, regulatory, maximum, increased, local, considerable, financial, operational noun strength, state, •analysis, degree•, need•, freedom, lot•, endurance, design, cost verb give•, allow, provide, offer•, increase•, show•, improve, require, maintain•, demonstrate• 5763 | 0.91 A jar 4313 n adj full, empty, little, clean, tight-fitting, sterilized, ceramic, cool, sealed, airtight noun glass•, water, cookie•, lid, Mason•, pickle, canning•, jelly, butter, food verb fill, open•, hold, cover, place, set, •contain, store, shake, sterilize• 5778 | 0.91 F M cocaine 4314 n adj powdered, prenatal, pure, alleged, raw, refined noun crack•, heroin, use, marijuana, drug, possession, user, addiction, powder, alcohol verb sell•, buy•, test•, snort•, deal, flood, •originate 5754 | 0.91 incredibly 4315 r •important, •difficult, feel•, •powerful, •strong, •beautiful, •hard, •complex, •lucky, •rich 5572 | 0.94 S consequently 4316 r •teacher, behavior, performance, environment•, lack, purpose, •tend, participant 6089 | 0.86 A documentary 4317 n adj new, best, short, award-winning, historical, acclaimed, controversial noun film, •evidence, •filmmaker, television, •series, TV, history, subject, video, producer verb produce•, watch•, direct, shoot, feature, narrate, capture, •explore, •chronicle, •trace 5667 | 0.92 N charge 4318 i (in charge of) •of, who•, put•, man•, official•, •operation, president•, agent•, •security, special•, vice•, officer•, person•, agency• 5488 | 0.95 insert 4319 v noun •center, gene, toothpick•, thermometer, tube, needle, card, key, knife•, catheter, minute•, doctor•, •end, •portion, •finger misc •into, •come, •through, •register, bake•, tiny, remove, thin 5635 | 0.93 M ambition 4320 n adj political, personal, territorial, global, regional, modest, driving, secret, blind, stated noun dream•, goal, desire, drive, lack•, career•, talent, greed, energy•, •tour verb •become, realize, harbor•, pursue•, fulfill•, achieve, match, motivate, satisfy•, expand 5507 | 0.95 functional 4321 j noun assessment, status, analysis, limitation, group, unit, area, impairment, vision, level, capacity, food misc fully, such, structural, behavioral, highly, decorative, than, beautiful 6208 | 0.84 A bankruptcy 4322 n adj personal, federal, corporate, moral, near, potential, intellectual noun •court, •protection, company, chapter•, •law, •filing, year, •judge, case, airline verb file•, declare•, force•, emerge•, seek•, face•, avoid•, sell, rise, •wipe 5868 | 0.89 N runner 4323 n adj front, high, long-distance, cross-country, fast, red, fastest, successful, male, avid noun distance•, marathon•, •position, base, road•, blade•, group, race, wind•, drug• verb move, hit, throw, •steal, cross, •compete, advance, •complete, •gain, tag• 5855 | 0.89 N execution 4324 n adj public, mass, scheduled, actual, perfect, poor, extrajudicial, parallel noun •unit, stay•, method, death, instruction, planning•, •chamber, •date verb witness•, carry, stop•, await•, order•, watch•, proceed, deter 5886 | 0.89 crush 4325 v noun garlic, skull, car, •press, •death, army, weight, head, •rebellion, leg, bone, cigarette, body, ground, tank misc •under, •against, •beneath, nearly•, easily, fresh 5525 | 0.95 buddy 4326 n adj old, best, sorry, running, longtime, muddy noun •guy, school, •system, college•, army•, shot•, fishing•, drinking•, hunting• verb drink, hire, cheer, impress, rescue•, •swear, chat, assign•, •skip, exercise• 5949 | 0.88 workplace 4327 n adj safe, changing, drug-free, healthy, modern, flexible, friendly noun woman, home, safety, school, discrimination, harassment, problem, violence, employee, issue verb create, enter•, test, affect, improve, occur•, address•, succeed•, foster 5734 | 0.91 skull 4328 n adj human, fractured, thick, full, complete, tiny, soft, bald noun bone, base, back•, brain, fracture, top•, hole•, •crossbone, •cowboy, piece verb crush, crack•, open, smash, fill, suffer•, penetrate•, grin, belong 5757 | 0.91 F cord 4329 n adj spinal, umbilical, vocal, electrical, long, electric, thin, light noun •injury, •blood, extension•, power•, bungee•, phone•, cell, end, rip•, telephone• verb cut•, pull•, tie, wrap, attach, hang, yank•, stretch, connect, strike• 5660 | 0.92 fixed 4330 j noun rate, income, price, cost, amount, exchange, mortgage, point, system, position, number, asset misc remain, pay, than, such, within, rather, monthly, per 5667 | 0.92 A Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 254 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English gaze 4452 v noun face, room, star, moment, •sky, •distance, •ceiling, wall, glass, •sea, •awe, •darkness, •wonder, •horror, •surprise misc •at, •into, •out, she•, •down, •across, •through, •over, •upon, •toward, •off, sit• 5837 | 0.86 F publicity 4453 n adj bad, negative, free, national, pretrial, adverse, positive, favorable noun •stunt, lot•, •campaign, kind•, •director, media, effort, •tour, glare•, amount• verb get, receive, •surround, generate, seek•, avoid•, attract, gain• 5290 | 0.95 compel 4454 v noun government, force, reason, story, law, court, •compliance, •testimony, •reader, •attention, authority, statement, argument, individual, •conclusion misc •act, seek, •testify, •accept 5321 | 0.94 A cease 4455 v noun •fire, •operation, activity, •publication, production, hostility, rain•, movement, conversation•, attack, union•, noise•, •participation misc •exist, never•, •desist, •amaze 5305 | 0.95 ideal 4456 n adj democratic, high, political, cultural, national, classical, lofty, Christian, human, societal noun value, •democracy, beauty, •freedom, idea•, nation, body, goal, reality, community verb live•, embody, promote, represent, base, remain, uphold•, embrace•, express, associate 5599 | 0.90 A decorate 4457 v noun room, wall, house, tree, home, Christmas, office, table, •picture, building, •motif, cookie, pattern, light, •style misc •with, beautifully•, •colorful, elaborately•, •desire, lavishly 5540 | 0.91 M surrounding 4458 j noun area, community, tissue, water, countryside, county, neighborhood, hill, city, region, land, town misc above, soft, buzz, Arab, scan, urban, rural, healthy 5381 | 0.93 exclusively 4459 r almost•, focus•, use•, rely•, devote•, •male, deal•, primarily•, base, concentrate•, •heterosexual 5475 | 0.92 A bonus 4460 n adj added, annual, extra, unexpected, nice, huge, generous noun signing•, salary•, •point, cash•, company, program, benefit, Christmas• verb receive•, pay, give, offer•, earn, include, award, raise, •total, •range 5534 | 0.91 N unprecedented 4461 j noun level, number, history, opportunity, step, power, rate, scale, growth, access, way, effort misc almost, economic, face, win, enjoy, reach, international 5328 | 0.94 oversee 4462 v noun •operation, •program, committee•, agency, department, state, •project, board•, company, •development, government, service, •construction, •work, security misc who•, which•, federal, charge•, national, responsible•, •billion, financial, appoint•, •day-to-day 5426 | 0.92 N touchdown 4463 n adj winning, rushing, only, offensive, game-winning, fourth-quarter, go-ahead noun yard•, interception, •run, game, •season, return, •reception, punt, catch, career verb score•, throw•, •pass, lead, rush, allow•, •seal 6413 | 0.78 N federation 4464 n adj national, American, international, retail, united, loose, civic noun wildlife•, president, state, world•, •teacher, woman, consumer•, director•, labor, •business verb form, represent, join, •announce, •declare, found, sponsor, suspend 5476 | 0.92 N aggression 4465 n adj physical, relational, sexual, reactive, proactive, verbal, instrumental, hostile, Iraqi, adolescent noun act•, war•, behavior, level•, violence, sport, form•, life, peer verb stop•, associate, deter•, commit, prevent•, observe, resist•, •occur, condemn•, decrease 5903 | 0.85 A behalf 4466 i (on behalf of) •of, on•, speak•, work•, act•, file•, •American, United States, government, •client, effort•, action•, suit•, lawsuit• 5293 | 0.95 well-known 4467 j noun name, figure, artist, company, fact, writer, author, example, family, actor, book, brand misc most, become, less, such, including, among, include, several 5288 | 0.95 donation 4468 n adj private, charitable, suggested, corporate, political, small, individual, generous, local, soft noun organ•, campaign, egg•, fund, blood•, cash•, community, organization, sperm•, member verb make, accept, receive•, send, solicit•, raise, request, seek• 5406 | 0.93 N desperately 4469 r •need, try, want, so•, •seek, •poor, search, help, hope, fight, •ill, •love 5268 | 0.95 reward 4470 v noun effort, behavior, work, system•, performance, employee, •team, teacher, player, success, loyalty, investor, society, incentive•, patience• misc •with, •punish, often•, •yourself, handsomely, financially 5233 | 0.96 high-tech 4471 j noun company, industry, equipment, firm, job, world, business, system, weapon, computer, worker, stock misc new, such, late, medical, expensive, modern, low-tech, electronic 5459 | 0.92 M N cheat 4472 v noun wife, man, student, husband, •test, college, spouse, •death, •exam, •card, opportunity, marriage, •customer, athlete, •investor misc •on, lie, feel•, steal, admit•, someone•, likely• 5287 | 0.95 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 261 legally 4594 r can, •blind, •binding, •require, •bind, allow, •recognize, •married, •entitle, •illegally, morally, •responsible 5047 | 0.95 puzzle 4595 n adj complex, giant, complicated, interesting, intricate, intriguing, wooden noun piece, crossword•, jigsaw•, •master, edition•, game, book, •editor, answer, word verb solve, play•, put, join, fit, present, remain, complete•, assemble, finish• 5800 | 0.83 S icon 4596 n adj American, cultural, religious, Byzantine, holy, beloved, pop-culture, feminist noun desktop, pop•, style•, fashion•, status, church, art, rock•, computer, relief• verb become•, click, select, double-click•, display, hide•, touch, celebrate, resemble 5459 | 0.88 M pat 4597 v noun •back, hand, •shoulder, •head, •arm, •pocket, •knee, •hair, face, dough, •neck, chicken•, mixture, fish, finger misc •on, •her, •his, she•, •dry, •my, rinse•, gently 5428 | 0.89 F closest 4598 j noun friend, thing, ally, adviser, relative, approach, aide, associate, competitor, point, confidant, neighbor misc one, come, ever, probably, perhaps, among, living 5019 | 0.96 sneak 4599 v noun •peek, •look, •glance, window, boy, •town, •cigarette, •bed, •attack, movie, bathroom, •apartment, •thief, •smoke, •peak misc •into, •out, try•, •through, •away, •back, •across 5208 | 0.92 F fleet 4600 n adj large, entire, Japanese, whole, British, foreign, French, Spanish, combined noun US•, fishing•, ship, car, vehicle, truck, sea, aircraft, bus, air verb build•, operate, •sail, send, join•, command, maintain, expand, arrive, •land 5309 | 0.91 M conservation 4601 n adj environmental, marine, biological, tropical, integrated, community-based, ecological noun energy•, water•, wildlife•, resource, soil•, program, development, biodiversity, habitat•, management verb promote•, encourage, require, focus, support, protect, contribute•, •reduce, relate•, prioritize• 5638 | 0.85 A supportive 4602 j noun environment, family, relationship, service, parent, role, teacher, community, friend, group, policy, effort misc very, more, provide, less, mutually, generally, extremely, each 5191 | 0.93 A comparable 4603 j noun level, size, rate, group, data, result, price, figure, study, period, quality, number misc than, those, roughly, offer, report, less, directly 5260 | 0.91 A texture 4604 n adj rich, creamy, smooth, soft, rough, fine, light, firm, crunchy, chewy noun color, flavor, taste, shape, surface, skin, hair, form, pattern, size verb add•, create, change•, improve•, achieve, lend•, retain•, vary, resemble, blend 5535 | 0.87 M access 4605 v noun •information, Internet, service, site, student•, data, •web, computer, user•, •file, resource, record, material, ability•, database misc can•, give•, •through, able•, allow•, •via, easily•, deny•, easy•, •online, difficult•, directly, enable• 5280 | 0.91 A striking 4606 j noun feature, difference, example, resemblance, contrast, similarity, thing, worker, woman, image, result, aspect misc most, more, between, bear, perhaps, quite, particularly, bore 5162 | 0.93 A associate 4607 j noun professor, editor, director, degree, justice, producer, pastor, program, research, curator, administrator, counsel misc senior, former, clinical, serve, general, athletic 5293 | 0.91 M Christianity 4608 n adj early, evangelical, western, orthodox, traditional, Catholic, Protestant noun Judaism, Islam, religion, history•, conversion•, form•, attitude• verb convert•, embrace, accept, reject, adopt•, preach, spread, promote, emphasize, •flourish 5807 | 0.83 A dip 4609 v noun water, hand, head, •finger, temperature•, •percent, •toe, brush, sun•, •egg, •chocolate, •sauce, bread, chip, mixture misc •into, •below, •low, •slightly, rise down •into, then, road•, head•, •again, •toward 5151 | 0.93 F disappointment 4610 n adj big, great, bitter, major, only, greatest, crushing, huge, deep, obvious noun frustration, face, anger, sense•, season, failure, pain, surprise•, look•, feeling• verb express•, feel, hide•, set, suffer•, deal•, avoid•, imagine• 5027 | 0.95 sleeve 4611 n adj short, left, empty, red, wide, rubber, protective noun shirt, jacket, arm, coat, face, trick•, nose•, sweater, heart•, plastic• verb roll, pull, tug•, wear•, push, grab•, touch•, wipe, •reveal 5358 | 0.89 F socially 4612 r •responsible, •acceptable, more•, economically, •construct, politically, •conscious, behavior, •desirable, •conservative, become•, •prescribed, culturally 5380 | 0.89 A wheat 4613 n adj whole, white, shredded, golden, green, growing, cracked noun field, corn, flour, •bread, rice, •germ, barley, crop, grain, cup verb grow, plant, separate•, harvest, cut, produce, eat• 5350 | 0.90 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 268 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English •decision, court, building, •ruling, •legislation, •book verb pass, designate•, build, point•, recognize, visit, preserve, search• 4941 | 0.93 N apart 4737 i (apart from) •from, set•, •other, quite•, stand•, live•, •rest, •fact, •each, separate•, •another, exist•, •else, themselves• 4872 | 0.95 A instant 4738 n adj brief, single, precise, exact, mere, fleeting, given noun •silence, •creation, •hesitation, surprise, •clarity verb feel, realize, change, hesitate•, freeze, wonder, pause•, disappear, last• 5248 | 0.88 F routinely 4739 r use, test, patient, •ignore, doctor, police, •monitor, perform, •deny, •check, •beat, worker, •violate, agency• 4894 | 0.94 butt 4740 n adj big, fat, cute, bare, nice, tight, skinny, lazy noun cigarette•, •joke, rifle, gun, pain•, head•, •end, leg, thigh, hip verb get, work•, sit, bust•, save•, stick, flick•, throw, slide 5027 | 0.92 F forbid 4741 v noun heaven•, state, rule•, government, •use, practice, marriage, •contact, •discrimination, regulation, alcohol, doctor, employee, •sale, entry misc •any, shall, strictly•, anything, federal, absolutely• 4778 | 0.96 bomb 4742 v noun US, •Iraq, world, •Baghdad, building, •target, embassy, plane•, war, Israel, harbor, site, air, warplane•, aircraft• misc kill, plot•, •noisy, military, threaten•, heavily 4995 | 0.92 S migration 4743 n adj great, mass, international, seasonal, black, urban, internal, massive, annual, rural noun pattern, •route, history, labor•, process, study, bird, population, period, rate verb follow, •occur, lead, facilitate•, encourage•, associate•, enable•, prevent•, contribute, •flow 5494 | 0.84 A carrot 4744 n adj medium, shredded, chopped, fresh, raw, tender, hot, grated, wild, diced noun onion, celery, potato, cup, •stick, baby•, •cake, •juice, parsnip verb add•, peel, slice, chop, eat•, dice, offer, dangle 5177 | 0.89 M harmony 4745 n adj racial, perfect, social, natural, inner, close, vocal, complete, relative noun peace•, •nature, melody, rhythm, color, balance, sense•, order, unity, crystal• verb live•, sing•, create•, work•, bring•, maintain•, promote•, achieve, restore•, form 5023 | 0.91 A downtown 4746 r city, street, drive•, near, building•, walk, •where, office, head•, center, around•, hotel, store•, historic• 5135 | 0.89 N brutal 4747 j noun murder, war, regime, crime, killing, attack, dictator, beating, treatment, rape, police, repression misc most, against, often, civil, particularly, military, sometimes, violent 4791 | 0.96 prevail 4748 v noun justice•, condition•, sense•, •court, end, reason•, peace•, spirit•, truth•, argument, •century, democracy•, circumstance•, plaintiff, evil misc will•, •over, still•, •upon, •against, must• 4873 | 0.94 A weed 4749 n adj noxious, invasive, aquatic, dead, green, biological, aggressive, poisonous, fast-growing noun grass, •seed, control, plant, •bed, water, •killer, tree, field, growth verb grow, pull•, keep•, kill, smoke•, overgrow•, cut, eat•, suppress•, choke 5161 | 0.89 exhaust 4750 v noun day, •possibility, night, effort, option, appeal, resource, supply, hour, fund, patience, energy, •benefit, •saving, avenue misc after, until•, physically•, •every, emotionally 4820 | 0.95 F pasta 4751 n adj fresh, cooked, hot, dried, homemade, whole-wheat, angel-hair, parmesan noun sauce, salad, •dish, rice, water, vegetable, bread, cup, tomato, cook verb add, toss, serve, drain•, eat•, prepare, boil, combine 5391 | 0.85 M N distinctive 4752 j noun feature, style, way, voice, pattern, culture, flavor, characteristic, character, identity, sound, group misc its, most, own, each, create, develop, cultural, produce 5018 | 0.91 A fraction 4753 n adj small, tiny, large, total, significant, mere, substantial, sizable noun •second, •cost, •inch, •population, •price, ejection•, •size, •amount, value, •energy verb represent•, pay•, account•, cover, contain, constitute•, measure•, •exceed 4961 | 0.92 A remark 4754 v noun mother•, friend, father, voice, critic•, interview, historian, observer• misc once•, •upon, often•, later•, casually 4961 | 0.92 emotionally 4755 r physically, •charge, child, feel•, financially, •disturb, mentally, •drain, become•, intellectually, both•, involve, spiritually, •disturbed 4909 | 0.93 poke 4756 v noun •head, •fun, •hole, finger, •nose, stick, fire, face, •back, arm, door, •chest, shoulder, •ground, foot misc •at, •out, •through, •around, •into, •inside 5099 | 0.90 F guarantee 4757 n adj constitutional, federal, equal, best, only, personal, international, legal, civil, written noun loan•, security, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Frequency index 275 speculate 4878 v noun scientist•, researcher•, •future, analyst•, expert•, other•, motive, media•, astronomer•, scholar•, investigator•, •advance, diabetes misc •about, some•, may, might, one•, only•, •whether, possible, difficult•, refuse•, reasonable•, publicly 4664 | 0.95 delight 4879 n adj great, earthly, pure, obvious, sheer, aesthetic, childish, perverse noun garden•, eye, surprise•, crowd, audience, joy, wonder, pleasure, squeal•, heart• verb take•, laugh•, express•, scream•, smile•, gasp• 4709 | 0.94 fatigue 4880 n adj chronic, physical, perceived, military, mental, extreme, general, severe, green noun •syndrome, muscle, pain, symptom, stress, headache, depression, loss, weight, battle• verb cause, wear•, suffer•, reduce•, dress•, experience, include•, •set, diminish, •slow 4924 | 0.90 devastating 4881 j noun effect, impact, consequence, loss, war, blow, disease, attack, result, news, earthquake, fire misc most, potentially, suffer, absolutely, economic, cause, face, pretty 4647 | 0.95 instructional 4882 j noun strategy, program, material, teacher, student, method, practice, time, activity, technique, curriculum, school misc effective, provide, develop, within, teach, specific, include 6194 | 0.71 A plea 4883 n adj guilty, impassioned, common, desperate, final, urgent, personal, silent noun •bargain, •agreement, •help, •deal, court, •bargaining, part•, •charge, prosecutor, judge verb make•, enter•, ignore•, accept•, hear•, reject•, agree, negotiate•, respond•, issue• 4661 | 0.95 tourism 4884 n adj economic, cultural, local, international, mass, regional, increased, sustainable, Caribbean noun industry, development, business, travel, office, trade, space•, •official verb promote•, increase, develop, contact•, boost•, encourage, affect, support 5016 | 0.88 crowd 4885 v noun people, street, table, other, wall, space, tourist, building, shelf, office, thousand•, field, sidewalk, reporter, hall misc •into, •around, •together, small 4709 | 0.94 F warmth 4886 n adj human, maternal, parental, extra, personal, genuine, sudden noun sun, body, light, love, fire, comfort, food, sense, color, skin verb feel•, add•, provide•, bring•, spread, enjoy•, radiate, bask•, exude•, •flow 4883 | 0.90 F jurisdiction 4887 n adj other, federal, local, personal, military, different, criminal, legal, international, civil noun court, state, law, case, matter, area, •country, committee•, agency, crime verb exercise•, fall•, assert•, •require, extend, lack•, accept•, involve, claim•, •prescribe 5425 | 0.81 A update 4888 v noun form•, •quote, information, year, system, site, software, visit•, list, computer, file, record, •look, hour, application misc •every, need•, keep•, continually, constantly• 4761 | 0.93 accusation 4889 n adj serious, similar, unfounded, unfair, bitter, groundless, mere noun abuse, charge, •racism, rape, kind•, witchcraft, official, •corruption, police, investigation verb make, deny•, face•, defend•, respond•, •fly, investigate, dismiss•, •arise, •surface 4676 | 0.94 diagram 4890 n adj schematic, complex, detailed, simplified, accompanying, helpful, branching noun •figure, table•, page, block•, flow•, model, sequence, phase• verb show, see•, draw, illustrate, contain•, represent, depict, •omit, trace, sketch 5340 | 0.82 A middle-class 4891 j noun family, tax, woman, neighborhood, life, home, parent, value, suburb, kid, community, voter misc white, black, American, poor, upper, among, suburban, mostly 4754 | 0.93 graduation 4892 n adj high-school, academic, passing, eighth-grade, secondary, expected, required, actual, sixth-grade noun •rate, school•, year, college, •ceremony, requirement, student, day verb attend•, follow•, require•, celebrate•, miss•, complete•, near, •violate 4775 | 0.92 mention 4893 n adj honorable, mere, special, brief, only, specific, very, passing noun •name, •service, •product, •trade, award, •print, T-shirt•, winner, •ribbon, •religion verb make, deserve•, receive•, hear•, include•, omit•, avoid• 4705 | 0.93 beyond 4894 r world•, year•, above, room•, far•, century•, lie•, mountain•, hill•, •compare, perhaps•, field•, space, lay 4595 | 0.96 within 4895 r from•, •about, •outside, •between, both•, •without, •across, light•, •among, •beyond, enemy•, •minute, lie• 4683 | 0.94 A spark 4896 v noun •interest, •debate, •controversy, •protest, war, fire, •imagination, idea, •discussion, •revolution, •outrage, •movement, •investigation, light, death• misc •by, •among, •renewed, •intense, •heated 4625 | 0.95 convenience 4897 n adj modern, local, marginal, early, added, all-night, increased, automated, ultimate noun •store, •sample, •food, •yield, marriage•, comfort, station, sake, safety verb offer•, provide, enjoy•, prefer•, appreciate•, improve•, lack• 4637 | 0.95 chill 4898 n adj big, cold, sudden, damp, icy, deep, slight, bitter noun wind, •hour, •air, •spine, fever, night, winter, Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Alphabetical index Format of entries Headword, Part of speech, rank order (1–5008) A a a 5 abandon v 2216 ability n 794 able j 388 aboard i 4965 abortion n 1966 about i 47 about r 182 above r 1606 above i 903 abroad r 3431 absence n 2540 absolute j 3180 absolutely r 1164 absorb v 3150 abstract j 3991 abuse v 3755 abuse n 1595 academic j 1557 academy n 2262 accelerate v 4962 accent n 4226 accept v 762 acceptable j 3406 acceptance n 3463 access v 4605 access n 1131 accessible j 4381 accident n 1711 accommodate v 3710 accompany v 2450 accomplish v 2335 accomplishment n 4267 according i 483 account v 1935 account n 1088 accountability n 4937 accounting n 4199 accuracy n 4054 accurate j 2730 accurately r 4905 accusation n 4889 accuse v 2017 achieve v 1157 achievement n 2126 acid n 3357 acknowledge v 1673 acquire v 2062 acquisition n 3882 acre n 2403 across r 3158 across i 385 act v 839 act n 730 action n 502 active j 1464 actively r 4311 activist n 2653 activity n 552 actor n 1544 actress n 3365 actual j 1749 actually r 402 ad n 1761 adapt v 2983 add v 351 added j 4567 addition n 3994 addition i 2061 additional j 1349 address n 1864 address v 1049 adequate j 3305 adjust v 2348 adjustment n 3161 administer v 3730 administration n 644 administrative j 3524 administrator n 2574 admire v 3312 admission n 3116 admit v 1106 adolescent n 3753 adopt v 1636 adoption n 3757 adult n 1003 advance n 2309 advance v 2706 advanced j 2856 advantage n 1319 adventure n 2956 advertising n 2661 advice n 1657 advise v 2582 adviser n 2803 advocate v 3949 advocate n 2634 aesthetic j 4384 affair n 1378 affect v 972 affiliation n 2966 affirmative j 4771 afford v 1875 afraid j 1404 African j 1395 African-American j 3650 after c 264 after i 120 afternoon n 1202 afterward r 4233 again r 187 against i 177 age v 4014 age n 395 agency n 693 agenda n 2137 agent n 1034 aggression n 4465 aggressive j 2541 ago r 312 agree v 523 agreement n 1078 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution death 289 copy n 1916 copy v 4955 cord n 4329 core n 1994 corn n 2542 corner n 1144 corporate j 1581 corporation n 1947 corps n 3172 correct v 3261 correct j 1790 correction n 4340 correctly r 4393 correlation n 3642 correspondent n 2915 corridor n 3540 corruption n 3845 cost n 558 cost v 1135 costly j 4280 costume n 4243 cottage n 4864 cotton n 3227 couch n 3408 could v 73 council n 1059 counsel n 3244 counseling n 3707 counselor n 3481 count v 1317 count n 2538 counter v 4450 counter n 2843 counterpart n 3825 country n 168 county n 671 coup n 4352 couple n 542 courage n 3362 course n 646 court n 366 courtesy n 4502 courtroom n 4122 cousin n 2766 cover v 564 cover n 1658 coverage n 1892 cow n 3107 cowboy n 3551 crack v 3284 crack n 3027 craft n 3093 crash n 2882 crash v 3339 crawl v 3869 crazy j 1839 cream n 2074 create v 342 creation n 2138 creative j 2109 creativity n 4435 creature n 2413 credibility n 4033 credit v 4112 credit n 1182 creek n 2474 crew n 1736 crime n 825 criminal n 3307 criminal j 1975 crisis n 1255 criteria n 2609 critic n 1363 critical j 1143 criticism n 2106 criticize v 2558 crop n 2611 cross n 2407 cross v 1419 crowd n 1299 crowd v 4885 crowded j 4766 crown n 3751 crucial j 2402 cruel j 4823 cruise n 3740 crush v 4325 cry n 3453 cry v 1365 crystal n 3694 Cuban j 4107 cue n 4941 cultural j 958 culture n 617 cup n 827 cure n 4628 cure v 4569 curiosity n 4570 curious j 3156 currency n 3789 current j 699 currently r 1715 curriculum n 2200 curtain n 3658 curve n 3513 custody n 4436 custom n 3015 customer n 1142 cut n 1493 cut v 425 cute j 4517 cycle n 2246 D dad n 1159 daddy n 2659 daily r 3590 daily j 1523 dam n 4443 damage v 3011 damage n 1520 damn j 4442 dance n 1724 dance v 1993 dancer n 3746 dancing n 4758 danger n 1554 dangerous j 1472 dare v 3379 dark j 1006 dark n 2185 darkness n 2658 data n 572 database n 3858 date n 1220 date v 2589 daughter n 654 dawn n 4005 day n 92 dead j 729 deadline n 3286 deadly j 3526 deal v 666 deal n 803 dealer n 2549 dear j 3433 death n 420 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 296 guidance guidance n 3943 guide v 3014 guide n 1807 guideline n 3076 guilt n 3688 guilty j 2089 guitar n 3928 gulf n 2909 gun n 856 gut n 4373 guy n 386 gym n 3993 H habit n 2356 habitat n 3440 hair n 618 half d 551 half n 1639 halfway r 4715 hall n 990 hallway n 3703 hammer n 4857 hand v 2043 hand n 175 handful n 3147 handle n 4011 handle v 1250 handsome j 3890 hang v 878 happen v 220 happily r 4724 happiness n 3985 happy j 755 harassment n 4406 harbor n 3477 hard j 531 hard r 929 harder j 3544 harder r 3881 hardly r 1742 hardware n 4168 harm n 3727 harm v 4364 harmony n 4745 harsh j 3541 harvest n 5003 hat n 2030 hate v 1545 haul v 4213 have v 8 hazard n 4916 he p 15 head v 954 head n 256 headache n 4845 headline n 3313 headquarters n 2880 heal v 4480 health n 365 healthy j 1515 hear v 198 hearing n 1722 heart n 471 heat v 4191 heat n 1058 heaven n 2651 heavily r 2370 heavy j 1012 heel n 3175 height n 2092 helicopter n 3129 hell n 1485 hello u 2456 helmet n 4510 help n 901 help v 176 helpful j 3114 hence r 3631 her a 45 her p 108 herb n 3683 here r 96 heritage n 3236 hero n 1941 hers p 3942 herself p 804 hesitate v 3964 hey u 1480 hi u 2143 hidden j 4198 hide v 1279 high r 3347 high j 142 high-tech j 4471 highlight v 3482 highly r 1330 highway n 1951 hill n 1024 him p 69 himself p 369 hint n 3987 hip n 2694 hire v 1500 his p 1896 his a 26 Hispanic j 3735 historian n 2587 historic j 2561 historical j 1495 historically r 3878 history n 354 hit v 549 hit n 2264 hockey n 4552 hold n 2905 hold v 217 hole n 1251 holiday n 1989 holy j 2467 home r 413 home n 229 homeland n 4140 homeless j 3316 homework n 4932 honest j 2577 honey n 2980 honor v 2761 honor n 2108 hook n 3846 hook v 4052 hope n 1186 hope v 491 hopefully r 4057 horizon n 3178 hormone n 4587 horn n 3667 horrible j 3797 horror n 3334 horse n 1292 hospital n 667 host v 3439 host n 1895 hostage n 3638 hostile j 4138 hot j 725 hotel n 1022 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution patrol 303 open j 589 open v 359 opening n 1962 openly r 4512 opera n 3073 operate v 1311 operating n 3264 operation n 823 operator n 3228 opinion n 1138 opponent n 2196 opportunity n 634 oppose v 1954 opposed i 4207 opposite j 2287 opposition n 1858 opt v 4765 optimistic j 4150 option n 1139 or c 32 oral j 4017 orange j 3207 orange n 3342 orbit n 4586 orchestra n 4304 order v 1353 order n 675 ordinary j 2274 organ n 3430 organic j 3237 organism n 4589 organization n 598 organizational j 4571 organize v 1649 organized j 4874 orientation n 3335 origin n 2578 original j 1141 originally r 2864 other p 713 other i 2362 other j 76 otherwise r 1530 ought v 1732 ounce n 4257 our a 81 ours p 4098 ourselves p 1789 out r 66 out i 150 outcome n 1831 outdoor j 3724 outer j 3760 outfit n 4496 outlet n 4692 outline v 4426 outlook n 4412 output n 4172 outside j 2060 outside r 1756 outside i 815 outsider n 4508 outstanding j 4013 oven n 3050 over r 183 over i 124 overall j 1997 overall r 4004 overcome v 2717 overlook v 3171 overnight r 4804 oversee v 4462 overwhelm v 4852 overwhelming j 3598 owe v 3022 own v 1148 own d 148 owner n 1033 ownership n 3639 oxygen n 3923 P pace n 2553 pack n 2773 pack v 2313 package n 1731 pad n 3798 page n 716 pain n 968 painful j 3101 paint v 1783 paint n 2969 painter n 3698 painting n 1354 pair n 1513 palace n 3483 pale j 2968 Palestinian j 2642 Palestinian n 3203 pan n 2570 panel n 1686 panic n 4410 pants n 2759 paper n 533 parade n 3930 paradise n 4984 parent n 340 parental j 4303 parish n 5006 park v 3399 park n 615 parking n 2371 parliament n 3627 part n 180 part i 4643 partial j 4524 partially r 4391 participant n 1195 participate v 1506 participation n 2268 particle n 3997 particular j 952 particularly r 782 partly r 2826 partner n 1110 partnership n 2972 party n 355 pass v 444 pass n 2351 passage n 2236 passenger n 2105 passing j 4390 passion n 2301 past r 3673 past i 1417 past j 687 past n 991 pasta n 4751 pastor n 4289 pat v 4597 patch n 3366 patent n 4525 path n 1368 patience n 4177 patient j 3726 patient n 639 patrol n 4202 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 310 sing sing v 1065 singer n 2962 single j 637 sink n 4078 sink v 2842 sister n 854 sit v 271 site n 547 situation n 548 six m 429 sixth m 3634 size n 759 skeptical j 4977 skill n 869 skilled j 4938 skin n 1057 skip v 4292 skirt n 3754 skull n 4328 sky n 1200 slam v 3570 slap v 4111 slave n 2833 slavery n 4763 sleep v 1184 sleep n 2055 sleeve n 4611 slice n 3489 slice v 4093 slide n 4183 slide v 2242 slight j 3023 slightly r 1440 slip v 1810 slope n 3593 slot n 4992 slow j 1770 slow v 2208 slowly r 1227 small j 207 smart j 1930 smell n 2894 smell v 2435 smile n 1478 smile v 1082 smoke n 2414 smoke v 2490 smoking n 4964 smooth j 2487 snake n 3533 snap v 2644 sneak v 4599 snow n 1853 so c 199 so r 56 so-called j 2408 soak v 4934 soap n 4369 soar v 4731 soccer n 3442 social j 338 socially r 4612 society n 510 sock n 4263 sodium n 4080 sofa n 4816 soft j 1407 soften v 5005 softly r 4050 software n 1676 soil n 1950 solar j 3088 soldier n 1013 sole j 4560 solely r 4697 solid j 2015 solution n 1241 solve v 1855 some d 61 somebody p 1009 someday r 4445 somehow r 1663 someone p 423 something p 143 sometime r 4873 sometimes r 450 somewhat r 1869 somewhere r 1590 son n 494 song n 908 soon r 683 soon c 2497 sooner r 3906 sophisticated j 3053 sorry j 1231 sort v 4357 sort n 840 soul n 1646 sound v 895 sound n 702 soup n 3049 source n 600 south n 661 southeast n 3833 southern j 1136 southwest n 3722 Soviet j 1134 space n 539 Spanish j 2308 spare v 4654 spark v 4896 speak v 341 speaker n 3030 special j 528 specialist n 2548 specialize v 4115 specialty n 4529 species n 1276 specific j 987 specifically r 1986 specify v 4865 spectacular j 4256 spectrum n 3986 speculate v 4878 speculation n 4434 speech n 1118 speed v 3596 speed n 1436 spell v 4271 spend v 347 spending n 2401 sphere n 4637 spill v 3712 spin v 2689 spirit n 1218 spiritual j 2173 spit v 4980 spite i 4162 split v 2927 spokesman n 2749 sponsor n 4658 sponsor v 3462 spoon n 4438 sport n 750 spot v 2948 spot n 1254 spouse n 3909 Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Verb 2 be 8 have 18 do 20 say 36 go 38 will 40 can 41 get 44 would 46 make 49 know 57 think 58 see 64 take 70 come 73 could 84 want 87 look 94 use 97 find 98 give 104 tell 119 work 121 call 122 may 125 should 127 try 132 ask 134 need 136 feel 138 become 152 leave 153 put 157 mean 158 let 161 keep 164 begin 166 seem 169 talk 172 turn 176 help 178 start 181 show 184 might 198 hear 205 run 209 play 211 move 212 like 215 believe 217 hold 219 live 220 happen 221 bring 226 must 235 write 268 provide 271 sit 285 stand 289 lose 292 meet 293 pay 300 include 305 continue 309 change 310 set 319 lead 321 learn 326 understand 329 watch 331 follow 334 stop 341 speak 342 create 344 allow 346 read 347 spend 351 add 356 grow 359 open 363 walk 376 offer 378 remember 383 win 394 appear 397 consider 401 love 403 buy 404 wait 405 die 407 send 409 expect 410 serve 415 stay 416 build 418 fall 425 cut 426 kill 428 reach 431 remain 433 suggest 437 raise 444 pass 446 sell 453 require 455 decide 465 report 482 return 484 pull 486 explain 487 carry 488 develop 491 hope 493 drive 501 break 504 thank 509 receive 514 join 523 agree 532 pick 536 wear 538 support Part of speech index Format of entries rank order (1–5008), headword Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 324 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English 115 life 116 child 123 world 129 school 139 state 149 family 151 house 160 president 167 group 168 country 170 problem 173 student 175 hand 180 part 186 place 188 city 189 case 192 system 193 week 195 company 197 percent 201 question 203 program 204 work 206 number 208 government 214 night 218 point 228 war 229 home 231 room 232 fact 233 area 236 money 237 right 238 story 239 water 240 mother 243 month 244 lot 245 book 246 eye 247 study 248 job 249 kind 250 word 251 issue 252 side 254 business 256 head 269 service 273 friend 275 power 278 father 279 hour 283 line 284 end 287 game 291 member 294 law 296 car 299 name 302 center 304 university 313 information 315 community 318 idea 320 body 322 kid 323 minute 324 table 327 team 328 back 335 face 340 parent 343 office 345 level 348 person 349 door 352 street 354 history 355 party 357 reason 358 morning 361 change 364 news 365 health 366 court 367 force 370 air 373 art 374 result 375 moment 379 research 381 girl 382 boy 384 food 386 guy 391 process 395 age 396 policy 400 education 408 fee 411 sense 412 teacher 414 market 417 nation 420 death 421 plan 422 interest 424 experience 432 effect 434 use 435 control 438 class 445 photo 448 field 449 college 452 development 456 security 459 effort 460 role 462 rate 464 music 466 leader 467 light 469 voice 470 color 471 heart 472 care 473 police 475 wife 476 show 477 mind 478 report 480 drug 485 decision 489 view 494 son 495 arm 496 department 498 price 502 action 503 value 505 relationship 506 town 508 building Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Part of speech index 331 2196 opponent 2197 tension 2198 chapter 2200 curriculum 2202 immigrant 2204 faculty 2205 steel 2206 desert 2207 asset 2209 housing 2213 depression 2217 release 2218 chip 2221 existence 2222 cheese 2223 link 2225 savings 2228 diet 2229 territory 2230 tea 2232 gain 2235 walk 2236 passage 2239 resistance 2240 present 2241 stream 2243 green 2245 display 2246 cycle 2248 phase 2249 transition 2250 reduction 2251 negotiation 2252 manufacturer 2256 trust 2257 sale 2258 layer 2259 wedding 2260 discovery 2262 academy 2263 sand 2264 hit 2265 missile 2267 climate 2268 participation 2269 knife 2271 atmosphere 2272 joke 2277 occasion 2278 philosophy 2279 suicide 2282 goods 2284 coat 2286 alcohol 2288 cop 2289 universe 2292 therapy 2293 shift 2298 discipline 2301 passion 2302 tale 2303 dust 2305 iron 2306 independence 2309 advance 2310 pot 2311 potato 2312 motor 2315 marketing 2316 disaster 2317 exposure 2318 complaint 2319 cap 2321 jacket 2323 touch 2328 enforcement 2332 deficit 2333 emphasis 2337 symbol 2338 bureau 2339 laboratory 2343 arrangement 2344 investigator 2345 mark 2347 shock 2349 employer 2351 pass 2352 priest 2353 volunteer 2354 interpretation 2355 entertainment 2356 habit 2359 prospect 2365 poverty 2367 boss 2369 anger 2371 parking 2372 print 2373 maker 2374 involvement 2375 queen 2376 gene 2379 gallery 2386 mystery 2387 entry 2389 mood 2390 bean 2392 objective 2396 substance 2397 total 2399 exception 2400 commander 2401 spending 2403 acre 2404 wire 2405 command 2407 cross 2411 tower 2412 veteran 2413 creature 2414 smoke 2416 prince 2417 alliance 2418 transportation 2419 stop 2420 luck 2421 symptom 2423 clinic 2424 illness 2425 championship 2426 prisoner 2427 reputation 2428 edition 2429 juice 2430 sauce 2431 peak 2433 breakfast 2434 recognition 2436 ally 2438 toy 2439 salary 2441 bathroom 2444 evaluation 2445 dimension 2448 personnel 2449 belt 2451 implication Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 338 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English 4071 performer 4072 kit 4073 romance 4074 quantity 4076 therapist 4078 sink 4079 sentiment 4080 sodium 4082 trailer 4083 spread 4085 equity 4086 banking 4088 processing 4090 dilemma 4091 quest 4092 pillow 4096 laser 4100 switch 4101 genius 4102 starter 4104 primary 4105 cart 4106 trap 4108 inmate 4109 sacrifice 4114 Arab 4116 fork 4117 invitation 4120 cartoon 4122 courtroom 4123 import 4125 flash 4126 equation 4127 treasure 4128 jaw 4132 pickup 4133 dignity 4134 inspiration 4136 merchant 4140 homeland 4141 gasoline 4142 gravity 4143 defeat 4147 bow 4148 glory 4151 sergeant 4152 casualty 4155 barn 4158 pro 4159 senior 4160 feedback 4161 grief 4164 productivity 4167 continent 4168 hardware 4170 wagon 4172 output 4173 withdrawal 4174 elder 4175 cage 4177 patience 4179 earthquake 4180 voting 4181 input 4182 canvas 4183 slide 4185 sword 4186 mate 4187 portfolio 4188 bug 4189 refrigerator 4190 escape 4192 northeast 4196 alien 4197 willingness 4199 accounting 4202 patrol 4206 drum 4211 canal 4216 conspiracy 4217 steam 4218 embassy 4222 bubble 4224 sheep 4225 rent 4226 accent 4232 magnitude 4237 vaccine 4238 monument 4239 trace 4240 verdict 4242 declaration 4243 costume 4244 drawer 4246 rack 4254 sympathy 4257 ounce 4259 inn 4260 collaboration 4261 clip 4263 sock 4264 rider 4265 revelation 4267 accomplishment 4268 seal 4270 ease 4272 gospel 4273 whale 4274 theatre 4275 coordinator 4278 cab 4279 isolation 4283 instinct 4289 pastor 4291 cook 4296 ancestor 4298 nominee 4304 orchestra 4305 treasury 4307 gallon 4308 thigh 4312 flexibility 4313 jar 4314 cocaine 4317 documentary 4320 ambition 4322 bankruptcy 4323 runner 4324 execution 4326 buddy 4327 workplace 4328 skull 4329 cord 4331 equivalent 4332 casino 4333 reliability 4338 proposition 4339 census 4340 correction 4341 jump 4342 diary 4343 nest 4344 statute 4345 exam 4348 nutrition 4349 breeze 4350 illusion Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Part of speech index 345 3340 continued 3344 changing 3349 everyday 3355 running 3369 collective 3375 concrete 3380 exact 3383 artistic 3406 acceptable 3413 related 3429 sacred 3433 dear 3435 superior 3454 okay 3455 pleased 3461 evident 3465 cognitive 3469 magic 3473 colonial 3476 civilian 3478 estimated 3486 bare 3498 net 3499 excited 3502 bitter 3522 ethical 3523 secondary 3524 administrative 3526 deadly 3528 suburban 3535 experimental 3537 classical 3541 harsh 3542 retail 3544 harder 3550 occasional 3552 minimum 3554 reliable 3557 fit 3560 written 3562 unlike 3564 inevitable 3568 subtle 3577 monthly 3579 mainstream 3588 legislative 3597 strict 3598 overwhelming 3600 missing 3605 plain 3614 Korean 3629 continuing 3650 African-American 3655 maximum 3657 unexpected 3660 peaceful 3663 Roman 3678 uncomfortable 3682 random 3713 fiscal 3714 welcome 3715 retired 3716 closed 3717 gentle 3721 convinced 3723 drunk 3724 outdoor 3726 patient 3734 grateful 3735 Hispanic 3749 continuous 3758 intelligent 3760 outer 3764 profound 3768 driving 3774 virtual 3779 endless 3783 genuine 3792 theoretical 3795 pleasant 3797 horrible 3804 technological 3815 weird 3829 exclusive 3831 precise 3839 identical 3842 delicate 3844 wider 3849 structural 3851 invisible 3854 meaningful 3863 anxious 3865 frozen 3870 conscious 3887 medium 3888 chronic 3889 evil 3890 handsome 3897 promising 3908 reluctant 3912 mild 3913 electrical 3916 decent 3935 residential 3944 diplomatic 3946 purple 3950 generous 3961 interior 3963 bold 3970 elegant 3974 realistic 3978 productive 3991 abstract 3992 revolutionary 3996 disappointed 3999 dynamic 4007 mechanical 4010 silly 4012 artificial 4013 outstanding 4017 oral 4020 lonely 4022 indigenous 4023 civic 4024 full-time 4027 casual 4028 behavioral 4039 precious 4043 scary 4046 representative 4062 verbal 4065 judicial 4066 burning 4075 alleged 4077 longtime 4084 shared 4087 ridiculous 4097 rigid 4107 Cuban 4113 mysterious 4119 regulatory 4121 stiff 4131 improved 4135 automatic 4137 Greek 4138 hostile 4139 extended nnel 2449 belt 2451 implication Taylor & Francis Not for distribution 338 A Frequency Dictionary of Contemporary American English 4071 performer 4072 kit 4073 romance 4074 quantity 4076 therapist 4078 sink 4079 sentiment 4080 sodium 4082 trailer 4083 spread 4085 equity 4086 banking 4088 processing 4090 dilemma 4091 quest 4092 pillow 4096 laser 4100 switch 4101 genius 4102 starter 4104 primary 4105 cart 4106 trap 4108 inmate 4109 sacrifice 4114 Arab 4116 fork 4117 invitation 4120 cartoon 4122 courtroom 4123 import 4125 flash 4126 equation 4127 treasure 4128 jaw 4132 pickup 4133 dignity 4134 inspiration 4136 merchant 4140 homeland 4141 gasoline 4142 gravity 4143 defeat 4147 bow 4148 glory 4151 sergeant 4152 casualty 4155 barn 4158 pro 4159 senior 4160 feedback 4161 grief 4164 productivity 4167 continent 4168 hardware 4170 wagon 4172 output 4173 withdrawal 4174 elder 4175 cage 4177 patience 4179 earthquake 4180 voting 4181 input 4182 canvas 4183 slide 4185 sword 4186 mate 4187 portfolio 4188 bug 4189 refrigerator 4190 escape 4192 northeast 4196 alien 4197 willingness 4199 accounting 4202 patrol 4206 drum 4211 canal 4216 conspiracy 4217 steam 4218 embassy 4222 bubble 4224 sheep 4225 rent 4226 accent 4232 magnitude 4237 vaccine 4238 monument 4239 trace 4240 verdict 4242 declaration 4243 costume 4244 drawer 4246 rack 4254 sympathy 4257 ounce 4259 inn 4260 collaboration 4261 clip 4263 sock 4264 rider 4265 revelation 4267 accomplishment 4268 seal 4270 ease 4272 gospel 4273 whale 4274 theatre 4275 coordinator 4278 cab 4279 isolation 4283 instinct 4289 pastor 4291 cook 4296 ancestor 4298 nominee 4304 orchestra 4305 treasury 4307 gallon 4308 thigh 4312 flexibility 4313 jar 4314 cocaine 4317 documentary 4320 ambition 4322 bankruptcy 4323 runner 4324 execution 4326 buddy 4327 workplace 4328 skull 4329 cord 4331 equivalent 4332 casino 4333 reliability 4338 proposition 4339 census 4340 correction 4341 jump 4342 diary 4343 nest 4344 statute 4345 exam 4348 nutrition 4349 breeze 4350 illusion Taylor & Francis Not for distribution Part of speech index 345 3340 continued 3344 changing 3349 everyday 3355 running 3369 collective 3375 concrete 3380 exact 3383 artistic 3406 acceptable 3413 rel