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Structure and defect behavior
Cerium oxide adopts the fluorite structure, space group Fm3m, #225 containing 8-coordinate Ce4+ and 4 -coordinate O2−. At high temperatures it releases oxygen to give a non-stoichiometric, anion deficient form that retains the fluorite lattice. This material has the formula CeO(2-x) where 0 < x < 0.28. The value of x depends on both the temperature and the oxygen partial pressure.
The equation of x[CeO2-x]
The non stoichiometric form has a blue to black color, and exhibits both ionic and electronic conduction with ionic being the most significant at temperatures > 500 °C.
The number of oxygen vacancies is frequently measured by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to compare the ratios of Ce3+ to Ce4+.
The interconvertibility of CeOx materials is the basis of the use of ceria for an oxidation catalyst.