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Embed code for: Lecture+1+Texas+Origins(1)
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Texas: Geography, Demography, Economy, and Early History
Texas is BIG!
Implications of Texas’s Size:
Texas’s size encourages bragging rights
Texas’s size contributes to unorganized politics
Texas’s size represents limitless potential
Demography: Change Over Time
Native Americans (1800: 80%; 1850: less than 5%)
Hispanics (1800: 20%; 1850: less than 5%; 1900: 4%; 1940: 11.5%; 1970: 18%; 2011: 38%)
African Americans (1850: 26%; 1900: 20%; 1940: 14.4%; 1980+:12%)
Anglos (1850: 65%; 1900: 75%; 1940: 74%; 1980: 66%; 2011: 46%)
Asian Americans (relatively new presence ~3%)
Aging population (baby-boomers)
Distribution of the population
Economy: In Transition
Since 1901, the Texas economy was built largely on oil and agriculture
1800s: economic health based on cotton and cattle
1900s: economic health based on oil prices
Booms and Busts:
1970s- early 1980s: economic boom with increase in oil prices
Mid 1980s: oil price dipped in half, economy sagged.
Oil/Agriculture rich & Oil/Agriculture poor
More production, less importance
Rise in oil production after dip
Rise in natural gas production
While increased production of oil and natural gas protected TX from the full effects of the economic downturn of 2007, the hydrocarbon industry is still not expected to gain its former leading role in TX
Restructuring started in 1980s and includes:
High technology industries
Services (especially in the health-care arena)
Agriculture (big money, few jobs)
The Birth of Texas Traditions
Contributions came from:
Native American tribes
Issues motivating Mexico’s split from Spain:
The expansion of political rights
“Call of Hidalgo” demanded that those born in the New World be endowed with the same rights as those born in Europe.
Illegal American immigrants
Same opportunities that drew settlers brought “illegals”/colonists
Mostly farmers, who wanted to own their own land
Other fled from: financial ruin, “justice”
Language: Spanish official language of Mexican government
Religion: many Anglos were Protestants, Mexican government required conversion to Catholicism
Slavery: many brought slaves to produce cotton: Mexican government opposed slavery
The Texas Revolution
Divisive issues regarding Texas’s split with Mexico:
Statehood within the Mexican national government or complete independence?
Tejanos: remain under Mexican rule or risk living under the rule of Anglo settlers?
Anglos: united against Mexican rule but often fought amongst themselves after independence was won
The Republic of Texas
Sam Houston was elected as president.
The Constitution of the Republic was ratified.
Capital city established and named after Sam Houston.
Process of annexation by United States started.
Mirabeau Lamar elected as second president.
Opposed annexation, increased debt, disastrous relationship with Native American tribes
Sam Houston elected for a second time.
The U.S. Senate admits Texas by a narrow margin.
Resolution passed easily in the House.
Barely passed in the Senate (27 to 25).
Texas wants to join US (almost) unanimously.
Texas’s north and west borders are redrawn.
Formal statehood: February 19, 1846.
Texas’s southern borders are resolved through the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.
Rapid population growth changes ethnic makeup of TX
Texas in the Confederacy
With the rise of the cotton economy came reliance on slavery.
Despite Governor Sam Houston’s objections, the legislature voted to secede from the Union February 1, 1861.
Houston kicked out of office for refusing to swear oath of loyalty to the Confederacy.
The Confederate regime was a disaster for pro-Union Anglos, Germans, Blacks, and Tejanos.
Reconstruction in Texas
June 19, 1865 – “Juneteenth”
Slaves in TX actually freed citizens
along with Anglo Republicans, the “freedmen” help elect Republicans to statewide office and constitutional conventions
“Freedmen” intimidation and exploitation.
African Americans not allowed to marry in TX until 1869.
1866 Constitution failed to meet the demands of the newly empowered “Radical Republicans” in the US Congress.
They passed the Second Reconstruction Act purging Democrats from office and voting lists in the South.
1869 Constitution won TX readmission into the US and created real change for freed slaves.
The End of Reconstruction & Rise of the Redeemers
Republican Governor Edmund J. Davis centralized power
Despised by Democrats who say him as symbol of Northern oppression (at best), corruption (at worst).
Democrats (party of white Confederate sympathizers) win control of the legislature- 1872.
Proclaimed themselves “Redeemers” and remove last remnants of Republican rule.
The rise of the Redeemers and the role of the Grange
The Grange= the Patrons of Husbandry, an economic and political association for farmers.
The sixth constitution of the state of Texas (IMPORTANT b/c)
Not replaced since.
State government encouraged immigration
To help settle and populate the western part of the state and drive of Native American tribes.
The Era of Reform
Railroads protected from out-of-state competition.
Prohibition of alcohol was passed, but unworkable. Over 20 percent of all arrests in the state were related to prohibition.
Galveston was a major center for liquor smuggling.
Voters approve prohibition, but reject women’s right to vote.
By 1929, oil replaced cotton as the largest part of Texas’s economy, reduces need for other state taxes.
Lumber also grew dramatically in early 20th century.n land
The Confederate regime was a disaster for pro