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Tycho Brahe was born on December 14, 1546 on the Danish peninsula of Scania. He was born into a noble family, his father, Otte Brahe, was a royal privy councilor and his mother, Beate Bille, was a powerful figure at the Danish Court holding several royal land titles. He was the oldest of 12 siblings, and only 8 survived to adulthood. He did have a twin, but he died before baptism. His first published work was of an ode in Latin to his dead twin. Tycho was actually raised by his uncle Jorgen Thygesen and his wife who didn’t have a child. He studied at the University of Copenhagen when he was 12 years old sprouting his interests in astronomy though his main focus was supposed to be law and politics. His uncle then sent him on a tour or Europe that was supposed to educate Tycho in order to become a civil servant, with the help of a mentor. Though the tour was supposed to focus Tycho’s on law and politics, his interests in astronomy continued to grow and his family began to accept his interests. On December 29, 1566, he lost a part of his nose in a sword duel against his third cousin over a dispute. With his interests in alchemy, he wore a prosthetic nose, which was believed to have been made of gold and held on by a paste or glue, but later research shows that it was actually made if brass. Tycho fell in love with Kirsten Jorgensdatter a commoner. They were never formally married as her rank would lose him his title and his noble privileges. The king was okay with his choice of partnership but his family did not agree with the marriage. Despite the challenges, Kirsten and Tycho had eight children with 6 making it to adulthood. His family also followed him into exile. Tycho died at a banquet after having had too much to drink without using the bathroom Many believed that his bladder burst thus resulting in his death, but later research doesn’t support this claim. Others also believe his partner Johannes Kepler poisoned him out of jealously.
Tycho was one of the first competent minds in modern astronomy as he was passionate about exact empirical facts. His observations were five times better than the best available observations then. He combined the Copernican system with the Ptolemaic system to create his own model of the Tychonic System. His system argued that the sun and moon orbited around the Earth, and other planets orbited the sun. To further his research King Frederick II granted Tycho an estate on the island of Hven and also funding to build Urainiborg, a research institution. He designed, built, and calibrated new instruments. His instruments were important in the progression of astronomy as he repeatedly calibrated and checked his instruments accuracy periodically. On the island of Hven he founded a paper mill, which he used to publish the results of his observations. In 1572, he observed a supernova and in 1577 he observed a comet. Using these two observations he was able to prove that the supernova never changed in regards to the stars around it, and that the comet orbited far beyond the path of the moon. This contradicted the idea of a heaven that never changed. Following disagreements with the new Danish king in 1597, he was sent into exile. He was invited to Prague by the Bohemian king and Holy Emperor Rudolph II, and became the imperial astronomer there. He continued to pursue astronomy and built two new observatories at Benatky and Jizerou. Till his death Tycho worked with Johannes Kepler. Kepler later used what he learned from Tycho to develop the three laws of planetary motion.