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Patriarchy & CALD
Steven Pearson 18/11/2015
Patriarchy in Australian Anglo-Saxon families
The overall concept of patriarchy is the presence of male dominance within the family structure and what is the socially acceptable behavior for men to treat women. Patriarchy is not confined to the male dominance over women and children within the family structure, it also extends to the wider community in government and in the workplace are just some areas of which men dominate. Patriarchal attitudes of times gone by have evolved over the past 100 years through the three waves of feminism which rallied for women’s rights on the basis of gender oppression and inequality. Feminism challenged the existing norms and social roles of both genders, particularly the patriarchal attitudes that have been distilled into men over the generations. The presence of male dominance in Australian society stems back to the colonization of British settlers in 1788 as Clark stated in (1968). Although Australia did establish its own acceptable social norms and acceptable behavior’s, hegemonic patriarchal traits were embedded within the context of the social arena, Australian men have adopted patriarchal virtues as an acceptable and normal behavior within the family unit, generations of Australian men have inherited patriarchal values that infuse Marxist functionalist perspective of the nuclear family and the man having to be the breadwinner and women to be the home- keeper. (Carl et al 2010). Hegemonic masculinity has been bred into Australian men through the social norms of which validated masculine discourse in Australian society. Theorists such as Argyle (1952). Allport(1961), Newcomb(1949),and Warren(1949) stressed that social norm expectations and individual role perceptions indicate that one’s own behaviour will adjust or adapt to the functioning of the situation as cited in (Yockey, 1978) . Feminist research into the subordination of women within the realms of marriage has uncovered that gendered social norms of patriarchal characteristics in Australian men, is a result of the multifaceted structural and social forces is what reinforces men’s domineering attitudes and behaviour’s towards women (Connell, 2003) . Brown (2006) as stated in (Sweester et al, 2008) asserted that “The civilization we know as racist, sexist, heterosexist, classist, neglectful, colonizing, occupying, and violent is the problem”. The political implications of hegemonic masculinity has been the dominant discourse in research of the social sciences. Researchers uncovered that masculinity in men has evolved and men have been categorised into binaries of the new age sensitive man who involves himself in child rearing and other domestic duties, and the stereotypical hyper-masculine and impassive man (Connell R. , 2005) Over the two decades it is evident that Australian women are successfully catching up on man in education and workplace participation in many fields of employment.
Patriarchy in post patriarchal and post structural times is incremented into society through hegemonic masculinity and capitalists structures of the bourgeoisie and various elites.
Preindustrial societies may not have formal laws and systems of law enforcement, but they do have other institutions of social control, such as the practice of convening village elders who are authorized to administer justice and restore peace to a community.
Steven Pearson 18/11/2015