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The English Influence in the Georgia Colony • The French began colonizing the Gulf coast and parts of Alabama. England began worrying about the French and Spanish threats to its colonial claims. Fort King George Colonel John “Tuscarora Jack” Barnwell- Traveled to London and begged For a fort to be built At the mouth of the Altamaha River Only Lasted 6 Years- it was abandoned Because of Indian raids, Swampy conditions and Sickness. Finished in 1721 This fort established The English Presence In Georgia Georgia Becomes a Colony • James Edward Oglethorpe and 20 other influential men in Great Britain made a plan to create a colony for the working poor. They envisioned a colony for people who faced jail time for bad debts. • In 1732, King George II created a charter allowing 21Trustees, including Oglethorpe, to create a Georgia colony and oversee it for 21 years. It included the land between the Savannah and Altamaha rivers and extended west to the Pacific Ocean. • Oglethorpe promised that silk, dyes, wine, spices, and semi-tropical fruit would be sent from Georgia back to England Chapter 4: Settlement of the Thirteenth Colony Georgia’s Charter 6,000 words Outlined who was not allowed: Catholics Blacks Liquor Dealers Lawyers The colonist would receive: 50 Acres of land and tools/food for a year OR The colonist could pay their own way and receive 500 acres and may bring up to 10 Indentured Servants In exchange, colonists had to agree to the following: Each man was to defend the new colony against all enemies. Land given to colonists could not be sold, and no money could be borrowed on it. It could, however, be passed on to a male heir. Each colonist was to receive seeds and agricultural tools and was to use them in cultivating the lands of the new settlement. (4) Colonists were to use a portion of their land to grow mulberry trees so that silkworms would eat the leaves and make cocoons for the production of silk. (5) Each colonist was to obey all regulations established by the trustees. The Voyage over…… The colonist (114-125) traveled on a ship named ANN… The voyage took 88 days…and only 2 infants died……Besides its passengers and crew, the Ann carried sheep, hogs, ducks, geese, and several dogs. There is no record of the ship being uncomfortable, but it was probably crowded with all the people and their belongings. Finally… they arrived!!!!!!! Before the Ann could set anchor, Oglethorpe had to make friends with the Yamacraw Indians through their chief, Tomochichi. Oglethorpe went to the trading post in the Yamacraw village to find an interpreter. He found Mary Musgrove. With Mary’s help, Oglethorpe and Chief Tomochichi established a close friendship that lasted until the chief’s death in 1739. Chief Tomochichi led the settlers to Yamacraw Bluff overlooking the Savannah River. This became the first settlement of the new Georgia colony. Savannah: Georgia’s Planned City • Oglethorpe, surveyor Noble Jones, and Colonel William Bell designed the city of Savannah and built along the Savannah River to facilitate shipping. • The streets formed several squares that were divided into blocks (called “tythings”) and wards. The center of each square was for social, political, and religious gatherings. • All but three of Oglethorpe's original squares exist in Savannah today. • Today, nearly 150,000 people live in Savannah. Where in the World is Georgia?? Page 1- Georgia’s Location- Page 2- FASTN- Page 3- Appalachian Plateau- Page 4- Ridge and Valley- Page 5- Blue Ridge- Page 6- Piedmont Page 7- Coastal Plain- Page 8- Fall Line- Okefenokee Swamp- * Get out 3 sheets of notebook paper. Fold them in half Chapter 1 Section 1— Where in the World is Georgia? * * * Where is GA? South eastern portion of the United States What continent are we on? North American What hemispheres is the U.S. in? North Western NORTHERN HEMISPHERE * * Georgia State has as much land as all the New England states combined! Largest state East Of the Mississippi River! Bordered by 5 states: Florida Alabama South Carolina Tennessee North Carolina * * Chapter 1 Section 2- “Geographic Regions of Georgia” * * * * 5 Regions of Georgia A region is a way we group a unit of study… We may group by culture, government, common language, or landforms Appalachian Plateau ( Northwestern) Ridge and Valley (North –In between 2 other regions Blue Ridge (Northeastern) Piedmont (Center) Coastal Plain (Furthest South) Outer Coastal Plain Inner Coastal Plain * * Appalachian Plateau Region Smallest of the regions “TAG” Corner- it is called this b/c this is where Tennessee, Alabama and Georgia meet. (touch) Civil War battles Chickamauga Chattanooga were fought in this region Also known as Cumberland Plateau because The region is home to a broad, Flat topped, 100 mile –long lookout mountain Has Mountains * * Ridge and Valley Region Located between the Appalachian Plateau And Blue Ridge Region Has low open valleys and narrow ridges Area is known for it’s manufacturing.. Particularly Carpet Dalton GA- is located in this region and is known As the “Carpet Capital of the World” Has Mountains * * Very important to the state b/c The tall mountains are a Barrier to the warm. Moist air Coming from the gulf of Mexico. When the Gulf air hits the mountains It cools and forms precipitation.The Precipitation provides enough water For the state. Blue Ridge Region Rugged and full of Forests Located in the Northeastern part of Georgia Part of the Appalachian Highlands Stretch from New York to Alabama. Highest group of mountains In this region. Has a mixture Of sandy “loam” (mixture of clay, sand and organic matter Home of Brasstown Bald (highest peak in state) & Amicalola Falls Has Mountains * * Appalachian Mountains Continental Collision formed the Appalachian mountains in Georgia. Every time continents collide They form more mountains Created over 900 million years ago!! 1set of Appalachian Mountains eroded And collided,, ,they formed The Atlantic ocean All 3 northern regions are Part of the Appalachian Mountains * * Piedmont Plateau A.K.A. “The Heartland” Begins in the mountain foothills of Northern Georgia and Goes into the middle Portion of the state Granite Based Landforms (Stone Mountain) Makes up 1/3 of the States land area Lots of Clay! Was the “Cotton Belt” during the Civil War (Had a lot of cotton production) Known for producing: Wheat Soybean Corn Poultry cattle Home to cities like: Atlanta Athens Milledgeville Madison Piedmont means “foot of mountain” * * Coastal Plain Largest Region in the State Coastal Plain has 2 parts: Inner Coastal Plain Outer Coastal Plain Inner Coastal Plain has mild climate and a lot Of underground water. Major Agricultural Region of the State! Grows- Corn, Peanuts, corn and Pecans Outer Coastal Plain- does NOT have good fertile soil! But it is the center Of Naval Stores And Pulp Production. Home to Okefenokee Swamp!!! Home to the barrier islands. These islands are off the Coast and they serve as A barrier to protect the Beaches from harmful Winds and storms. (Ex. Tybee Island & Jekyll Island) * * * * Okefenokee Swamp Largest swamp in the U.S. Freshwater Wetland A wetland is a low lying piece of land where the Water lies close to the surface. This creates: swamps, bogs, ponds, & marshes * * The Fall Line Separates the Coastal Plain And The Piedmont Plateau It is a natural boundary It is a point Where hilly land meets A coastal plain. The fall line runs from Columbus GA Through Macon and into Augusta. * * Chapter 1 Section 3“ Georgia’s Climate” * * Georgia’s Climate Climate- refers to the Type of weather A region experiences Over a long period Of time 1 of the most distinguishing Characteristics of Georgia's Regions is it’s Climate! Weather- is the day to day conditions And changes in the atmosphere. * * Temperature Due to the Latitude and Longitude…. Georgia's Climate is overall Mild. Average temperature for Georgia is 65 degree’s! Vertical Climate- the Higher the elevation The colder the Temperature. Hot Humid Summers and Mild Winters (except for in the mountains Where the weather can Get cold * * Precipitation Drought is the lack of water In the Central and Southern Regions: it rains 40-53 inches a year! In the Northern Mountains it precipitates 65-76 inches per year! July is the wettest month & October is the driest! Snow that falls in the mountains… Melts and runs off into Streams and lakes. Vital to Georgia’s economy * * Winds in Georgia Winds influence overall Weather in Georgia A wind current is a continuous Flow of air. Wind currents were very Important to early settlers Because they blew their ship To the new world. * * Hurricanes Hurricanes form when waters higher than 80 degrees transform the heat Energy Of tropical waters into Strong winds and Big waves Hurricane season is from June to the end Of November Hurricane power is Registered in power By numbers 1-5! ( A category 5 is the worst!) Can creat strong winds and tidal Waves!! * * Tornadoes Tornadoes are swirling cyclonic winds that, in our hemisphere, move in from southwest to northeast and spin in a counterclockwise motion Most tornadoes occur from March to May Georgia has an average of twenty-one tornadoes a year * * Regardless of where you live in Georgia, people always talk about the weather. It is either too hot or too cold, too rainy or too dry. The next time you are tempted to complain, think about life in Antarctica. The coldest temperature is -126.0°F. An average summer day is 1°F. The average daily temperature of the six month winter is -70°F. It’s something to think about! Whoa~!~~~~!!!!!~~~~ Paleo Died out 10,000 yrs ago Paleo means “very old” or “Long Ago” Tools and Weapons made of stone Period known as “Old Stone Age” Used the “ATL ATL”- to throw darts like a missile launcher Were Nomadic hunters who followed herds of animals Lived in groups of 25-50 Archaic Early- 8000-5000 B.C Hunt small game- Deer, bear, turkey Eat Reptiles, game Birds and fish Some trading among Indians In fall move w/ berries, nuts and fruit During summer- move to fishing spots Middle- 5000 B.C. Eat shellfish and make hooks from bones Spears with weights on them Small groups began to live together Late- 4000 -1000 B.C. Grooved Axe Horticulture- save seeds to plant crops Burial mounds with pipes, axes beads, hooks and needles Clay containers for storing, cooking and serving food Woodland 1000B.C. -1000A.D. Tribes began to form Bark and tree’s built dome huts Used Bow and Arrows Grew Squash, Greens and Sunflowers Perfected making clay pots Elaborate Religious ceremonies Burial mounds for the dead Believed in life after death Mississippians- MOUND BUILDERS 700 A.D. Settled Along the Miss. River Lived in Villages farmed and were Religious Grew Maize, Beans, Pumpkin, and Squash Grew Tobacco for ceremonies Crop Rotation Beads, Ear Ornaments and Headdresses Several Thousand Families living together Had Religious centers Moats and Palisades protected Villages 1600 A.D.- people left villages and vanished! Pre-Historic Indians Hernando De Soto Tell me about him??? * * Chapter 4- Section 2:English Settlement ofthe New World English Settlements in the New World • The English established colonies on North America’s Atlantic coast throughout the 1600s. First colony was in Virginia, then Massachusetts. The goals of the colonists varied, from religious mission, gaining wealth to bettering their lives. • Great Britain wanted raw materials from the New World’s colonies, which it would manufacture into finished goods and sell to other countries. This was mercantilism. • By 1686, as the English colonies reached as far south as South Carolina, the Spanish retreated from Guale to St. Augustine, Florida. Great Britain wanted a “buffer” colony to protect the English colonists from Spanish Florida. e Temperature. Hot Humid Summers and Mild Winters (except