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Who were involved in the Crusades?
Christians and Muslims (Obvious participants)
Much more complex
Byzantines (Christians) compare 1st and 4th Crusade
Seljuk Turks enemies of the Egyptian Fatimids (descendants of daughter of Muhammed)
Jews of the Rhineland during the First Crusade
Syrians (Damascus had huge battles)
Heretical Christians during the Albegenian Crusade
Europeans (called Franks)
Saladin ( Muslim hero who defeated Crusaders in huge battle of Hattin 1187)
What were the Crusades?
A series of military engagements over hundreds of years in an effort by European Christians to retake the Holy Land from Muslim control. There were several. 4, 7 or 8 or more? Depends on the source.
Much back and forth of who controlled Jerusalem over the series of Crusades.
Several Crusades (Pope Innocent VIII was still invoking Crusades in the late 1400s against Ottomans and Heretical Europeans)
Bad Legacy: centuries of warfare, expensive, fanaticism, some call this the foundation of anti Semitism in Europe, still harms relationships today.
Good legacy (the west): algebra, medicine, architecture (Spain), age of exploration technology
Aljaferia Zaragoza Spain
Where were the Crusades?
When were the Crusades ?
Some scholars say 1095-1291 ( Fall of Acre, Syria) Crusaders stopped any incursions into the Levant or Holy Land after that battle.
Others say 1400s with Pope Innocent the VIII and the Ottomans. The word Crusade was used by many for several years to get interest for other wars.
Some might even say that today’s conflict is a version of a modern Crusade. Remember some people see the Crusaders as Invaders.
Acre Fortress and City
Why did the Crusades Happen?
Religious reasons (obvious answer)
Much more complex than that
Economic reasons. Muslim economic influence was growing so was Christian influence at the same time. Reconquista 1085 Toledo Spain.
Spain and the Levant were tied together.
Cinnabar and Mercury, Gold, Dhimmi, Pilgrims. Muslim influence was growing in the east and Christians were regaining Spain in the west.
Christians saw the Crusades as defensive. The Muslims saw them as offensive.