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08.2 Internet Protocol
9/11/2016 Cisco ELearning for ICND1 v2.0 https://ondemandelearning.cisco.com/ciscosc/icnd1#/sections/8/pages/2 1/2 Internet Protocol Section 8: Understanding the TCP/IP Internet Layer IP is the central component of the TCP/IP suite of protocols. All upperlayer protocols such as TCP, UDP, ICMP, and many others rely on IP for routing packets based on their destination IP addresses. When data is encapsulated in IP, it is referred to as a "packet". All TCP/IP protocols rely on IP for transport. An IP packet contains all of the information that needs to be routed from the source to the destination, and for the destination to respond to the sender. IP is considered a "connectionless" protocol because IP packets maintain no state information about whether the packet reached its destination, which path it took through the network, or whether it was damaged or dropped in transit. If an IP packet does not reach its intended destination, it relies on upperlayer protocols or the application that generated the packet to perform error control and retransmission. IP operates at Layer 3 (network layer) of the OSI model. This means it can operate independently of the underlying medium carrying the packet. IP packets can be encapsulated into any arbitrary Layer 2 transport. A packet transmitted from an Ethernet station in New York to the Netherlands will travel to an edge WAN router where it might be encapsulated in MPLS, Frame Relay, ATM, ADSL, or many other protocols. At some point, the packet will be transmitted via the transoceanic fiber optic network and find its way over a WiFi network to your sister's smart phone at a cafe in Utrecht. There are two versions of the Internet protocol, designated IPv4 and IPv6. IPv4 has been the mainstay protocol of the Internet since the 1980s. IPv6 was designed to solve the problem of global IP address exhaustion. Adoption of IPv6 was initially very slow, but is now reaching wider deployment. A popular analogy for the connectionless routing services of IP is the postal service. For instance, if you mail three letters from your local post office in Boise, Idaho to your mother in Fort Worth, Texas, the postal service makes its best attempt to deliver the letters, but the postal service will not guarantee that the letters will arrive at their destination. It also will not guarantee that all three letters will be processed by the same carrier, or take the same route. And it will not guarantee that the letters will arrive in the order in which you mailed them. Up Next: IPv4 Address Representation 9/11/2016 Cisco ELearning for ICND1 v2.0 https://ondemandelearning.cisco.com/ciscosc/icnd1#/sections/8/pages/2 2/2