What email address or phone number would you like to use to sign in to Docs.com?
If you already have an account that you use with Office or other Microsoft services, enter it here.
Or sign in with:
Signing in allows you to download and like content, and it provides the authors analytical data about your interactions with their content.
Embed code for: Cousin Marriages in Pakistan
Select a size
This quantitative research on cousin marriages.
Cousin Marriages in Pakistan
Quar tul ain
M. Hasham Hussain
Ma’am Iram Ibrar
National University of Sciences and Technology
May 30, 2017
1. Abstract 3
2. Introduction 3
3. Literature Review: 4
4. Purpose statement: 13
5. Research questions: 13
6. Methodology: 14
7. Data collected 15
7.1 Data from educated class: 15
7.1.1 Analyzing data collected from educated class 19
7.2 Data collected from uneducated class: 19
7.2.1 Analyzing data collected from uneducated class 23
8 Conclusion: 23
9 References 24
The consanguineous marriage phenomenon, particularly the first-cousin marriage type, had been common among different societies and it was even regarded as integral to some cultures. The purpose of our study was to determine the prevalence and trends of first-cousin marriage. A specially designed questionnaire was used to survey the study sample that represented this society, and a comparative analysis was performed. Among the literate class, the prevalence of first-cousin marriage types was found to be decreasing but still was most predominant among the various consanguineous marriage types. Children of such a marriage, therefore, are at greater risk of being homozygous for a harmful gene and consequently suffer autosomal recessive genetic disorders. Pregnancy wastage has also been found to be high for women marrying close relatives. Higher rates of birth; rates of abortion, postnatal mortality, congenital malformations and genetic disorder are evident among consanguineous couple.
Marriage is the important part of human life. “Consanguinity’ is the term for cousin marriage (CM) or inter-familial marriages between close relatives. Consanguinity means shared blood. In such marriages, each partner shares genes of a common ancestor such as grandparents. Opinions and practice vary widely across the world but our focus is cousin marriages in Pakistan. In some cultures and communities of Pakistan cousin marriage is considered ideal and actively encouraged; in others, it is subject to social stigma. In countries like Pakistan, over half of all marriages are cousin marriages. Cousin marriage is an important topic in anthropology and alliance theory. The purpose of this research is to find out the opinion of people regarding cousin marriages and getting to the difference of opinion among the educated and uneducated class.
Rajan R Patil
(Rajan R Patil, 2012)
First Cousin Marriages, Genetic concerns vs Value judgment.
The risk of the offspring of first cousins being born with genetic abnormalities and congenital malformation is about 4.5%, compared to 3% in the offspring of unrelated couples
Shareen Joshi &SriyaIyer
(Shareen, Sriya, & Quy, 2009)
Why Marry A Cousin? Insights from Bangladesh
The preference for consanguineous marriage has been attributed to tradition, the maintenance of family structure and property, the strengthening of family ties, financial advantages relating to dowry, a closer relationship between the wife and her in-laws, greater social compatibility and greater stability of marriage. Higher rates of consanguineous marriage have been associated with low socioeconomic status, illiteracy and rural residence
Pramila D' Souza
(Pramila & Sonia Karen Liz Sequera, 2015)
Case Report on Consanguineous Marriage
Marriages in sub-continent are a religious duty in sub-continent people prefer to marry with in the family. In comparison to non-cousin marriages, the cousin marriages are more likely to have marriage at early age. Cousin marriages increase the chance of wife carrying an identical gene derived from a common ancestor. The closer the biological relationship between parents, the greater is the probability that their offspring will inherit identical copies of one or more detrimental recessive genes. Therefore, the Children of cousin marriages are at greater risk of being homozygous for a harmful gene and consequently suffer autosomal recessive genetic disorders. The role of multidisciplinary health care team is very essential for genetic counseling, testing and treatment. The multidisciplinary health care is available in India.
(Bhagya B, 2012)
Prevalence and Pattern of Consanguineous Marriages Among Different Communities in
A low percentage of consanguinity (6.53%) was observed with a mean inbreeding coefficient of 0.0339. Frequency of consanguinity between religions was highly significant. Of these the most frequent were first cousin marriages (43.42%). Within Hindu religion the highest rate of consanguinity was among the Billavas (47.62%) of which the most frequent were distant relative marriages (75%) followed by second cousin marriages (57.14%). There was no significant difference in the frequency distribution of the types of consanguinity between the religions and also between the different groups among Hindus.
Bilal Barakat &Stuart Basten
(Bilal & Stuart, 2014)
Modelling the constraints on consanguineous marriage when
Consanguinity prevalence will diminish significantly, or the will be forced to adapt by becoming more coercive in the face of reduced choice or at the expense of other social preferences (such as for an older groom wedding a younger bride). Fertility decline affects prospects for social change not only through its well-known consequences for mothers but also through shaping marriage conditions for the next generation.
Alison Shaw &Aviad Riaz
(Alison & Aviad, 2015)
Cousin marriages between Tradition, Genetic Risk
and Cultural Change
It offers a cross-cultural exploration of practices of cousin marriage in the light of new genetic understanding of consanguineous marriage and its possible health risks. Overall, the volume presents a reflective, interdisciplinary analysis of the social and ethical issues raised by both the discourse of risk in cousin marriage, as well as existing and potential interventions to promote "healthy consanguinity" via new genetic technologies.
Ahmad Sheikh-Muhammad & Rajech Sharkia
(Abdul, Abdul, Abdelnaser, & Muhammad, 2015)
Variations in Types of First-Cousin Marriages over a Two-Generation Period among Arabs in Israel
This study compares the rate of cousin marriages between two generations (from 1948 – 1979 and 1980 – 2009) in the Arab society of Israel. In generation 1 there were 376 cousin marriage out of 872 (43.1%) and in Generation 2 there were 775 out of 2301 (33.7%). The overall trend of cousin marriages has decreased.
A Background summary of consanguineous marriage
Globally the most common form of consanguineous marriages are contracted between 1st cousins in which spouse share 1/8 of their genes inherited from common ancestors. There are many regions in the world where these kind of marriages prevail due to the fact that they wish to maintain community traditions. Also the believers of different religions like Judaism, Hinduism, Sikhism, Parsi have different concepts about such marriages. Some religions and even legislations strongly prohibit CU but on contrary to that others favor such marriages. In Islam uncle-niece marriages are forbidden while it recognizes double 1st cousin marriages. Also in India act 1955 includes a ban on uncle-niece marriages, but still different sociodemographic aspects like (strengthening the family ties, greater marriage stability, financial advantages) play a vital role in popularity of such marriages especially in illiterate, rural resident and land owning families. Studies have shown that CU have high reproductive rates because couples continue their child bearing to comparatively later ages. Imperial studies on the progeny of 1st cousins show the morbidity levels to be 1-4% higher than in the offspring’s of unrelated couples. Mortality rates in mothers and infants are also higher up to 1.32% because birth intervals are even less than 18 months. Educational standards and awareness regarding morbidity rates among offspring’s and the parents themselves should be increased to have a considerable decline in the rate of such marriages and proper health care facilities should be introduced to fight lethal genetic disorder due to such marriages and it would clearly be beneficial to human society as a whole
(Hassan & Ariel, 2014)
Consanguineous marriage and intellectual and developmental disabilities among Arab Bedouins children of the Negev region in Southern Israel
The findings of the this study are similar to findings from other studies indicating that intellectual and developmental disabilities in addition to other genetic disorders are most likely to occur. In conclusion, it is recommended to further investigate this population for a more detailed history and specific genetic disorders for appropriate genetic counseling for those already married and also to focus public health efforts to decrease the rate of marriages between relatives. mong inbred offspring and the risk is significantly higher than in non-consanguineous families.
Kaufui Vincent Wong
Cousin Marriages from Viewpoint of Genetics
Cousin marriages are still common in this world. Cousin marriages are increase in recent period in turkey. The rate of consanguinity is studied with respect to its outcomes of spontaneous abortions, birth defects, infant mortality and stillbirth. The study found no correlation with respect to consanguinity and spontaneous abortions, but the other three seemed significantly increased. The health of the people of Kahramanmarasis improved by reduction in the consanguinity rate. They suggest that families with CM in the family tree be identified, and provided with risk information and carrier testing.
People belonging to joint family system with close bounding and those belonging to rural area have higher rate of cousin marriages. They are mostly unaware of the fact that cousin marriages can produce health issues in the off-spring.
People with higher educational backgrounds or socioeconomically status have lower rate of cousin marriages. They tend to know the pros and cons of cousin marriages.
What are the main reasons of cousin marriages?
There is any relation between Islam and Cousin Marriages (As some people say)?
Cousin marriages cause health issue in offspring so why people still do it?
Are Cousin Marriages more successful?
What is the effect of unsuccessful cousin marriages overall family?
Is the ratio of cousin marriages greater in rural areas?
It is a quantitative study. We will make Google Forms to collect data from vast group of educated class and analyze that data.
For uneducated class, we will interview them personally, ask several questions and fill up the form.
We will try to compute the mathematical side of the research. For that, we will have to find the ratio of people who prefer cousin marriages and who do not, Percentage of successful and unsuccessful cousin marriages. Percentage of people who are aware of the fact that cousin marriages can produce health issues in the offspring. Percentage of cousin marriages in rural and urban areas.
We will collect our data from background villages and rural areas. We will also collect information from students as our control subjects.
The age of marriages for a Female is 18 – 35 years and for a male is 20-65 years.
We will use Google Forms to collect the quantitative data. We will interview the subjects personally.
We will try not being biased.
We will not reveal any information about their family.
We will not to argue their personal opinion.
Opinion by different researchers:
Dr Muhammad Aslam khan:
”Nearly 82.5% of parents in Pakistan are blood-relatives of first, second or third generations (and so on). Out of these, 6.3% hail from the same extended families or castes while 6.8% are immediate cousins. Only about 4.4% of couples in Pakistan are married outside of their brethren”. (zara, 2014)
“Consanguineous unions increase the expression of autosomal recessive disorders, leading to the infant being at a higher risk of contracting them”. (zara, 2014)
“There is a 25% chance that an offspring of a cousin marriage will contract a disease or disorder coming down from one parent”. (zara, 2014)
There is no research article related to cousin marriages in Pakistan but there are some essays and journal. The three above quote by researchers are part of the journal. However, there are the researches articles to the topic as cousin marriages in whole world.
Data from educated class:
Analyzing data collected from educated class
By analyzing the data of educated class, we came to know that the cousin marriages are low in educated class. Educated class thinks that trust issue, family pressure and property are the major factors for cousin marriages. Some people think that there is nothing wrong with it if both are happy, some think we are just stereotyping this thing but ratio of those people are less than 10%. When a marriage does no work out, and the subjects get separated, it is not only the separation of two people but it is the separation of two families and sometimes this separation leads to make families enemies of each other. They start avoiding each other and tend to avoid meeting on any social events. It becomes really hard for them to unite again.
Data collected from uneducated class:
Are your parents are cousin?
Would you prefer to marry your cousin?
Percentage of cousin marriages are high in rural as compared to Urban areas.
Main cause of cousin marriages
Suppose you were married to your cousin and you two are having problems, would you prefer being separated or stay together for the sake of family?
Cousin marriages cause health issues in the offspring?
Are there any unsuccessful cousin marriages in your family?
Religion affects the cousin marriages in Pakistan?
Education affects the cousin marriages in Pakistan.
Analyzing data collected from uneducated class
By analyzing this data we came to know that uneducated class prefer cousin marriages more. The percentage of cousin marriages is a lot greater in rural areas, as they tend to build up their relations with their family. They like to follow traditions, most of them have trust issues and cannot give their daughters to another family, some of them like to keep their property and money in the family therefore avoiding marriages outside their family.
There is a bigger percentage of cousin marriages in rural areas. In rural areas, people do not know the fact that cousin marriages can produce a lot of health issues in the offspring. It is easy for them to give their daughters to someone close to them, therefore avoiding trust issues, keeping the money and property within the family. The educated class is aware of the fact that cousin marriages can produce health issues. But they try to be more flexible and have no issues with their children marrying someone of their choice, even if it is their cousin, as long as they are happy. They think pressurizing their children to marry someone is not a good idea and they should have the right to live their life with someone of their choice.
A.H, b. (2001, May). A BACKGROUND SUMMARY OF CONSANGUINEOUS MARRIAGE. Retrieved from http://www.consang.net/images/d/dd/01AHBWeb3.pdf
Abdul, Abdul, S. M., Abdelnaser, Z., & Muhammad, M. (2015, September 25). Variations in Types of First-Cousin. Retrieved from Scientific Research Publishing: http://file.scirp.org/pdf/AA_2015092514155099.pdf
Alison, S., & Aviad, R. (2015, January). COUSIN MARRIAGES. Retrieved from Berghahn Independant publishing: http://www.berghahnbooks.com/title/ShawCousin
Bhagya B, S. S. (2012, Oct-Dec). Prevalence and Pattern of Consanguineous Marriages Among Different Communities in Mangalore. Retrieved from Online Journal of Health Allied Sciences: http://www.ojhas.org/issue44/2012-4-7.html
Bilal, B., & Stuart, B. (2014, January 28). Modelling the constraints on consanguineous. Retrieved from Demographic-Research: https://www.demographic-research.org/volumes/vol30/9/30-9.pdf
Hassan, A. S., & Ariel, T. (2014, January 28). Consanguineous Marriage and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities among Arab Bedouins Children of the Negev Region in Southern Israel: A Pilot Study. Retrieved from NCBI: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3904202/
Kaufui, V. W. (2015). Cousin Marriages from Viewpoint of Genetics. Retrieved from Research gate: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kaufui_Wong/publication/280947849_Cousin_Marriages_from_Viewpoint_of_Genetics/links/55ce31d208ae502646a8e5b7/Cousin-Marriages-from-Viewpoint-of-Genetics.pdf?origin=publication_detail
Pramila, D., & Sonia Karen Liz Sequera. (2015, May 3). Case Report on Consanguineous Marriage. Retrieved from IJSR: https://www.ijsr.net/archive/v4i3/SUB152742.pdf
Rajan R Patil. (2012, August). First Cousin Marriages: Genetic concerns vs Value judgment. Retrieved from Research Gate: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235747993_First_Cousin_Marriages_Genetic_concerns_vs_Value_judgment
Shareen, J., Sriya, I., & Quy, T. D. (2009). Why Marry A Cousin? Insights from Bangladesh. Retrieved from WP Content: http://shareenjoshi.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/08/MarriageVolumeFinalVersion_Joshi_Iyer_Do1.pdf
zara, h. (2014, May 12). the buzz: Cousin Marriages in Pakistan. Retrieved from The Express Tribune: https://tribune.com.pk/story/705835/the-buzz-cousin-marriages-in-pakistan/
3er to marry your cousin?
Bilal, B., & Stuart, B. (2014, January 28).