What email address or phone number would you like to use to sign in to Docs.com?
If you already have an account that you use with Office or other Microsoft services, enter it here.
Or sign in with:
Signing in allows you to download and like content, and it provides the authors analytical data about your interactions with their content.
Embed code for: Anthro Exam 1
Select a size
Please answer the selected three questions in an essay format. If you write your answers as lists, or incomplete sentences, points will be deduced from your exam. Each question is worth 5 points (for a total of 15 points).
What are the four-fields of Anthropology (2)? Describe each field (2). How does Anthropology differ from the other disciplines that study humans (1)?
-1. Archaeology- study of people from the past materials they leave behind
-2. Linguistic Anthropology- relationship between language and social relations
-3. Cultural anthropology- study the beliefs, practices, and social networks of people. Ethnography-descriptive, direct fieldwork, single or subculture. Ethnology- comparative, uses data collected by ethnographers, generalizes across cultures or subcultures.
-4. Biological anthropology- study from biological perspective, paleoanthropology- emergence of humans and how they have evolved, human variation- how and why the physical traits of human populations vary.
Holism is the distinguishing feature of anthropology is its holistic approach to the study of human groups, also focuses on the individual.
In which animals did Charles Darwin most famously note physical variations (1)? Why was this theory so revolutionary (1)? What are three of the keys to natural selection (3)?
-Finches, this theory was so revolutionary because it created natural selection which is genetic change of certain traits due too differential reproductive success between individuals, first working theory of evolution with evidence through natural selection.
-1. All species can produce offspring at a faster rate than food supplies increase.
-2. There is biological variation within a species
-3. There is competition within a species because of some natural phenomena
3. What is a Theory (1)? What is the theory of catastrophism (1)? What is the theory of uniformitarianism (1)? Discuss the ways that these theories, and evolution, challenged the belief systems of people in the past (and present) (2). -a well substantiated explanation of natural phenomena supported by rigorous testing. Theory of catastrophism is the earth is here because of many catastrophic events, theory of uniformitarianism- slow changes such as erosion created earth geological features. Talk about creation science vs evolution, geocentric vs heliocentric
4. Define and discuss Mitosis and Meiosis (2). What are gametes (1)? What is a Heterozygote and a Homozygote (2)? Simple cell division-Mitosis, sexual reproduction- Meiosis, Gametes- Sex Cells, heterozygote- 2 different alleles, homozygote- 2 the same alleles.
Anthropology-study of people, their origins and development
Individual-study of different cultures provides a better understanding of one’s own culture and develops valuable leadership skills
Holism-involves both biological and sociocultural aspects of humanity, earliest beginnings to present, studies all varieties of people wherever they may be found
Enculturation-process by which individuals learn the values, beliefs, and practices, or others within a society
Culture-all aspects of human adaptation, set of learned behaviors, not biologically passed down, but learned by the individuals
Society-the aggregate of people living together in a more or less ordered community.
Scientific Method-an approach to research where by a problem is identified, researched, a hypothesis is stated, data is collected, and analyzed. Purpose, Research, Hypothesis, Experiment, Analysis, Conclusion.
Evolution-a change in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next
Species Fixity-belief that once created a species cannot change
Hypothesis-temporary explanation of a phenomenon, this requires more testing
Theory-a well sustained explanation of natural phenomena, supported by rigorous testing. theory-assumption
Homeostasis-the tendency toward a relatively stable equilibrium between interdependent elements, especially as maintained by physiological processes.
Cell- the smallest structural and functional unit of an organism, typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed in a membrane.
Nucleus- a structure found in all cells. The nucleus contains chromosomes.
rNA- Important for cell reproduction. Think of RNA as a blueprint for cell creating.
DNA- The double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code.
Chromosomes- a threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes.
Origin- the point or place where something begins, arises, or is derived
Allele- one of two or more alternative forms of a gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same place on a chromosome.
Genetic Drift- variation in the relative frequency of different genotypes in a small population, owing to the chance disappearance of particular genes as individuals die or do not reproduce
Founder’s Effect- is the loss of genetic variation that occurs when a new population is established by a very small number of individuals from a larger population.
Gene Flow- is the transfer of alleles or genes from one population to another.
Population Bottleneck- is an event that drastically reduces the size of a population.
Fitness- an organism's ability to survive and reproduce in a particular environment.
Genetics-study of gene structure adaptation of patterns of inheritance of traits
Osteology-study of skeletal remains
Primatology- the branch of zoology that deals with primates.
Taxonomy- the branch of science concerned with classification, especially of organisms; systematics
Uniformitarianism- the theory that changes in the earth's crust during geological history have resulted from the action of continuous and uniform processes.
Theory of Catastrophism- that the Earth has been affected in the past by sudden, short-lived, violent events, possibly worldwide in scope
Theory of Inheritance- in which the chromosomes of cells were thought to hold the actual hereditary material, and created what is now known as classical genetics
Natural Selection-genetic change of certain traits in population due to differential reproductive success between individuals.
Genotype- the genetic constitution of an individual organism.
Phenotype- the set of observable characteristics of an individual resulting from the interaction of its genotype with the environment.
Heterozygote- an individual having two different alleles of a particular gene or genes, and so giving rise to varying offspring.
Homozygote- an individual having two identical alleles of a particular gene or genes and so breeding true for the corresponding characteristic.
Mitosis- a type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each having the same number and kind of chromosomes as the parent nucleus, typical of ordinary tissue growth.
Meiosis- a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
Gamete- a mature haploid male or female germ cell that is able to unite with another of the opposite sex in sexual reproduction to form a zygote.ion, set of learned behaviors, not biologically passed down, but learned by the individuals
Cell- the smallest structural and fun