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IslamAn Abrahamic Religion Muslims are strict monotheists. They believe in the Judeo- Christian God, which they call Allah. Muslims believe that the Torah and the Bible, like the Qur’an, are the word of God. Peoples of the Book The Prophetic Tradition Adam Noah Abraham Moses Jesus Muhammad Muhammad Born in Mecca in 570 CE When he was 40, he was visited by an angel and was told that his new job was to be a prophet of God (Allah) Not accepted in Mecca (where Arabs came to worship at the Kaaba)--traveled to Medina (Yathrib) After his move, he started gaining more followers and wars broke out between Mecca and Medina Muhammad Muhammad returned to Mecca and destroyed the idols housed in the Kaaba He reopened the Kaaba for the worship of Allah By the time of his death in 632 CE, Islam had spread significantly to surrounding tribes Muhammad Today Some ancient oral traditions (Hadith) quote Allah as saying it would be blasphemous to show an image of Muhammad 2005-Danish newspaper ran a series of cartoons depicting Muhammad-group plotted to murder a cartoonist 2006-South Park wanted to feature him in an episode-banned by Comedy Central 2010-South Park put him in a bear costume to avoid showing his likeness The Qur’an Muslims believe it contains the word of God. 114 suras (chapters). In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful. Written in Arabic. 1. The Shahada 1 The testimony. The declaration of faith: There is no god worthy of worship except God, andMuhammad is HisMessenger [or Prophet]. 2. The Salah 2 The mandatory prayers performed 5 times a day: * dawn * noon * late afternoon * sunset * before going to bed Wash before praying. Face Mecca and use a prayer rug. 2. The Salah 2 The call to prayer by the muezzin in the minaret. Pray in the mosque on Friday. 3. The Zakat 3 Almsgiving (charitable donations). Muslims believe that all things belong to God. Zakat means both “purification” and “growth.” About 2.5% of your income. 4. The Sawm 4 Fasting during the holy month of Ramadan. Considered a method of self- purification. No eating or drinking from sunrise to sunset during Ramadan. 5. The Hajj 5 The pilgrimage to Mecca. Must be done at least once in a Muslim’s lifetime. 2-3 million Muslims make the pilgrimage every year. 5. The Hajj 5 Those who complete the pilgrimage can add the title hajji to their name. The Dar al-Islam 1 2 3 4 5 The Worldof Islam The Mosque The Muslim place of worship. The Dome of the Rock Mosque in Jerusalem Mount Moriah Rockwhere Muhammad ascended into heaven. Other Islamic Religious Practices Up to four wives allowed at once. No alcohol or pork. No gambling. Sharia body of Islamic law to regulate daily living. Three holiest cities in Islam: * Mecca, Medina, Jerusalem. Essential Question: Why was Islam able to spread so quickly and convert so many to the new religion? The Spread of Islam Easy to learn and practice. No priesthood. Teaches equality. Non-Muslims, who were “Peoples of the Book,” were allowed religious freedom, but paid additional taxes. Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes. Jihad (“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”). Muslims in the WorldToday Countries with the Largest Muslim Population 1. Indonesia 183,000,000 6. Iran 62,000,000 2. Pakistan 134,000,000 7. Egypt 59,000,000 3. India 121,000,000 8. Nigeria 53,000,000 4. Bangladesh 114,000,000 9. Algeria 31,000,000 5. Turkey 66,000,000 10. Morocco 29,000,000 * Arabs make up only 20% of the total Muslim population of the world. Muslims in America Muslim Culture in NYC The Islamic Center, New York City