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Embed code for: Anatomy of the French Revolution 3/24
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* Bellwork:Without looking, what are the 4 parts of the anatomy of a revolution? The Next 2 Weeks Mon 3/20: Enlightenment Chapter 22 Quick Write Wed 3/22: English Civil War/American Revolution Fri 3/24: French/Haitian Revolution Tues 3/28: Haitian Revolution DBQ Thurs 3/29: Imperialism Chapter 25 Study Guide Due (No Quick Write) * The French Revolution: Anatomy of a Revolution Find your blank Anatomy of a Revolution sheet. Use this sheet for your notes over the French Revolution. You won’t be able to write everything down—summarize. Symptoms: The Beginnings of the French Revolution French Social Classes: Three Estates 1st Estate: The Clergy 2nd Estate: The Nobility 3rd Estate: Middle Class, City Workers, and Peasants Made up 97% of the population, but owned 40% of the land 1% of the population, but owned 15% of the land 2% of the population, but owned 45% of the land The 2 Louies Louis XV—King of France for 59 years—long period of peace Louis XV liked to spend money—the country’s debt grew, taxes didn’t cover the debt, and Louis borrowed money from bankers Louis XVI—debt continued to grow and Louis XVI wanted new taxes on the top two estates Marie Antoinette—Louis XVI’s wife—from Austria She was disliked by the 3rd Estate because of her wild spending The Estates General System Three estates met separately and each estate cast one vote The 1st two estates would get together and outvote the 3rd estate The 3rd estate wanted everyone to vote as individuals Reasons for Revolution: Symptoms Too many people—people were hungry Rising prices/wages weren’t rising Poor had to pay taxes/rich didn’t Bourgeoisie wanted power and didn’t want to pay taxes Natural rights—liberty and equality Rising Fever: The French Revolution The Estates General Louis XVI called the Estates General in 1788 to get support for his tax plan The Estates General met May 5, 1789 Rising Fever: The National Assembly When the E.G. met in 1789, the 3rd estate refused to meet separately Tennis Court Oath--The 3rd estate called themselves the National Assembly and said they would stay locked in the tennis court until there was a new constitution The 3 Estates finally met together marking the beginning of the French Revolution Attacking the Bastille During the meeting, Louis XVI moved troops into Paris and Versailles The people of Paris thought the troops were going to attack the National Assembly On July 14, 1789, the people of France attacked the Bastille prison, looted it for weapons, and destroyed it A new people’s army called the National Guard was formed by General Lafayette Peasants revolted all across France Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen Binder Pages 12 and 13 for homework (answer 4 questions) Said that all men were equal Freedom of speech, press, religion, and right to fair trial Olympe de Gouges—wrote Declaration of the Rights of Women—National Assembly rejected it The Constitution of 1791 Limited the authority of the king + created 3 branches of government Tax-paying male voters elected new members to the Legislative Assembly Louis XVI secretly plotted to overthrow the new gov’t and wore a disguise to flee France and get help—he was recognized and arrested Crisis: The Reign of Terror War! Austria and Prussia encouraged European leaders to go to war against France to reinstate Louis XVI In April 1792, the Legislative Assembly declared war on Austria France did poorly in war--there were several uprisings in Paris Radicals took over Paris city gov’t (Commune) August 1792—The Commune suspended the office of king and imprisoned Louis and family With no more king, they needed a new constitution New Government Girondins—feared a gov’t dominated by Paris Jacobins—wanted a gov’t dominated by Paris—they were radicals who wanted reforms for all classes Jean-Paul Marat—led the Jacobins Louis XVI was found guilty of treason against France He was beheaded by the guillotine along with his wife Committee of Public Safety CoPS—group that was put in charge of the military Conscription—Unmarried, able-bodied men between 18 and 25 had to join the army—men from any class could become officers Counterrevolutionaries—people who were against the revolution Most were Girondins and were arrested Charlotte Corday assassinated Marat while he was taking a bath—she earned a date with the guillotine The Reign of Terror September 1793-July 1794 (20,000-40,000 deaths) Led by Maximilien Robespierre and Georges-Jacques Danton Law of Suspects—listed enemies of the revolution These enemies were executed via the guillotine (national razor) Included nobility as well as bourgeoisie and peasants Robespierre became paranoid and fanatical and had Danton beheaded Robespierre’s allies feared him and he was arrested and killed via the guillotine—Reign of Terror ended Convalescence: Napoleon Bonaparte The Directory 5 Directors were in charge of France 2 house legislature—500 in lower body who proposed laws; 250 in upper body who voted on proposed laws and chose directors Only male property owners could vote—wealthy controlled society Was very unpopular Napoleon Bonaparte Became a general in the army by age 26 Was 5 feet 6 inches tall—actually pretty tall for this time period He married Joséphine de Beauharnais—a leader of French society Napoleonic Wars—improved conditions for troops, defeated Austria 4 times, and took control of northern Italy He attacked the British in Egypt, was defeated, left his troops to fend for themselves, but bragged to the French people about his great victory Napoleon Takes Power 1799—Legislature gets rid of 4 of the Directors Napoleon sees his chance and surrounds the legislature with the army Coup d'état (French for stroke of state)—seizing power by force Napoleon became dictator of France 1799-1814—known as the Napoleonic Era Napoleon as Dictator He controlled the army and navy He appointed all officials and proposed all new laws He made his own constitution and put it to a vote by the people The people could either vote yes or no and couldn’t propose any changes—most voted yes French law was called Napoleonic Code Concordat—agreement with the Pope—gave people religious freedom and the church gave up claims to property Napoleon Becomes Emperor 1804—French people voted for France to be an empire with Napoleon becoming Emperor Napoleon I The Pope came to crown the emperor, but Napoleon snatched the crown and put it on himself Napoleon started to spread the French empire throughout Europe Napoleon’s Empire Spreads 1809—Napoleon dominated Europe Signed peace treaties with Austria and Prussia Allied with Russia Conquered the Netherlands, Spain, and northern Italy As he conquered countries, he placed his relatives in charge He abolished feudalism in Europe and introduced Europe to modern military practices War in Russia 1812 Napoleon marched 600,000 troops into Russia—called the Grand Army Russians practiced scorched earth policy—burning everything as they retreated Captured Moscow, but the Russians set the city on fire The Grand Army had no place to live during the winter—Napoleon was forced to retreat—2/3 of the army died Countries broke alliances with Napoleon and he was removed from office and sent to Elba to “retire” Napoleon’s Final Defeat France had a king again—Louis XVIII Napoleon escaped from Elba, persuaded the army to follow him, and took over as leader of France Prussia, Great Britain, and the Netherlands sent an army to France Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo He asked to go to the U.S., but was sent to St. Helena where he died in 1821 (stomach cancer or death by wallpaper? His remains were sent back to France in 1840 where they remain today Anatomy of the Haitian Revolution Complete your final anatomy chart on the Haitian Revolution. Use the materials in the folder and information from Chapter 22 to complete the chart. Make sure you include as much info as possible because you might want to reference this sheet when preparing for the DBQ on Tuesday. * eaded by the guillotine along with his wife Committee of Public Safety CoPS—group that was put in charge of the military Conscription—Unmarried, able-bodied men between 18 and 25 had to j