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An assignment of EMFT course in UG programme of Electrical Engineering at NUST, Pakistan
Q no. 1: Discuss one application of polarization in detail. The application could be related to any field. Marks will be given based on the how well the application is explained.
Polarization, as is obvious, has very vast meaning which covers the realms from engineering, economic and political sciences. The type of polarization chosen is the polarization of light through different materials, which are referred to as optically active materials or compounds. To understand the polarization of light, we must first observe light as electromagnetic waves in 3d space. Electric and magnetic fields are at right angles to each other at all times. The direction of wave travel is orthogonal to both of them. Mathematically,
If one of the axes of this arrangement is blocked, then we say that polarization has taken place. Or light has been polarized and the medium through which this happens, is called a polarizer.
Now moving towards polarization, it is used for 3D movies, in which images intended for eye are either projected from two different projectors orthogonally oriented polarizing filters or more typically, from a single projector with multiplexed polarization.
Polarized 3D glasses with suitable polarized filters ensure that each eye receives only the intended image. How this is done, is explained below.
First of all, 3D movies are shot. Each frame is shot by 2 cameras from different angles with a short distance apart which is normally equal to the average eye spacing. The two images formed at a given time are superimposed onto the same screen or display. So, the moving image we see is a combination of two moving images shot by two different cameras.
Secondly, the viewer puts on 3D eye-glasses which are very cheap and contain two different kinds of polarizing filters. This is where the actual light polarization happens. As each filter passes only the image that is taken with one camera and blocks the other one. It basically does that by checking if the light is similarly polarized in the filter’s direction. When this happens, each eye sees a different image and hence a 3D effect comes into play. The polarizing filters or the polarizers can be linear, circular or elliptical.
In the linear type, two images are superimposed onto the same screen at 45 and 135 degrees. And then the two filters, filtering them out separately depending upon what orientation is similar to what filter.
The polarizing glasses which work on circular polarizing, as shown below. Here, the two images are superimposed on each other onto the same screen through polarizing filters of opposite handedness. The viewers in this case shall wear glasess
3D Movies: - movie filmed by 2 cameras short distance apart (avg. eye spacing) fig 27.21 - use 2 film projectors with polarized filters in front of them at rt. angles (vert. & horiz.) -wear 3D glasses w/ each lens polarized at rt angles just like projector (vert. & horiz.) -left eye can only see left projected image & right eye can only see left projected image -each eye sees a separate image from slightly diff. angle....the brain interprets the 2 images as a single image w/ a feeling of depth (binocular vision)