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3 March 2017
AP Vocab Chap 16-17
Active Listening: Empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers’ client-centered therapy.
Person 1: He said he was on a business trip but then I stop by a day before he was supposed to be back and his car was there, along with his secretary's car!
Person 2: So he said he was going on a business trip, but you think he was cheating on you with his secretary.
Agoraphobia: extreme or irrational fear of crowded spaces or enclosed public places.
Anorexia and Bulimia (as it relates to disorders): Both different kinds of eating disorders that is a body dysmorphic disorder.
Example: Pro-ana websites tell people (mostly young women) to starve themselves, and encourage each others’ anorexic and bulimic actions, such as starving themselves and throwing up what they do eat. These websites disguise it as a “weight loss program”.
Antisocial Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist.
Example: The character Albert Rosenfield in Twin Peaks who finds the characters in the small town lower than he is and constantly insults them without any kind of care or regret while doing so and doesn’t see what’s so bad in doing it.
Anxiety Disorder: Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Example: General Anxiety Disorder
Behavioral Therapy: Therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors.
Biopsychosocial Perspective: A contemporary perspective which assumes that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors combine and interact to produce psychological disorders.
Biomedical Therapy: a way to help patients with physiological symptoms and psychological disorders by using drugs, electroconvulsive treatment, and psychosurgery.
Example: Using prescribed drugs or an assortment of electroconvulsive treatments (like the treatments used on characters in movies such as One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest)
Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
Example: When the person goes into a state of extreme depression and then after a week or two instantly switches into a state of high mania, or vice versa.
Client-Centered Therapy: A humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients’ growth.
Example: When a client is in an warm and comforting environment to help a patient's growth and help focus on their development.
Conversion Disorder:a mental condition in which a person has blindness, paralysis, or other nervous system (neurologic) symptoms that cannot be explained by medical evaluation.
Example: When a girl gets into an accident and after the accident cannot walk or can barely talk even though there are no signs of nervous damage or bone or muscle damage.
Delusions: False beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders.
Example: When someone thinks or imagines that everyone is after them or is secretly plotting to kill them when no one is at all.
Dissociative Amnesia: occurs when a person blocks out certain information, usually associated with a stressful or traumatic event, leaving him or her unable to remember important personal information.
Example: Someone who was in a car wreck might not remember where they live
Dissociative Disorders: are conditions that involve disruptions or breakdowns of memory, awareness, identity, or perception
Example: Six years prior to the events of Night In The Woods, Mae (the main character) experienced a sudden form of dissociation from the real world - which seemed like an acute episode of derealization. She saw objects and people as just meaningless shapes, and not really existing.
Dissociative Fugue: one or more episodes of amnesia in which the inability to recall some or all of one's past and either the loss of one's identity or the formation of a new identity occur with sudden, unexpected, purposeful travel away from home.
Example: When a woman runs away somewhere else across the country right before she is to be married and has no recollection at all of how she got to that location or why she even ran in the first place.
Dissociative Identity Disorder: a condition wherein a person's identity is fragmented into two or more distinct personality states
Example: Herschel Walker and his many personalities such as “The Warrior” or “The Hero”.
DSM-IV: The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders. Presently distributed in an updated “text revision” (DSM-IV-TR).
Example: The “Bible” of psychology that has a collection of absolutely every single disorder and diagnosis and treatment known to man. It is used to classify disorders and other psychological illnesses.
Electroconvulsive Therapy: A biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient.
Exposure Therapy: Behavioral techniques, such as systematic desensitization, that treat anxieties by exposing people to ten things they fear and avoid.
Example: First, you would teach someone with a phobia the breathing techniques to deal with their anxiety. Then, you would show them a picture of what they are scared of, and work your way up to having them touch whatever it is that scares them, or having them do a VR version of facing their fear.
Family Therapy: Therapy that treats the family as a system. Views an individual’s unwanted behaviors as influenced by or directed at other family members; attempts to guide family members toward positive relationships and improves communication.
Example: When the entire family, and not just a single person, goes in for therapy and they are talked to as one single system that all needs to work together to help each other improve and develop emotionally.
General Anxiety Disorder: an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous arousal.
Hallucinations: an experience involving the apparent perception of something not present.
Example: When someone who has schizophrenia and they are able to see people or see objects that, in reality, are not truly there.
Hypochondriacs:a person who is abnormally anxious about their health, to the point that it interferes with their everyday life
Example: Someone who goes on Web MD and then starts writing their will because they think they’re dying.
Major Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
Mania: mental illness marked by periods of great excitement, euphoria, delusions, and overactivity.
Example: When someone, out of nowhere, gets a sudden and prolonged burst of happiness and energy that usually lasts weeks and has many delusions of what they want to do and what they can do. Such as thinking that they can party non-stop for days on end or drive across country for a vacation.
Medical Model: The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured. When applied to psychological disorders, the medical model assumes that these “mental” illnesses can be diagnosed on the basis of their symptoms can cured through therapy, which may include treatment in a psychiatric hospital.
Example: Kristin takes medicine for her inattentive ADD.
Mood Disorder: Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
Neurotic Disorders: A psychological disorder that is usually distressing but that allows one to think rationally and function socially.
Example: Such disorders are currently classified as
http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/anxiety+disorders anxiety disorders, dissociative disorders, mood disorders, sexual disorders, and somatoform disorders.
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions).
Panic Disorder: an anxiety disorder marked by a minutes-long episode of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations.
Example: Kristin used to have a panic disorder from her existential death anxiety.
Personality Disorders: a deeply ingrained and maladaptive pattern of behavior of a specified kind, typically manifest by the time one reaches adolescence and causing long-term difficulties in personal relationships or in functioning in society.
Phobia: an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Example: People with trypophobia have a fear of holes in their skin (don’t look up trypophobia, especially in class. If you do, email me the reactions of the people in your class so I can show Kristin. She is extremely curious.)
Post traumatic Stress Disorder: A condition of persistent mental and emotional stress occurring as a result of injury or severe psychological shock, typically involving disturbance of sleep and constant vivid recall of the experience, with dulled responses to others and to the outside world.
Example: When a Vietnam veteran gets flashbacks and has hallucinations of him being dropped into the middle of combat after watching a metal fan quickly spin around and hearing its spinning.
Psychotic Disorder: A psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions.
Specific Phobia: any kind of anxiety disorder that amounts to an unreasonable or irrational fear related to exposure to specific objects or situations
Example: When someone has a phobia for antique furniture, such as Billy Bob Thorton.
Systematic Desensitization: A type of counterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli. Commonly used to treat phobias.
Token Economy: An operant conditioning procedure that rewards desired behavior. A patient exchanges a token of some sort, earned for exhibiting the desired behavior, for various privileges or treats.
Example:When kids inside a special school/home where they are rewarded tickets from making their beds or cleaning their rooms and in return they can buy candies and other goodies.ajor Depressive Disorder: A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities.
Example: Kristin takes medicine for her