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Transportation in Humans
By: Nikhil, Prerana, Neel, Parvati, Ohil
TRANSPORTATION IN HUMANS
Blood consists of a fluid medium called plasma. plasma transports food, carbon dioxide and other substances .
So we need a organ to pump all this throughout the body.
Blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body . Many other substances like salts.
Heart is a muscular organ which is as big as our fist
A human heart is 4 – chambered to prevent mixing of blood.
The blood rich with CO2 has to reach the lungs for removal of CO2 and oxygenated blood from lungs goes back to the heart.
O2 rich blood from lungs comes to the left atrium and it relaxes.It contracts when left ventricle expands, that blood is transferred to it.
When left ventricle contracts , the blood is pumped out of the body.
De-oxygenated blood comes from the body to the right atrium, as it expands.
As right atrium contracts, the right ventricle expands.
This transfers blood to right ventricle which in turn pumps it to lungs for oxygenation.
Since ventricles have to pump blood into various organs, they have thicker muscular walls than that of atria.
Valves ensure that blood does not flow backwards when atria or ventricles contract.
Blood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure in the systemic circulation. It is usually measured at a person's upper arm. Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic (maximum) pressure over diastolic (minimum) pressure and is measured in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg). It is one of the vital signs along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and body temperature. Normal resting blood pressure in an adult is approximately 120/80 mm Hg.
Blood pressure varies depending on situation, activity, and disease states. It is regulated by the nervous and endocrine systems. Blood pressure that is low due to a disease state is called hypotension, and pressure that is consistently high is hypertension. Both have many causes which can range from mild to severe. Both may be of sudden onset or of long duration. Long term hypertension is a risk factor for many diseases, including kidney failure, heart disease, and stroke. Long term hypertension is more common than long term hypotension in Western countries. Long term hypertension often goes undetected because of infrequent monitoring and the absence of symptoms.
Oxygen Enters the Blood in the Lungs
The heart has a separation on the right side and left side to prevent oxygenated blood from mixing with deoxygenated blood which allows for a highly efficient supply of oxygen to the body.
This is useful for animals such as birds and mammals that constantly use energy to maintain their body temperature.
Hearts in Other Animals
Fishes and other Vertebrates
They have a two-chambered heart.
Their blood is pumped to the gills, where it is then oxygenated and then directly passes to the rest of the body.
Thus, the blood goes only once through the heart during one cycle of passage through the body.
In other vertebrates, it goes through the heart twice during each cycle-double circulation.
For animals that don’t use energy for this purpose, their body temperatures depend on their surrounding temperature.
Such animals have three-chambered hearts as they can tolerate some mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood streams.
Parvati AK 19 10A
WHAT ARE BLOOD VESSELS ?
Intricate networks of hollow tubes that transport blood throughout the entire body which delivers valuable nutrients to and removes wastes from our cells. Blood vessels are constructed of layers of connective tissue and muscle.
Parvati AK 19 10 a
TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS
Parvati AK 19 10 a
Extremely small vessels located within the tissues of the body that transport blood from the arteries to the veins. Fluid exchange between capillaries and body tissues takes place at capillary beds.
When we are injured and start bleeding the loss of blood has to be minimized.
Loss of blood will lead to a loss of pressure which would reduce the efficiency of the pumping system.
To avoid this , the blood has platelet cells which circulate around the body and plug these leaks by helping to clot the blood at these points of injury.
by : ohil
Facts of platelets…
They are produced from very large
Bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes
One drop of blood contains as many
As 15,000,000 – 40,000,000.
Donating platelets can be done
By a process called plateletpherisis,
Another type of transportation called as lymph
Or tissue fluid.
Proteins and blood cells escape into intercellular spaces in tissue to form lymph.
It is similar to the plasma of blood but colourless
And contains less protein.
Lymph drains into lymphatic capillaries from the intercellular spaces , which join to form lymph vessels that finally open into veins.
Lymph carries digested and absorbed fat from intestine and drains excess fluid from extra
cellular space back into
ication, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure in the systemic circulation. It is usually measured at a person's upper arm. Blood pressure is usually expressed in terms of the systolic (maximum) pressure over diastolic (minimum) pressure and is measured in millimetres of mercury (mm Hg). It is one of the vital signs along with respiratory rate, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and body temperature. Normal resting blood pressure in an adult is approximately 120/80 mm Hg.