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Embed code for: Chapter 3 Senior 3
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What are buses?
Not the tal-linja ones
All components in the computer are connected by……..
One cable can only send 1 bit at a time
What is a bit?
So a cable can only send 1 or 0 at any given time
True or False?
So what is a bus?
It is not one cable
It is many cables
So a 32-bit bus is how many cables?
Buses connect the components together
BUS WIDTH – This refers to the number of bits that can be sent at a time
BUS FREQUENCY – THIS REFERS TO THE BUS SPEED WHICH IS MEASURED IN HERTZ
There are 3 buses
This is unidirectional
IT TRANSPORTS THE MEMORY ADRRESES OF ANY PARTICULAR INSTRUCTION
IT CAN ALSO BE REFERRED TO AS THE MEMORY BUS
This is BIDIRECTIONAL
IT TRANSPORTS ORDERS COMING FROM THE CONTROL UNIT WHICH ARE GOING TO ALL THE HARDWARE COMPONENTS
IT ALSO CARRIED RESPONSE SIGNALS FORM THE HARDWARE COMPONENTS
IT CAN ALSO BE REFERRED TO AS THE COMMAND BUS
This is bidirectional
IT TRANSPORTS THE INSTRUCTIONS THAT IS COMING FROM OR GOING TO THE PROCESSOR
Analog and digital signals
What are these signals?
Have you ever sat by the phone waiting for it to ring? Well, I guess we don't sit by the phone anymore since we carry it with us wherever we go. Regardless, in anticipation of great news we all have probably looked at the phone and mumbled, ''Come on, ring!'' When the telephone finally rang, we answered it, connecting to the individual with the good news on the other end. As we speak into a microphone, sound waves from our voice are transmitted by the telephone in the form of radio waves (both sound waves and radio waves are analog signals), and when combined with digital signals, we begin moving data along the telephone line.
Difference between analog and digital
An analog signal is a continuous wave
It may vary in signal strength (amplitude) or frequency (time).
There are many examples of analog signals around us. The sound from a human voice is analog, because sound waves are continuous
Even our own vision, because we see various shapes and colors in a continuous manner due to light waves.
Even a typical kitchen clock having its hands moving continuously can be represented as an analog signal.
Exmples of Analog Computers
What are digital signals
This is a must for computer processing - is described as using binary (0s and 1s), and therefore, cannot take on any fractional values.
digital signals retain a uniform structure, providing a constant and consistent signal.
Because of the inherent reliability of the digital signal, technology using it is rapidly replacing a large percentage of analog applications and devices.
For example, the wristwatch, showing the time of day, with its minute, hour, and sweeping second hands, is being replaced by the digital watch, which offers the time of day and other information using a numerical display. A typical digital signal is represented below. Note the equally dispersed 1s and 0s.
What is ascii code?
What is it?
American standard code for information interchange
Since computers can only understand numbers, all the characters and letters are represented in a way that the computer can understand
When the characters are placed one after the other, we call it a collating sequence. These form a character map.
E-mail transmissions are limited to ascii characters.