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What are they and its barriers?
Down syndrome also known as Trisomy 21, is a genetic disability which is caused from the number of chromosomes that an individual has in their DNA. Someone that has down syndrome may have the following symptoms short neck with excess skin at the back, small head ears and mouth, flattened facial profile and nose, decreased or poor muscle tone. Those that have down syndrome has slower development, this can be both physically, intellectually and socially, because of weight they may find that they do not learn to walk, sit, or stand by themselves. Those with down syndrome may find that they do not have the best speech and because of this they may find it hard to communicate with other people, even people that are their age.
Why they require additional needs?
Those that have down syndrome have certain additional needs because of their condition, for example someone with down syndrome may have a mile to moderate impairment intellectually, this can have an impact on their speech, motor skills and self-care by slowing down their development. Someone with down syndrome may require help when it comes to grooming. Down syndrome can also mean that the person that is suffering from it is prone to other illnesses too which means that they are expected to take certain medications also. These certain illnesses can include things like obesity.
They would require certain therapies help them with their development intellectually and verbally, and may require assistance with certain tasks that they may do during the day.
Traumatic brain injury
A traumatic brain injury can be caused when an outside force has caused dysfunctions of the brain, this can normally be caused if the head receives a strong blow or hit from the outside force and can also be cause by penetration and shattering of the individual skull. Someone that is suffering from brain trauma may suffer these symptoms like changes in mood and behaviour, seizures. Light-headedness, difficulty in speech or comprehending what other people are saying, disinhibitions, vertigo and numbness.
Someone that has suffered from brain trauma may experience long term affects and complications, this could vary from slurred speech or memory loss, traumatic brain injuries can sometimes lead to illnesses such as Parkinson’s disease or dementia. These certain ones can be developed because of the traumatic brain injury. In more severe cases an individual that may have suffered from this could go in to a vegetative state, a coma or become brain dead.
Barriers that can be developed with someone that may be suffering from TBI is communication barriers someone that has this condition may find it very hard to communicate with people because they may have developed a speech impediment or they may find it hard to take in what people are saying because of cognitive problem that may cause confusion.
Someone that has suffered a traumatic brain injury might need to be rehabilitated especially if their speech is slurred, they may need help getting their voice back to normal as much as they can. What they may also need is the person may have developed problems in their nervous system which would mean that they require help depending on the severity of the problem. For example, someone that may have developed dementia depending on how bad it is they may then need help with performing daily duties such as hygiene or feeding. May also need assistance and help when they are going out someone to assist them and help them stay out of high risk situations. (allowing someone to go somewhere but they may need help crossing a large road)
Autism is a mental disorder that can be found in both adults and children, it comes at various levels and can affect the behaviour and how the individual that is suffering from the mental disorder fit in and interact with other people socially. The signs of autism can be delayed development in speech or repetitive speech. No eye contact may not respond to name or want to follow any orders. You may find that they do not interact witch children that are the same age as them and may sometimes isolate themselves away from the rest of their peers. Lack of facial expressions or no understanding of how to display emotions. Someone with autism may just display behaviour that people wouldn’t consider normal at the persons age or the milestone that they were expected to be at. Certain barriers like communication can build between someone with autism, you could find that they cannot interact or convey any emotions that they may be feeling. For example, if someone with autism wanted to communicate with someone else about any emotions that they may be feeling the person may find it hard to believe that they are feeling the emotions that they must be feeling because of lack of emotions.
Additional needs require
What is the impact that this can have?
Those that have any disabilities that require additional needs may find that they may have certain disadvantages, for example someone that may have additional needs may be victims of discrimination but because of their disability they may not be able to recognise this and may find that they are victims of this constantly. This could normally be for those that may suffer from a problem cognitively and that may find it harder to comprehend or understand when they are being treated unequally or differently from their peers.
Access to service and employment
Someone with a disability may also find it very hard to become employed or work in employment. It is against the law for someone to be discriminated for their disability but people that may have disability may also struggle with certain task that are maybe too complex or confusing. However, some may find that the persons disability may come to an advantage instead for example someone that may have autism may be very good at working in more complex and routine jobs, most with autism may complete task completely before they can move on and may to change the routine that they have and that can put them and the company at an advantage.
Adjustments in employment
However, some may find that the persons disability may come at an advantage instead for example someone that may have autism may be very good at working moni
What is the social model of disability?
There are three different models of disability, there is social, medical and holistic these are all created to look at different ways that disabilities can be overcome in society. What this does is try and avoid any prejudices between people and instead create equality. All different theories speak about what their views are and how they believe that those that may suffer from a disability may fit into society.
The social perspective believe that people with disabilities may find It harder to access certain areas because society. They believe that it is societies fault if the individual does not fit in because they have not thought about them beforehand and how tom avoid the prejudice.
What is the medical model of disability?
The medical perspective of a disability is that the disability is the problem, so if someone is in a wheelchair and cannot get access they blames the individual with the condition because they are the reason why they cannot access the place not everyone's else's.
What is the holistic model of disability?
Considers all aspect of the individual that is in the wheelchair, physically, intellectually, emotionally and socially
What is the normalisation model of disability?
Believes that those that have a disability shouldn’t have to not have to look for access it should already be there so that the individuals do not feel like they are not normal, they should be able to experience life like everyone else.
You need to assesse the barriers, and reference it to the medical model
Physical access (e.g. no ramps/lifts)
Physical access for someone that is a wheelchair user can make it hard for them to travel, a majority of public places normally have access whereas places like underground stations do not. For a wheelchair user travelling certain distances would take linger for them considering the fact that they must always find a place that they can access easier. In the underground both lifts and ramps are not available meaning that wheelchair users are having to rely on other means of transport
Socially- society should be more considerate, medical (it is not our duty to provide these things)
Try to speak about at least two of each of the medical model
Limited access to jobs/employments
Communication barriers (not being able to understand or be understood easily)
Lack of education
Attitudes to employers/society
Positive working practice
Positive working practice relates to how we treat people with additional needs, particularly for when we are responsible for personal care
Positive work proactice can have different affects on a individual for example someone that may be reciuueving person care may find that they self esteem is increased.
Positive working practice including measures such as;
Safeguarding enabling and promoting independence
To create certain rules, guidelines and legislations in order to protect a vulnerable adult.
Enabling and promoting independence
This is a way that you can tend to someone with additional needs but with the appropriate care and help, so that they can still do as much as they can independently, someone that may suffered a stroke and may find it hard to eat or have problems with mobility they can use a curved spoon when feeding themselves. This is so that they are still able to feed themselves independently but their needs have still been tended too. Some people may need help with their communication skills and this can include advocates or certain types of equipment used for them to be able to communicate through.
The role of the general social care council
This is the set of rules and guidelines that are made mainly for social workers, this I so that they can ensure that social workers are promoting positive working and that they are carrying out their duty correctly. If they do not follow these guidelines they can be barred from social care services.
Protecting from harm but ensuring that they are able to work as independently as they can, this is so that you are still caring for the individual but you are also respecting their rights. You can lose your registration if you do not follow this through and deprive the individual of their rights
Adv and disadv
Vulnerable person requires protection
Help them prepare for future with certain life skills.
Time consuming, workers may find that they are doing things for the individual more than the person is doing for themselves.
People with needs may become dependent on those that are suppose to care and protect themselves.
Different people may have different perceptions and definitions of harms
Respecting the rights but not harming the defence
Right to a relationship and whether the individual has the capacity to understand nature of consent- certain complications can arise from this but this can also promote the individuals rights. OFSTED go in health and social care services, if someone fails to comply to certain rules they will bring OFSTED in these visits could motivate the workers to behave in the correct way. When OFSTED come in they tend to look at case work but that may not always be accurate.
The equality act
Find 2 principles from the equality act (2010) pros and cons
Reasonable adjustments of disability
Making certain adjustments for those with disabilities because of discrimination law, can make it easier for people to be able to do their jobs whilst also promoting anti-discriminative behaviour, however, this only believes that it should only be a reasonable amount but everyone has a different definition of what the word 'reasonable' means
Protection for those that are being victimised, they may need to feel a sense of security, people that may have a certain cognitive disability may not understand or know when they are actually being a victim and because if this they will require some sort protection. the fact that they must always find a place that they can access easier. In the underground both lifts and ramps are not available meaning that wheelchair users are having to rely on other means of transport
Protection for those that are being victimised, they may need to feel a sens