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Embed code for: 10-18n19 PerTbl D3 NOTES
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Bellwork Tuesday 10-18-16 Wednesday 10-19-16
1. What is quantum energy and how is it related to an energy change of matter?
2. What is the “ground state” of an atom?
3. In a nutshell, what’s Schrodinger’s WAVE FUNCTION?
Get out your POGIL: Electron Configuration packet & homework
In 1900, Max Planck found:
Matter can gain or lose energy only in small, specific amounts called quanta.
A quantum is the minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
Which led Albert Einstein to say*: “Hey! Light carries quantums of energy in PHOTONS.” (*probably)
This explained the photoelectric effect
Then Bohr suggested that an electron moves in circular quantum orbits, based on the light coming from heated elements:
But it didn’t explain all the elements, so Louis deBroglie flipped Einstein’s WAVE/Particle duality to find all moving matter makes waves
Ground state = lowest energy state
Excitedstate = anything above ground
Meanwhile, Heisenberg was busy determining that you can’t find electrons without disrupting a) its location or b) its speed, called the Uncertainty Principle
Which also, by default, knocked out Bohr’s circular orbit idea
…and Schrodinger combined both de Broglie’s and Heisenberg’s work by treating electrons as waves and introduced WAVE FUNCTIONS:
Used a cute(?) cat story to explain all of the possible states coexist until you go looking for a particle.
WAVE FUNCTIONS show us ATOMIC ORBITALS
Students will know the concept of wave-particle duality; properties of the quantum mechanical model; Wave functions get us orbitals
Students will be able to write electron configurations for a given atom’s electrons; write noble gas configurations
Orbitals, 3 rules, P. T. map
E- Config. Notes & Practice
E- config partner activity.
Extension Questions #16-19, E- Config. POGIL
Please take out your notes and periodic table…
Another “map” within your table:
On your Periodic Table:
Label these area with a highlighter:
Electron Configuration (E.C.)
Formally: “the representation of the arrangement of electrons distributed among the orbital shells and subshells”
Informally: address for electrons within the e- cloud
Last class you looked at Orbital Diagrams (the boxes/apt building); E.C. is the “manager’s code” for those pics
Decoding E.C.; Biggest to smallest areas:
Energy level – 1, 2, 3, etc. (each row)
Sublevel – type of area within each level – s, p, d, f
Orbitals – rooms within sublevels- determined by the wave functions for electrons.
d and f sublevels fill below the valence shell level
d is 1 lower while f is 2 lower.
Start at this level
…have this many Orbitals
…can hold #e- TOTAL
What do sublevels(orbitals) look like?
What do sublevels look like?
What were the 3 rules for filling electron orbitals?
Aufbau principle – electrons will always occupy the lowest energy orbital available.
Pauli Exclusion principle – Only 2 electrons may occupy a single orbital, and they must have opposite spins.
Hund’s Rule – Equal energy orbitals must be filled with same-spin single e- before any orbitals can have 2e-.
Orbital Diag. vs. Electron Config.
Here’s the thing:
Do you need to know all of these rules when completing an ORBITAL DIAGRAM?
Do you need to know all of these rules to complete Electron Configuration?
Orbitals ALWAYS fill from LR, top to bottom following the PT.
And by default, follow the 3 rules!
*Will you still be asked about it on a test?
Go back and put in the energy levels:
*Why does 4s fill before 3d?
Because it is lower in energy…
Noble Gas Notation
Accounts for full inner shells
8 electrons, also called an octet
The first noble gas so there is no Noble Gas notation for He
Try one… of each notation
Mid-Unit Quiz (Ch. 5!)
You may write on this piece of paper.
Answer every question, no blanks.
You may use your notes and Periodic Table.
Now that you’ve read Chapter 5.3 (and really, all of Chapter 5 at this point)
Do Problems 5.3 #21a,c,e, 22-24, 26-28
Read Section 6.1 & 6.2
Hydrogen’s single electron is in the n = 1 orbit in the ground state.
When energy is added, the electron moves to the n = 2 orbit.
Remember s & p are the same as the row – but d fills 1 energy level lower and f is 2 lower
Need more? Do K, N, Ga, or W
Try Barium and Lead also
Need at least 10 minutes, up to 15 given.on moves in circular quantum orbits, based on the light coming from heated elements: