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Students will explain why Islam spread around the Middle East, Africa, and Europe.
Bellwork #4, Unit 2
Read pgs. 57—58
Define “Dar al-Islam”
What was the social hierarchy in Islamic society?
Why was trading such a common profession for Muslims?
Video Questions (Portfolio Assignment #2)
Make a timeline of seven events that occurred before, during, and after the Siege of Constantinople.
Write three things that gave the Turks an advantage in their fight against the Byzantines.
How Islam Spread
After the death of Muhammad, the main prophet of Islam, different **caliphs (religious and political rulers) came into power.
These caliphs spread Islam throughout Africa, Asia, and Europe.
How were dhimmi treated?
This is an excerpt from the Pact of Umar, written in the 7th century C.E., which conquered Christians in Syria signed. These are the promises they made to the Muslims:
“We shall not build, in our cities or in their neighborhood, new monasteries, Churches, convents, or monks' cells, nor shall we repair, by day or by night, such of them as fall in ruins or are situated in the quarters of the Muslims.
We shall keep our gates wide open for passersby and travelers. We shall give board and lodging to all Muslims who pass our way for three days.
We shall not give shelter in our churches or in our dwellings to any spy, nor bide him from the Muslims.
We shall not teach the Qur'an to our children.
We shall not manifest our religion publicly nor convert anyone to it. We shall not prevent any of our kin from entering Islam if they wish it.
We shall show respect toward the Muslims, and we shall rise from our seats when they wish to sit.
We shall not seek to resemble the Muslims by imitating any of their garments, the qalansuwa, the turban, footwear, or the parting of the hair. We shall not speak as they do, nor shall we adopt their kunyas.
We shall not mount on saddles, nor shall we gird swords nor bear any kind of arms nor carry them on our- persons.”
Spain in 500 CE
Spain in 979 CE
Known by the name **al-Andalus
This period of time is called the **Convivencia (“Coexistence”)
During this time, Jews, Muslims, and Christians lived together in relative peace.
Al-Andalus was a center of scientific, historic, and mathematical learning
Art and Architecture
Over several hundred years, Christians from all over Europe took back land in Spain.
The last Muslim-controlled region, Granada, fell in 1492 CE.
After 1492, Jews were expelled from Spain and Muslims were forced to convert to Christianity.
Spanish Words from Arabic
aceite — oil aceituna — olive adobe — adobe aduana — customs (as at a border) ajedrez — chess Alá — Allah alacrán — scorpion albacora — albacore albahaca — basil alberca — tank, swimming pool alcalde — mayor álcali — alkali alcatraz — pelican alcázar — fortress, palace alcoba — bedroom, alcove alcohol — alcohol alfil — bishop (in chess) alfombra — carpet algarroba — carob algodón — cotton algoritmo — algorithm almacén — storage almanaque — almanac almirante — admiral almohada — pillow
alquiler — rent alquimia — alchemy añil — indigo amalgama — amalgam arroz — rice asesino — assassin azafrán — saffron azar — chance azúcar — sugar azul — blue balde — bucket barrio — district berenjena — eggplant burca — burqa café — coffee cero — zero chivo —goat dado — die (singular of "dice") espinaca — spinach gacela — gazelle guitarra — guitar hasta — until jirafa — giraffe lila — lilac
lima — lime limón — lemon loco — crazy
macabro — macabre marfil — marble, ivory masacre — massacre masaje — massage máscara — mask mono — monkey naranja — orange ojalá — I hope, God willing olé — bravo paraíso — paradise rehén — hostage rincón — corner, nook sandía — watermelon sofá — sofa sorbete — sherbet rubio — blond tarea — task tarifa — tariff taza — cup toronja — grapefruit zafra — harvest zanahoria — carrot zumo — juice
As I read the introduction, highlight or underline important pieces of background information.
As I read the excerpt from The Poem of the Cid, listen along.
Consider the following question:
1) How does El Cid treat the conquered Muslims (Moors)?
Read the excerpt again. This time, highlight or underline pieces of evidence that tell us how El Cid treated the Muslims.
Answer the question on a separate sheet of paper. Be sure to cite evidence from the text in your answer!
Reading Assignment, Part 2
As I read the excerpt from The Song of Roland, listen along.
2) How are Muslims portrayed (shown) in this excerpt?
Read the excerpt again. This time, highlight or underline pieces of evidence that tell us how the excerpt portrays Muslims.
Examples of scientific exploration in al-Andalus (clockwise: astronomy tools, botanic garden, and scientists working together), such of them as fall in ruins or are situated in the quarters of the Muslims.