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“How does obesity affect public health and how can we deal with its medical consequences”
Obesity, as we know as the state of being grossly overweight, is one of the major causes of the degenerative diseases diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis and various types of cancer such as breast cancer and bowel cancer. It is a major problem significantly worldwide and affects an approximation of a quarter of the population of adults in the UK as well as one fifth of children at a young age of 10 to 11 (NHS Choices, 2016).
Increased obesity is a result of mass media advertisement of processed food which significantly impacts the mindsets of both adults and children. The levels of obesity show no sign of slowing down, which is a definite result of unhealthy lifestyles, ranging from smoking to lack of daily exercise. Furthermore, advances in technology have resulted in the surplus of individuals remaining indoors, disallowing the proper contraction of our muscles and functioning of our metabolism to break down the food we consume and prevent excess store of fats. Studies show a correlation between excess sitting with type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some forms of cancer.
The prevalence of obesity has increased since 1993 rising from 14.9% to 25.6% as recorded from surveys compiled from the health survey of England. Results predict that by 2050, approximately 55% of adults and 25% of children will be obese (Public Health England, 2010).
With the increased consumption of unhealthy products and the high prevalence of other major health conditions, obesity has a detrimental impact on the NHS in terms of costs for treatments and prolonged checkups reaching between 10 to 12 billion by 2030 (Press Association, 2014). The poignant reality is obesity has consumed funding of health sectors in the past few decades. This has resulted in the prevention of further research towards other major diseases such as the development of anti-cancer drugs.
Specifically looking at obesity within children who are exposed to cheap food high in sugars and fat, there is evidence within research showing a change in physiology on the basis of body weight regulation. The life-expectancy of a child with obesity is significantly lower and there is a higher risk of premature illness and death in adulthood. Treatment towards this childhood obesity epidemic has shown no evidence of a proper treatment which is effective. Children have a slower rate of metabolism and are susceptible to more diseases than an adult would with the same conditions (Ebbelling, Pawlak, and Ludwig, 2002).
Taking nutrition into account, specifically the consumption of fruits and vegetable evidence show that consumption of this alone will not aid in the healing of obesity as other factors have to be considered. Obesity is caused by environmental, genetic factors, in addition to our lifestyles. Though fruits and vegetable allow the promotion of growth and adequate intake of calories. Positive evidence shows nutrients absorbed from vegetables such as sulfides has the ability to detoxify carcinogens and stimulate anti-cancer drugs. Antioxidative flavonoids found within both fruits and vegetable acts as protection against myocardial infarction and cancer. Flavonoids also have the ability to inhibit cloths to prevent inflammation those decreasing the possibility of stroke and hypertension (Duyn and Pivonka, 2000).
Other factors to take into account is a change in diet with increased consumption of Cis fats in comparison to trans fats which are the unsaturated fats. The consumption of these whats causes an increase deposition of cholesterol in the blood stream, leading to increasing body mass, and atherosclerosis. This can be easily avoided by consumption of fat-free products and avoiding products that list partially hydrogenated fat or oil on the label.
Those who may be affected by obesity due to their genetic traits may find losing weight difficult but it is definitely not impossible. Obesity is more of an environmental factor which can be tackled effectively as long as you avoid poor eating habits.Having mental support by joining groups aiming to lose weight increases motivation and helps increase public health gradually, which eventually will lead to a decrease in obesity.
Other obesity-related problems include a range of difficulty to day to day activity and lifestyles. Problems vary from breathlessness and increased sweating to joint and back pain. These minor problems have an impact on the individual as they may start to feel isolated from family and friends, those leading to depression and increased consumption of food once more.
When looking towards a solution to obesity we need to take into consideration of daily intake and consumption and ask the question why do we exceed the value knowing the fact that it is detrimental to our health? Scientific research has shown that the orbitofrontal cortex is activated when we eat fatty food, which is associated with our taste sensors (BBC, 2014).
One major method to eradicate obesity is through education and informing parents of a good healthy diet for the benefits fo their children in order for a better quality of life. Finding ways to a community is a slow but sure step in reducing obesity as well increasing the activity of exercise for the population. By informing the population we can work hand in hand to increase the production of healthy meals in restaurants and supermarkets. Furthermore, aid in providing good school meals for children and encouraging the joining of school activities during and after school to increase fitness levels.
Consistency is key to aid in preventing and reducing obesity. Where it is easy to start to eat unhealthy foods it is twice as heard to maintain a healthy lifestyle, especially with what we are exposed to on a daily basis (Staff, 2015).
For those who doctors may define their patients as morbidly obese, undergo a gastric band operation. It is surgery were a gastric band(tube-like balloon) is inserted into the upper part of the stomach. A surgeon carrying out the procedure will then fill the tube with a liquid in order to create a pouch which will fill up fairly quickly with consumption of food, thus resulting in the contraction of the stomach sending a balance of hormonal and neurological signals to the brain giving you the feeling of being full more quickly. As a result, the patient will potentially eat less showing an average of losing between a half and two-thirds of excess body mass within 1 year after the insertion of the gastric band (Roizman, 2016).
Other forms of Surgery commonly used for weight loss in the UK is gastric bypass surgery. Also, a method used for the morbidly obese and specifically focus on the reducing the size of the stomach as well as bypassing parts of the intestine in order to absorb fewer calories. Procedure aids in the loss of 65% of excess weight within two years. Benefits of using this surgery are the ability to maintain the weight loss for at least 10 years. Though it is vitally important to change lifestyles and ensure you exercise regularly. However, for the side-effects, both operation have some that are temporary, which is vomiting after eating excessively which will change as the overall consumption of food is now a lot lower. Eventually, the side-effects will fade out over time as the patients start to eat less and become aware of their limitations in the amount they can consume daily (Bupa, 2014).
In conclusion, the attempt to decrease the increasing rise in obesity can only be achieved by the community coming together in order to be informed as well as be aware of the circumstances their dietary lifestyles will impact them in the future. In order to tackle the situation effectively, the population will need to focus on the guidelines that the government has set out to potentially improve the lifestyles of ourselves and other. Both surgical procedures have very efficacious responses and give the population who are obese to change their lifestyles. In addition, the surgeries could be a potential out in order to prevent the NHS from becoming bankrupt from the excessive costs of diabetes and obesity care potentially saving the company billions (Walsh, 2012).
Health Survey England, P.H.E. (2016) UK and Ireland prevalence and trends: Public health England obesity knowledge and intelligence team. Available at: https://www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/adult_obesity/UK_prevalence_and_trends (Accessed: 2 October 2016).
Association, P. (2014) Cost of obesity ‘greater than war, violence and terrorism’. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/health/news/11242009/Cost-of-obesity-greater-than-war-violence-and-terrorism.html (Accessed: 29 September 2016).
BBC (2014) What are the health risks of obesity? Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/0/21702372 (Accessed: 2 October 2016).
Bupa (2014) Gastric band surgery to lose weight. Available at: http://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/g/gastric-band (Accessed: 17 October 2016).
Cardwell, M. (2010) A-Z psychology handbook: Digital edition (complete a-z handbooks). 4th edn. London: Philip Allan Updates.
Choices, N. (2016) Obesity. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/obesity/pages/introduction.aspx (Accessed: 18 October 2016).
Duyn, M.A.S.V., and Pivonka, E. (2000) ‘Overview of the Health Benefits of Fruit and Vegetable Consumption for the Dietetics Professional’, Selected Literature, 100(12), pp. 1511–1521.
Ebbeling, C.B., Pawlak, D.B. and Ludwig, D.S. (2002) ‘Childhood obesity: public-health crisis, common sense cure’, The Lancet, 360(9331), pp. 473–482.
Public Health England (2016) UK and Ireland prevalence and trends: Public health England obesity knowledge and intelligence team. Available at: https://www.noo.org.uk/NOO_about_obesity/adult_obesity/UK_prevalence_and_trends (Accessed: 18 October 2016).
Roizman, T. (2016) Gastric band surgery to lose weight. Available at: http://www.bupa.co.uk/health-information/directory/g/gastric-band (Accessed: 7 October 2016).
Staff, M.C. (2015) ‘Obesity prevention’, Mayoclinic,
Walsh, S. (2012) The ugly truth about having a gastric bypass: The frank diary from an obesity nurse. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2147776/The-ugly-truth-having-gastric-bypass-The-frank-diary-obesity-nurse.html (Accessed: 19 October 2016).
When doing this research I attempted to find sources online using Pubmed and various online articles. Since the obesity is something I have come across beforehand, I was able to apply my knowledge and further what I already know with fairly new medical advances from the research I gathered. I feel fairly confident in my ability to draw information out of text and interpreted as well as understand what it is trying to convey. I use what the useful information and try to write in a way that summarises the text I have just read, whilst constantly referencing all work not done by myself.
In terms of difficulty, I felt a lack of confidence in referencing so I do apologize in advance if I have done this wrong. I did research and chat with other students for advice on referencing and my results are as shown in the essay. I’d like an overview of my way of writing because I feel like my style of writing has not changed since A-level and am not writing scientifically, or maybe not drawing out more content from journals and online articles. Another weakness is I should have created a content page and broken my essay into subheading to show more structure in my work. mpt to decrease the increasing rise in obesity can only be achieved by the community coming together in order to be informed as well as be aware of the circumstances their dietary lifestyles will impact them in the future. In order to tackle the situation effectively, the population will need to focus on the guidelines that the government has set out to potentially improve the lifestyles of ourselves and other. Both surgical procedures have very efficacious responses and give the population who are obese to change their lifestyles. In addition, the surgeries could be a potential out in order to prevent the NHS from becoming bankrupt from the excessive costs of dia