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Melanie ClaybarFall 2016
INFO 5200 TXWI_A
Final Draft #2
Young Adult Novels:
Information Organization System
1. Project description
This information organization system is for a young adult novel collection housed in the Little Cypress Mauriceville (LCM) High School Library in Orange, Texas. The collection is available to all students in grades nine through twelve at LCM High School. Students frequently ask the librarian for help finding books but are reluctant to search the catalog.
1.1. Collection and information objects
The Young Adult Novels collection contains 4,831 young adult novels from the LCM High School Library. It is located inside the library and is available to all students, grades nine through twelve. The collection represents a wide variety of genres including dystopian, romance, adventure, historical fiction, mystery, and fantasy. Topics include first love, friendship, coming of age, coming out (LGBTQ), family issues, mental illness, vampires, cancer, dystopian society, and sports. The library continues to expand the collection through purchases and grants, such as the Dollar General award for the annual Teen’s Top Ten collection. The purpose of the collection is to promote reading for pleasure and to provide students of LCM High School a resource for finding YA novels of interest and relativity.
1.2. Users' demographics and knowledge
Students at LCM High School, male and female, range in age from thirteen to nineteen years. Of the 1,171 students, ninety-nine percent speak English. Nineteen percent participate in the free-and-reduced lunch program which indicates a middle to high family income for the majority of LCM High School students. These demographics help categorize the user in the four knowledge levels (general, domain, system, and information seeking.) These levels indicate what the user knows in each area compared to the average consumer of the collection. In system design, it is important to consider the knowledge levels in order to create a system that meets the needs of the user.
General knowledge refers to the user’s base of information which is gathered through daily interactions and experiences. Because LCM High School students generally have limited life experiences and are still building their academic knowledge, a moderate level of general knowledge is expected.
Another area to consider is domain knowledge, or specific knowledge of the subject of a collection. Although some students in this group are avid readers of young adult novels, most are non-readers. Students in the latter group may have seen the latest Divergent movie, but they do not know this is a novel series in the library. Therefore, the overall domain knowledge of this user group is moderate.
System knowledge indicates the user’s aptitude for operating the information system. Most students at LCM High School come from middle to high income families where they have access to multiple devices and reliable internet service. The typical LCM High School student has a smartphone and can operate devices such as laptops, iPads, and other tablets, with ease. However, despite this level of comfort, many lack the initiative to learn new systems, especially academic in nature. Students frequently experience frustration when encountering unfamiliar systems. Because of this, the systems knowledge for LCM High School students is moderate.
Information seeking knowledge refers to the user’s ability to find information in an unfamiliar system. Many of the criteria for system knowledge applies to information seeking knowledge for LCM High School students. Based on these criteria, the information seeking knowledge for the user group is moderate.
The demographics and knowledge levels indicate that the users of the information system for the Young Adult Novels collection want simple search capability, most likely subject and author, with occasional advanced search fields such as number of pages.
Without the Young Adult Novel information system, users will search the LCM High School Library catalog which may cause frustration due to high recall.
1.3. Users' problems and questions
Students will use the system to retrieve books for independent reading and classroom assignments. Users have a wide range of interests and criteria for selecting books and although some know exactly what they are looking for, typical searches are broad and general. The following are representative of users’ search questions:
User question 1: I want a short book about football.
Object attributes: number of pages, subject
Desired precision: moderate
Desired recall: low
User question 2: I want to read The Hunger Games books.
Object attributes: series, title
Desired precision: high
Desired recall: moderate
User question 3: I want something with pictures that will give me nightmares.
Object attributes: illustrations, subject
User question 4: I want a book by John Green.
Object attributes: author
The attributes included in the system based on these questions are Title, Author, Subject, Series, Illustrations, Number of Pages. Additional attributes needed are ISBN and Publisher.
2. Representation of information objects
2.1. Entity level
The information objects represented in this system are young adult novels. Defining the entity level, which refers to the unit of information that will be represented in the system, allows for the creation of the metadata record where one unit of analysis equals one record. For example, the entity level for a novel can be represented by chapter or the entire novel. For the Young Adult Novels Collection, one record equals one novel, therefore, the entity level for this system is the whole object, or whole novel. This is appropriate for this system because, based on the users’ problems and questions, they are not looking for individual chapters; they want to check out and read the entire novel. Identifying the entity level also gives clear directions to the cataloguer, to avoid multiple entity levels in the system, and, ultimately, confusion for the end user.
2.2. Metadata elements and semantics
Metadata, or data about data, describes the information object so that is retrievable and manageable. The metadata scheme translates and organizes the attributes (details and characteristics of the information object which were previously identified) into metadata elements in the record.
The metadata elements chosen for this system supports the four user tasks as defined by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions’ report, Functional Requirements for the Bibliographic Record. The FRBR tasks outline the user’s process for finding, identifying, selecting, and obtaining an information object.
The first task is to find the information according to the user’s search criteria. The Title, Author, and Subject elements included in the metadata scheme for the Young Adult Novels Collection, support this task. As indicated by the users’ problems and questions, users of this collection most often want to search by subject, while occasionally searching for title or author. For example, a user who wants a short book about football must first search for books in the collection with the subject of football. This is the first step the user takes to narrow the selection.
The user then identifies the desired record or records from the list generated during the first task. The identification task allows the user to distinguish the records with even more specificity. The Title, Author, Subject, Summary, Series, Illustrations, and Number of Pages elements assist the user with this task. For example, the user who wants a short book about football first searches the Subject element, then uses the Number of Pages element to decide which record or records most fits his or her criteria. Users also indicated a desire for books with illustrations, as well as books in a series.
After identifying the desired record, the user selects the record that most closely matches with the goal of the search. This step also includes rejecting records that do not meet the user’s requirements. The metadata elements that fulfill this task are Title, Author, Subject, Summary, Series, Illustrations, and Number of Pages. For example, if there are multiple books about football with the desired number of pages, the user must select a record using additional information. The user may recognize an author or title and choose or reject the object based on these elements.
In the last task, the user obtains the information object. After the user selects a record he or she must retrieve the object from a location which is indicated in the metadata. The metadata element that supports this task is Call Number, which directs the user to the location of the object in the library.
The metadata elements Publisher and ISBN are not directly related to user needs. However, these fields provide additional information as to the identification of the correct information object. For example, there may be two novels with the same metadata elements except for publisher. While these novels contain the same information, or words on the pages, they are two distinct information objects. This needs to be identified in the system in order to create two distinct records for these objects.
Appendix A contains a complete list of metadata elements and semantics
2.3. Record structure and specifications
There are ten fields in the database record. Metadata elements in Appendix A map one-to-one to a database field with the exception of ISBN. This can be a thirteen or ten-digit number and there are two, distinct fields in the database to accommodate these elements.
The Title field is a text field, and is required and searchable since some users search by title. This field is limited to one entry because each information object, or novel, has only one title. If there are subtitles, this is accommodated in the title field and explicitly explained in the input rules for the cataloger. There is no controlled vocabulary or drop down list for the title field as there are too many to list and maintain.
The Author field is also a required, searchable text field. Some users of this system want to search by author either by their own experience or through recommendations. Most young adult novels have only one author but occasionally have co-authors, therefore the field allows for two entries. As with the title field, there is no controlled vocabulary or drop down list as there are too many authors to list and maintain.
Most users want to search by subject, so the Subject field is a required, searchable text field. This field has a controlled vocabulary to accommodate multiple spellings or formats of the same subject. For example, the subject of science fiction may also be entered as sci-fi. Without a controlled vocabulary there are inconsistencies in the record and in the user’s search. This field allows 10 entries since most novels address several topics or issues.
The Summary field provides a short plot summary. This is a text field and is not required because this information may not be provided or available for each object. It is not searchable since students search for keywords, which is accommodated in the Subject field. It does not have controlled vocabulary or a drop down list due to the size of the field.
Some novels in this collection are part of a series, therefore, the Series field is a number field with one allowed entry in the record that indicates the number place in the series. Not all novels are part of a series so this field is not required. There is no controlled vocabulary or drop down list since this is simply a number. This field is not searchable since users are simply using this information to determine if the novel is in a series and which number it is in the series.
Although limited, there are novels in this collection with illustrations. Users occasionally want to find novels with pictures or illustrations, so the Illustrations field is a text field that is searchable but not required. Only one entry is allowed, with a controlled vocabulary in a drop down list since this is simply a yes or no answer.
The International Standard Book Number, or ISBN, is a number field that uniquely identifies each edition of a novel. In this system, the ISBN field is not searchable since users of this system are not concerned about the edition or version of the novel. It is important to know exactly which edition or version of a novel is in the collection, for example for replacement value, so this is a required field. There is no controlled vocabulary since this is a number assigned by an external entity.
The Publisher field is a text field that is not searchable since users of this system are not concerned about the publisher of the novel. There is no controlled vocabulary or drop down list for the title field as there are too many publishers to list and maintain.
Finally, the Call Number field is a required text field that is not searchable since this is the last step the user takes to obtain the novel. There is only one entry allowed because this indicates the location of the object in the library. There is no controlled vocabulary or drop list.
Appendix B contains a complete list of record structure and specifications.
2.4. Record content and input rules
Content and input rules are necessary to prevent inconsistencies and errors in cataloging. The rules give the cataloger explicit directions about how to find the information for each element and how to input this information into the record. Without these rules, each cataloger has to make individual decisions about such matters. These differences can make it difficult for the user to find the information needed.
The content rules tell the cataloger where to find the data through the Chief Source of Information, for example the title page or a publisher website. This ensures consistency with all catalogers. The Chief Source of Information for the Young Adult Novels Collection is primarily the copyright page. In some cases, there may be more than one source for the information. The content rules may include alternate locations and indicate the order in which the cataloger should look for the data. For example, when determine the Title, the cataloger initially looks at the title page, but if there is no title page, he or she then looks to the copyright page.
Input rules give the cataloger instructions for entering the data in the fields. This keeps the data in the field consistent from record to record. For example, the input rules instruct the cataloger to enter the Author as first name then last name. Some fields presented a problem as there is no matching field in the database. The Tags field takes the place of the Subject field and the ISBN field is split into the corresponding ISBN 10 or ISBN 13 number.
Appendix C contains a complete list of content and input rules.
Appendix G contains sample records.
Appendix A. Metadata elements and semantics
No. Element name Semantics 1 Title The name of the work 2 Author The creator or writer of the work 3 Summary A brief summary of the work 4 Publisher The entity that produces and sells the work 5 ISBN The International Standard Book Number 6 Number of Pages The number of pages in the work 7 Call Number An identifier that indicates the location of the work in the library 8 Subject The general main topic or idea of the work 9 Series The number of the work in a series 10 Illustrations Drawings or photographs in the work
Appendix B. Record structure and specifications
1. Record structure specifications
No. Field name Field type Searchable Required Number of allowed entries Controlled
Vocabulary? Drop Down
List? 1 Title Text Yes Yes 1 No No 2 Author Text Yes Yes 2 No No 3 Summary Text No No 1 No No 4 Publisher Text No Yes 1 No No 5 ISBN Number No Yes 1 No No 6 Number of Pages Number
No 7 Call Number Text No Yes 1 No No 8 Subject Text Yes Yes 10 Yes No 9 Series Text & Number No No 1 No No 10 Illustrations Text Yes Yes 1 Yes Yes
2. Field comparison
No. Desired Field Libib Field Notes 1 Title Title 2 Author Author 3 Summary Description 4 Publisher Publisher 5 ISBN ISBN 10 If ISBN is a 10-digit number use the ISBN 10 field in Libib 6 ISBN ISBN 13 If ISBN is a 13-digit number use the ISBN 13 field in Libib 7 Number of Pages Pages 8 Call Number Call Number 9 Subject Tags Each tag represents a Subject entry 10 Series Notes 11 Illustrations Notes
Appendix C. Record content and input rules
Field #: 1
Field Name: Title
Semantics: The name of the work
Chief Source of Information: 1) Title page of the book, 2) the copyright page of the book, 3) front cover of book, 4) spine of book
Input Rules: Enter title as found using title style. If book has a title and subtitle, enter the title first, followed by a colon, then the subtitle
Example: Gym Candy
Field #: 2
Field Name: Author
Semantics: The creator or writer of the work
Input Rules: Enter the author’s first name then last name, capitalizing proper nouns. If more than one author, separate by a comma.
Example: Stephenie Meyer
Field #: 4
Field Name: Description
Semantics: A brief summary of the work
Chief Source of Information: Copyright page
Input Rules: Enter summary from copyright page exactly as written. If no summary, leave blank.
Example: When the Cullens, including her beloved Edward, leave Forks rather than risk revealing that they are vampires, it is almost too much for eighteen-year-old Bella to bear, but she finds solace in her friend Jacob until he is drawn into a "cult" and changes in terrible ways.
Field #: 10
Field Name: Publisher
Semantics: The entity that produces and sells the work
Chief Source of Information: Copyright page
Input Rules: Enter the first publisher listed exactly as listed.
Example: Little, Brown and Company
Field #: 8
Field Name: ISBN 10
Semantics: The International Standard Book Number
Input Rules: If the ISBN number is ISBN 10, enter without dashes, otherwise leave blank. If there is both an ISBN 10 and ISBN 13 number, leave blank
Field #: 9
Field Name: ISBN 13
Input Rules: If the number ISBN is ISBN 13, enter without dashes, otherwise leave blank. If there is both an ISBN 10 and ISBN 13 number, enter the ISBN 13 number.
Field #: 7
Field Name: Pages
Semantics: The number of pages in the work
Chief Source of Information: Last page of novel
Input Rules: Look for the last numbered page of the novel and enter this number.
Field #: 11
Field Name: Call Number
Semantics: An identifier that indicates the location of the work in the library
Chief Source of Information:
Field #: 3
Field Name: Tags
Semantics: The general main topic or idea of the work
Input Rules: Enter the subjects as found on the copyright page, however only enter the first keyword from each entry and only capitalize proper nouns. Separate multiple subjects with a comma. (Vampires-Fiction is entered as vampires.)
Field #: 5
Field Name: Notes
Semantics: The number of the work in a series
Chief Source of Information: 1) Title page of the book, 2) the copyright page of the book, 3) front cover of book, 4) spine of book, 5) back cover of book
Input Rules: If the book is part of a series, in the notes field enter “Number in series” followed by a colon, then the number of the book in the series. This goes above Illustration notes.
Example: Number in series: 2
Field #: 6
Semantics: Drawings or photographs in the work
Input Rules: In the notes section, enter “Illustrations” followed by a colon, then “Yes” if there is an illustrator listed on the copyright page or “No” if there is no illustrator.
Example: Illustrations: Yes
Appendix G. Sample records
Claybar / TXWI_A / p. 5
3-digit number use the ISBN 13 field in Libib 7 Number of Pages Pages 8 Call Number Call Number 9 Subject Tags Each tag represents a Subject entry 10 Series Notes 11 Illustrations Notes
Input Rules: In the notes section, enter “Illustrations” followed by