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A Brief Discussion on Fiber, Yarn & Fabrics
Presentation on Woven Fabric & Related Process
What is Textile?
Basic Elements of Textile with Process Flow path
Yarn Manufacturing Process
Woven Fabric Manufacturing Process
Wet Processing Technology
Dyeing & its objects. Theory of Dyeing
Name of Dyes used for fabric dyeing
Brief discussion on Reactive Dye, Disperse Dye & Pigment
Textile Printing & Textile Finishing
4-Point Inspection System
List of fabric defects in woven fabric
Fabric Design & Structure
Textile Testing with Parameters
VF Sportswear Coalition Fabric work process description with other details.
A textile was originally from a woven fabric. But the terms textile & the plural textiles are now also applied to fibers, filaments & yarns. Natural & manufactured and most of the products for which these are a principal raw material.
Fiber has been defined by the textile institute as units of matter by flexibility, fineness & high ratio of length to thick.
Length: Width = 1000:1
Classification of Fiber:
Man Made Fiber
Chemical Composition of Cotton:
Cellulose : 80-90%
Water : 5-7%
Waxes & Fats : 0.5-1%
Protein & Pectin : 3-5%
Ash : 1-1.8%
General Characteristics of Cotton:
Comfortable & Soft Hand.
Easy to Handle & Sew.
End Use of Cotton:
Apparel: Wide range of wearing apparels like Shirts, Pants, Children’s Wear, Active Wear, Swimwear, Suits, Jackets, Skirts, Sweaters, Hosiery etc.
Home Fashions: Use in Curtains, Draperies, Bed sheets, Bed covers, Towels, Table Cloths, Napkins etc.
Picture of Natural Fibers
Picture of Manufactured Fibers
Yarn Manufacturing ProcessHow Fiber Converts Into Yarn
Spinning is a major part of the textile industry. It is part of the textile manufacturing process where fiber are converted into yarn, then fabrics.
Spinning is the twisting together of drawn out strands of fibers to form yarn, though it is colloquially used to describe the process of drawing out, inserting the twist, and winding onto bobbins.
This is discussed under as Yarn manufacturing Technology.
Yarn have been defined a product of substantial length & relatively small cross-section consisting of fiber or filament with or without twist.
Classification of Yarn:
Yarn may be classified on the basis of structure –
Multi Folded Yarn
Flow Chart of Yarn:
Process flow chart for Carded/Combed (Ring) yarn:
Pre Comber draw Frame
First draw frame
Finisher draw Frame
Process flow chart for Open End (OE) yarn:
Process flow chart for Polyester/Nylon/Polypropylene/Lycra yarn:
Flow Path of Yarn Manufacturing
Yarn Over Bobbin
Main Properties of Yarn:
TPI ( Twist per inch)
Thin Places (+/- 50%)
Thick Places (+/- 50%)
Naps (+/- 200%)
Count Strength Product(C.S.P)
Trade Name of Polyester:
Trade Name of Spandex:
Yarn Count Calculation:
Yarn count have been defined a numerical expression which defines its fineness. It is also called as yarn number or linear density.
Example: 30’s, 40’s, Tex105 Etc
Classification of Yarn Count : There are two types of count–
Indirect system: English (Cotton), French (Cotton), Metric, Liner, Worsted & Woolen.
Direct system: Silk-Nylon, Jute-Hemp, Tex & Denier.
It has been defined as the number of units of length per unit weight of a yarn. In this case, higher the count, finer the yarn.
This system is generally used for cotton, woolen, worsted Etc.
Where, N = Yarn numbering system, L = Sample length, W = Sample weight, w = unit weight, l = unit weight.
Example: If the weight of 500 meters of yarn in 100 grams, calculate the yarn count in English system.
Where, w = 453.60 gms & l = 840 Yds (Fixed)
It has been defined as the number of units of weight per unit length of a yarn. In this case, higher the count, coarser the yarn.
This system is generally used for Silk, Nylon, and Jute Etc.
Where, Tex = Yarn numbering system, L = Sample length, W = Sample weight, w = unit weight, l = unit weight.
Example: If the weight of 500 meters of yarn in 100 grams, calculate the yarn count in Tex system.
Where, l = 1000m & w = 1 gms
Conversion of Count From one Count to Another :
Woven Fabric Manufacturing Process How Yarn Converts Into Woven Fabric
Fabric Design & Structure:
Fabric Design & Fabric Structure are related to each other. As we know woven fabric is produced by interlacement of warp & weft yarn. This interlacement of yarn is done by following a pattern, which gives the fabric a particular design.
On the other hand, beside design of woven fabric few other parameters like count of warp yarn & weft yarn, number of warp yarn per inch, number of weft yarn per inch are responsible to establish structure of woven fabric.
So we can say that the pattern of warp & weft yarn interlacement in weaving and necessary parameters related to count & construction of fabric can be defined as Fabric Design & Structure.
Fabric have been defined as a flexible planar substance constructed from solutions, fibers, yarns or fabrics in any combination. Textile fabrics can be produced directly from webs of fibers by bonding, fusing or interlocking to make non-woven fabrics & felts but their physical properties tend to restrict their potential end usage.
Process Flow Chart of Woven Fabric:
Yarn from spinning
Flow Path of Woven Fabric Manufacturing
Grey fabric ready
Air Jet Loom
Water Jet Loom
Classification of fabric: Based on fabric type there are 4 types of fabric –
Woven Fabric: Woven fabric have been defined as the interlacing/interlacement of warp & weft yarn where minimum two set of yarn is needed and warp yarn stay in vertical & parallel to the selvedge.
Knitting fabric: Knitted fabric have been defined as the interloping/interlocking/intermeshing of warp yarn where minimum one set of yarn is needed.
Nonwoven fabric: Nonwoven fabric have been defined as the mechanical/chemical/thermal bonding to make non woven fabric.
Braided fabric: Braided fabric have been defined as the intertwining/diagonal/interlacement to make braided fabric where minimum three set of yarn is needed.
Based on construction: There are three types of fabric
Plain weave formed by yarns at right angles passing alternately over and under each other. This is the simplest of the three basic weaves & also least expensive to produce. No technical face or back unless printed in plain weave fabric.
General Characteristics of Plain Weave :
Smallest design repeat is 2x2.
Only 2 held frames in loom can produce plain weave fabric.
Fabric structure is compact compare to other weaves.
Both sides appearance of fabric remain same in this weave.
Used in light weight, medium weight & heavy weight fabrics without any problem.
This design can be expressed by 1up & 1down sign in technical field.
End Use: Dress, coat, suit, lace, sports, blankets, etc
Trade name of Plain fabric:
Classification of Plain weave:
According to cover factor/Compactness:
Approximately square cloth:
Warp count = weft count
Thread density equal i.e EPI = PPI
Warp faces & weft faces are equal on both sides of the cloth
Warp crimp = weft crimp
Warp cover factor = weft cover factor
End use: Cheese cloth, surgical dressing, etc.
Warp face cloth:
Prominence of warp yarn is more than that of weft yarn
Finer warp yarn but coarser weft yarn
Warp crimp > weft crimp
Production cost of this fabric is less than weft face cloth
End Use: Denim, Gabardine, etc
Weft face cloth:
Prominence of weft yarn is more than that of warp yarn
Finer weft yarn but coarser warp yarn
Weft crimp > warp crimp
Production cost of this fabric is high
End Use: Cotton firebrick, cotton casement cloth, etc
According to alternatively:
EPI = PPI
Warp faces & weft faces are equal on both sides of the fabric
Warp count ≠ weft count
EPI ≠ PPI
According to derivatives of plain weaves:
Irregular Weft Rib
Irregular Warp Rib
Regular Weft Rib
Regular Warp Rib
Plain Weave Fabric Warp Rib Fabric(Oxford)
Weft Rib Fabric(Ottoman) Basket Weave Fabric(Boxy)
The order of interlacing which causes diagonal lines of warp & weft floats to be formed in the fabric is called twill weave. Twill Fabric has technical face side & back side. Technical face consist diagonal lines in Twill fabric.
General Characteristics of Twill Weave:
Smallest design repeat is 3x3.
Only 3 held frame in loom can produce twill weave fabric.
Fabric structure is less compact compare to plain weave fabrics.
Diagonal lines appear on fabric surface.
Both sides appearance of fabric are different in twill weave.
Used in medium weight to heavy weight fabrics mainly for bottoms.
This design can be expressed by 2up 1down, 3up 1down, 2up 2 down etc sign in technical field.
End Use: Garments, household cloth, industrial cloth, pillow covers, screens, table cloth, upholstery, bed sheets, towels, pants, overcoats, etc.
Trade name of Twill fabric :
Classification of Twill weaves:
According to the direction of twill line :
S twill: Downward displacement to the interlacing point i.e. twill line is produced by forwarding of each warp yarn to left side respect to each weft yarn. The twill line of this fabric forwards to right to the left
Example: 3/1 S twill
Z twill: Upward displacement to the interlacing point i.e. twill line is produced by forwarding of each warp yarn to right side respect to each weft yarn. The twill line of this fabric forwards to left to the right.
Example: 3/1 Z twill
According to the face yarn:
Warp face twill
Weft face twill
Double face twill
According to the nature of twill line:
According to the derivatives of twill weaves:
Herring bone twill
Most popular twill weave derivatives are –
Herring bone twill: This twill is produced by reversal of twill direction at a suitable interval unlike zigzag twill & the changing of direction of first warp/weft yarn’s floating condition is reversed of the previous yarn & it is the combination of S & Z twill.
According to reversal to direction, two types of Herring bone twill –
Horizontal Herring bone twill:
Twill direction reverses upon the warp yarn on the principle of herringbone bone.
No of warp yarn is double to the no. of weft yarn.
Basic continuous twill runs along warp.
Broken draft is found.
Horizontal stripe effect formed in the fabric.
Example: 3/1 Horizontal Herring bone
Vertical Herring bone twill:
Twill direction reverses upon the weft yarn on the principle of herringbone bone.
No of weft yarn is double to the no. of warp yarn.
Basic twill runs along weft.
Straight draft is found.
In this fabric vertical stripe effect formed.
Example: 3/1 Vertical Herring bone
End Use: Suits, coats & ornamented fabric.
It is the derivatives of the twill weave
Diamond design is found by the combination of horizontal & vertical zig-zag twill
No of both warp & weft threads are double than that of the base twill in the repeat
In this twill pointed draft is found
The design area is divided into 4 equal parts
It is divided into equal parts both horizontal & vertical axis
Example: 5/3 Diamond design
End Use: Towel, Bed cover, Table cloth, Pillow covers, etc
Broken twill is obtained by breaking the twill line of a regular twill
Broken twill is formed by dividing the continuous twill repeat in 2 or 3 or 4 sections
Broken twill can be made 3 either by warp way & weft way
If the threads are divided in warp way direction, it will result a broken draft
Example: 3/3 Broken Twill
End Use: Shirting, Suiting, Designed fabrics, etc
2/1 S-Twill 2/2 Z- Twill
3/1 S-Twill 4/1 Satin S-Twill
Herringbone Twill Diamond Twill
Diaper Twill Broken Twill
In Satin/Sateen weave each warp floats over four filling yarns and interlaces with the 5th filling yarn with a progression of interlacing by two or three to the right or the left. This designed fabric can be produced by simple loom. Fabric technical face & back look significantly different.
Satin represents warp face fabric whereas Sateen represents weft face fabric.
This weave can be regular or irregular.
Regular weave has minimum repeat size of 5x5 & Irregular weave has 4x4.
Only 5 held frame in loom can produce regular satin/sateen weave fabric.
Fabric structure is less compact compare to plain and twill weave fabrics.
Diagonal lines appear on fabric surface but not as prominent as Twill weave.
Fabric surface feels smooth & lustrous as floats are long.
Used in medium weight to heavy weight fabrics mainly for bottoms, suits etc.
This design can be expressed by 4up 1down, 7up 1down, etc sign in technical field.
End Use: Desks wear, curtain, decorative garments, upholstery, lace, coat, suiting, ladies dress, etc
Classification of Sateen:
Calculation of Woven fabric weight:
Example: If the consumption of a fabric in below & length in 100 meter, how we can calculate the fabric weight?
There are two types of rule for fabric weight calculation. Please see the blow –
How will be deciding the grey Elongation of a fabric from a finish construction?
Denim Fabric Process:
Denim fabric can be developed now a days in two different techniques. These are,
Slasher Dyeing Method
Rope Dyeing Method.
Process Flow path for Slasher Dyeing Process :
Yarn from Spinning
Rope finishing by Ball warping
Process Flow path for Rope Dyeing Process:
Comparison between Rope & Slasher Dyeing:
Longer Inner size time
Shorter Inner time
Longer Skying time
Shorter Skying time
Best Indigo Dyeing
Dyeing & Sizing different stage
Dyeing & sizing one stage
Bottoming have been defined as sulphur dyeing is bottoming & Indigo dyeing is topping.
Topping have been defined as sulphur dyeing is topping & Indigo dyeing is bottoming.
Bottoming & Topping:
Bottoming & Topping are related directly to sulphur dye where dyeing combined with sulphur & Indigo.
Process Flow path for Topping:
Process Flow path for Bottoming:
Oxidation of Dyed Yarn:
By skying of dyed yarn after each dip.
Normally skying time 60 to 90 second.
When yarn goes lighter to darker it means oxidation is complete.
Skying time does not make oxidation completely & that is why it is preferable after skying oxidation by oxidizing agent.
Causes of Incomplete Oxidation:
Inadequate skying time.
Overcrowding of yarn the width of range.
Excess dyes pick up.
Low air movement.
Uneven dye pick up.
Less chemical oxidation or less washes off by water.
∆E: ∆E is the color deference from standard to sample. Maximum value of ∆E will be 1.
If ∆E ≤1 then result is OK
If ∆E ≥1 then result is not OK
Factor Related with ∆E:
∆L=+means lighter = Next to reduce the lighter.
∆L=-means Darker = Next to increase the lighter.
∆a=+means Redder = Next to reduce the redder.
∆a=-means Greener(Less red) = Next to increase the redder.
∆b=+means Yellowish = Next to reduce the yellow.
∆b=-means Bluish = Next to reduce the Blue.
Relation among ∆L, ∆a & ∆b :
Calculation value of ∆E (V10101-1):
If value of ∆L=0.01, ∆a=-0.41 & ∆b=-0.43,then ∆E value-
Standard light source:
Day light, D-65, D-95
Shop light, TL-83, TL-84
A Light target
Cool White Flurscent, CWF
Note: Mainly we are using D-65 & CWF in textile sector.
Color: Color is the reflection of light. Higher the wave length, higher the reflection.
Black = Reflection is very less
White = Reflection is very high
Violet = Minimum wave length
Red = Maximum wave length
Color Vision Factor: There are two types-
Human color vision factor
Computer color vision factor
Human color vision factor:
Sex – Male & Female
Height – Maximum, minimum & medium
Angle of viewing - 0º, 45º, 60º, 90º, 180º, 270º, 360º
Condition of viewing – Natural color, Grey color & Reflection color
Relative Humidity & Temperature – RH=65% & Temperature 21±1 º
Condition of eyes – Good or excellent
Computer color vision Factor:
Equation – CMC method (Color measuring comity)
Observing angle - 0º, 45º, 60º, 90º, 180º, 270º, 360º
Measuring area – 30 mm or small size
Measurement – for plane 2 reading (0º, 90º) & for twill 4 reading (0º, 90º, 180º & 270º)
Folding of sample
Calibrations of machine
Metamerism : When two color objects look alike under one viewing condition but look different under another viewing condition, we say that metamerism taking.
Classification of metamerism : There are 5 types of metamerism –
Illumination metamerism : When the color of two space match under one illumination but does not match in another, then it is called illumination metamerism.
Observer metamerism : When the color of two space match under one observer but does not match in another, then it is called observer metamerism.
Geometric metamerism : When the color of two space match under one set of viewing condition, but does not match if we change the geometrics such as illuminant & viewing, then it is called geometric metamerism.
Field size metamerism : When the color of two space match under one place of visual distance viewing but does not match when change the visual distance of field or distance of viewing, then it is called field size metamerism.
Instrumental metamerism : When the color of two space match under one set of instrument but does not match under other set of instrument, then it is called instrument metamerism.
Textile Testing & Quality Control How Quality Parameters of Finished Fabric Testing in Lab
Textile Testing & its nessery:
Textile testing is a process by which different quality parameter of a particular textile product can be tested in laboratory to ensure the required quality of that finished goods. Mainly there are four objectives of textile testing,
Ensuring quality conformance of product.
Checking quality of final products in terms of performance & safety.
Improving manufacturing process in a cost effective manner.
Ensuring customer satisfaction
There are different testing equipments available in texting laboratory by which textile products can be tested. For testing of goods, there are various methods available also. These are like ,
-AATCC Method(American Association of Textile Chemists & Colorists)
-ASTM Method(American Society for Testing and Materials)
-ISO Method(International Organization for Standardization)
Testing Parameters of Woven fabric:
There are few physical and chemical parameters available for which woven fabrics are tested in testing laboratory after processing.
Below all testing parameters are mentioned sequentially along with test methods:
Fiber Content (ISO1833/5088)
According to fabrication
Fabric Weight (ASTM D 3776)
According to count, construction.
Fabric Shrinkage (AATCC 135, 3 washes)
0 to -4%
Distortion after washing (AATCC 179, 3 washes)
Appearance after washing
Satisfactory (Based on observation)
PH Value (ISO 3071)
Tensile Strength (ASTM D5034)
Depends on fabric wt, 20-50lbs.
Tearing Strength (ASTM D1424)
Depends on fabric wt, 1.5-3lbs.
Color Fastness to Crocking (AATCC 8)
Color Fastness to Light (AATCC 16E 20 AFU)
Color Fastness to Washing (AATCC 61 IIA)
Color Change>4, Color Stain>3
Color Fastness to Water (AATCC 107)
Color Fastness to Perspiration (AATCC 15)
Pilling Resistance [After 3 HW] (ASTM D3512, 30 min)
Stretch & Recovery [For Stretch Fabric only] (ASTM D3107)
15% Stretch, 8% Growth
Draft recommendation should be as minimum as possible-
How to calculate Spandex from a fabric?
Spandex in Yarn:
Spandex in Fabric:
At first we need to take 50 cm squire a fabric cutting.
Then need to over lock sewing this fabric.
After that need to do 3 wash under 60ºC for woven with or without chemical.
Then relaxation for 2-3 hours.
Fabric PH Testing (ENISO-0371):
At first we need to take 2gm fabric & 100ml distill water.
Then need to keep this cutting sample & water in a Biker.
Then agitated 2 hours
After that half hours relaxation then fabric PH calculation.
How you will test Stretch, Growth & Recovery?
Procedure of Stretch (ASTM-3107-03):
Take a sample 25 X 5 cm (Length = Spandex Direction).
Mount this saple in the machine.
Apply 4 pound (Ibs) load in bottom ends & keep is for 30 minutes.
Procedure of Growth (ASTM-3107-03):
After 30 minutes remove the sample from the machine.
Keep it relaxation for 30 minutes under temperature 21±2ºC & Relative Humidity 65±2%.
Procedure of Recovery (ASTM-3107-03):
Fastness of Dyed Goods:
The capacity of a dye on a textile material to resist (After dyeing) a load or a destructive factor is referred to a fastness. The outstanding property of a dyed textile material is the fastness of shade.
The following fastness are important for dyed goods:
Color fastness to wash
Color fastness to light
Color fastness to rubbing (Dry +Wet)
Color fastness to perspiration (Acidic & alkaline)
Color fastness to acids
Color fastness to chlorine
Color fastness to alkaline
Color fastness to sea water
Color fastness to weather
Color fastness to bleaching agents
Assessment of Fastness:
Light fastness in Blue scale
Wash fastness in Grey scale
Color fastness to wash:
Color fastness to wash is very important for lap dip. There are varieties of testing procedure, because –
Washing conditions may very from one country to another
The methods depend on the use of dyed goods
To evaluate repeated washing accelerated test methods are used.
A specimen (Lab dip) in contact with specified adjacent fabric or fabric is laundered, rinsed & dried. The specimen/composite sample is treated under appropriate condition in a chemical bath for short time. The abrasive action is accomplished by the use of a liquor ratio & an appropriate number of steel balls. The change in color of the specimen (Dyed sample)
& the staining of the adjacent fabric is assessed by recommended Grey scales (1-5).
Apparatus & Materials:
Wash wheel with a thermostatically controlled water bath & rating speed of (40±2) rmp
Stainless steel container (Capacity 55±50 ml)
Stainless steel ball (Dia=0.6 cm & weight=1 gm)
Multi fiber fabric (Acetate/Cotton/Nylon/Polyester/Acrylic/Wool)
Color matching cabinet
Dia=0.6cm & wt=1gm
10 X 4 cm
Multifibre fabric (ISO)
Sodium carbonate/Soda ash
Distilled Water (Grade – 3)
Cut a sample of dyed goods 10 X 4 cm & sew it with same size multifiber. This is the composite test sample.
Test Procedure (ISO recommendation No. 1 – 5):
Composite sample is treated in a wash wheel for 30 minutes at (40 ±2) ºC with 5 g/l standard soap.
Evaluation: Compare the contrast between the treated & untreated sample with grey scale for changing color of dyed sample & staining of adjacent fabric in a color matching cabinet.
Test Description (Color fastness to wash (ISO-105-CO3)
Color change in shade staining in Acetate
Color change in shade staining in Cotton
Color change in shade staining in Nylon
Color change in shade staining in Polyester
Color change in shade staining in Acrylic
Color change in shade staining in Wool
Color fastness to light:
Principal: This test measures the resistance to fading of dyed textile when exposed to day-light. Then test sample is exposed to light for a certain time (24 hrs, 36 hrs, 48 hrs, 72 hrs…….) or by customer demand & compare the change with original unexposed sample. The changes are assessed by Blue scales (1 – 8).
The sample is cut & should be exposed (1/2 covered & ½ exposed) together with standard dyed wool samples (1 – 8). The standard & the specimen mounted in a frame. The composite sample must be protected from rain.
Evaluation is made numerically by European/American blue scale (1 – 8).
Color fastness to Rubbing:
Principal: This test is designed to determine the degree of color which may be transferred from the surface of a colored fabric to a specific test cloth for rubbing (Dry + Wet).
Cotton rubbing cotton
Color matching cabinet.
Size of fabric: 14 X 5 cm two pieces of sample (One warp direction/Wale direction & other weft/course direction).
Lock the test specimen onto the base of the crock meter.
Using the spiral spring clip, set 5 X 5 cm of the white cotton fabric to the finger of the crock meter.
Lower the covered finger on the test sample.
Turn hand crank at the rate of one turn per second (10 X 10 Sec).
Remove the white rubbing test cloth & evaluate with grey scale.
Compare the contrast between the treated & untreated white rubbing cloth with grey scale & rated 1 – 5.
Color fastness to Perspiration:
Principal: The garment which comes into contact with the body where perspiration is heavy may suffer serious local discoloration. This test is intended to determine the resistance of color of dyed textile to the action of acidic & alkaline perspiration.
Oven, maintain at (37 ±2)ºC temperature
Multi fiber test fabric
Color matching chamber
Acidic & alkaline solution
Glass & acrylic plate
Sample size: 10 X 4 cm
Wet out the composite test sample in mentioned alkaline or acidic solution at room temperature. M:L ratio 1:50 & leave for 30 minutes.
Pour off excess solution & place the composite sample between two glass plate or acrylic plate under a pressure of 4.5 Kg & place in an oven for 4 hrs at (37 ±2)ºC temperature.
Remove the specimen & hang to dry in warm air not exceeding 60ºC temperature.
Evaluation is done by grey scale in a color matching cabinet & rated from 1 – 5.
L-histadine mono hydrochloric hydrate (C6H4O2N3HCl.H2O
Sodium chloride (NaCl)
Disodium hydrogen ortho phosphate dihydrate (Na2HPO4.2H2O)
PH (Adjust with 0.1 N NaOH)
Pilling: Pilling is a process of forming small angles of fibers.
ICI (Imperial Chemical Index) Pilling test for knit fabric:
Sample : 5 X 5”
Rubber tube : 6” long & 1.25” outer diameter
Box size : 9 X 9 X 9”
Box inside : 1/8” Cork
Revolution : 60 rpm
Time : 5 hrs
At first sample (5 x 5”) is taken & sewn it.
Then it placed on to rubber tube (6” long & 1.25” outer diameter X 0.125” thick).
To cut ends are covered by tape.
Four tubes are placed into the box (X 9 X 9”).
Cork fabric (0.125”) is placed inside the surface of the box. Then box is rotted
with 60 rpm for 5 hurs, which creases the pilling on the surface of the fabric.
After 1 hrs tumbling sample is compare with the standard fabric.
Then examined it visually.
Five Pilling rating are found:
Become hairy but no pilling
Become hairy & slight pilling
Become hairy & moderate pilling
Become hairy & unacceptable pilling
Become hairy & external pilling
Strength: It is the resistance to deformation or breakage caused by application of force.
It is the most important properties of yarn & fabric.
Tensile strength testing:
One of the most common testing methods tensile testing is used to determine the behavior of a sample while an axial stretching load is applied. This types of tests may be performed under ambient or controlled eating or cooling conditions to determine the tensile properties of a textile material. Tensile testing is commonly used to determine the maximum load. Tensile testing may be based on a load value or elongation value.
Common tensile testing results include:
Deflection of maximum load
Work at maximum load
Load at break
Deflection at break
Work at break
Manual fabric strength tester:
Switch On & Off
At first fabric is set between the clamps where upper clamp is fixed & lower clamp is movable.
Then swatch is on & movable clamp moves downwards.
So that fabric is broken due to tension on the fabric.
The strength is measured from the dial of the tester.
After measuring the strength switch is green to off.
Tear Strength tester:
The tearing strength tester consists of a sector pendulum pivoted on anti-friction ball bearings on a vertical bracket fixed on a rigid metallic base.
The test specimen in shape of a rectangular piece is held between two clamps, one of which is mounted on the pendulum & other is mounted on the fixed bracket.
The clamps are mounted in such a manner that their holding faces are aligned with each other when the pendulum is locked in its raised position.
The tearing strength is indicated on a scale fitted on the pendulum against a low friction pointer pivoted on the axis of the pendulum.
Weight /unit length measurement
Fabric thickness measurement
Fabric inspection measurement
This system is mostly used in textile industry around the globe now. This test method describes a procedure to establish a numerical designation for grading of fabrics from a visual inspection.
This system provides a means of defining defects according to their severity by assigning demerit point values. All type of fabrics whether grey or finished, can be graded by this system.
Fabric inspection method :
4 – point system
10 – point system
4 – Point system (Used for Knit fabric):
For Example: For 100 yds inspection
**Total No. of point must be less than 40 per 100 Sq yds.
Up to 3"
3" to 6"
6 to 9"
No. od Faults
No. of Points
10 X 1=10
5 X 2=10
2 X 3=6
0 X 4=0
10 – Point system (Used for Woven fabric):
For export quality material:
Good: Total point <20 point per 100 Sq meter
Average: Total point 20 to 30 point per 100 Sq meters
Poor: Total point >30 point per 100 Sq meter
1" to <5"
5" to <10"
5" to <half width
Weight/Unit area measurement:
Instrument: Quadrant Balance
At first sample (2” long X 1” width) is measured by using template & it is placed on the sample holder.
The weight is then measured directly from the quadrant scale on which pointed fixed according to the sample.
Result should be taken Ibs/100 Sq yds.
GSM measurement for knit & woven fabric:
Instrument: GSM cutter or Rounded cutter
At first a rubber pad is placed on the table
Then the fabric placed over the rubber pad
Then the round cutter is placed on the fabric & cut the fabric
The cut sample should be circular
The sample area should be 100 cm² (Standard)
Then the weight (in gms) of 100 cm² of samples is measured by electrical balance
At last GSM is measured (wt in gms/100 cm²X100=GSM)
List of Fabric Defects in Woven Fabric:
A fabric defect is any abnormality in the fabric that hinders it’s acceptability by the consumer. Woven fabric defects can be raised from yarn defects, weaving defects & finally processing defects.
Most common defects of woven fabrics are as below –
Side to side shade variation
End to end shade variation
Uneven Dyeing/Running shading
Patchy Dyeing Effect
Hole, Cut or Tear
Hanging Loose Threads
Oil or Stain Mark
Presence of colored foreign matter in the fabric, which comes from yarn.
Causes: Cotton fibers getting contaminated during Ginning
process with leaves, immature fiber and yellow fiber.
Remedies: Colored portion is removed from the yarn with a pucker.
Knot is a fastening made by tying together ends of yarn when broken.
Causes: Thread breaks during process of winding, warping,
Sizing or weaving.
Remedies: Non mend able. Fabric portion carrying knots should be avoided during cutting or rejected with cut panels.
Slub is a bunch of yarn having less twist or no twist and has a wider diameter compare to normal spun yarn
Causes: Improper Carding/Combing & wrong drafting in spinning Process.
Remedies: Slub should be cut with the clipper from both ends.
Broken Ends woven in a bunch:
This defect is caused by a bunch of broken ends woven into fabric.
Causes: Failure of weaver in attending the warp breaks properly.
Remedies: Broken ends woven in a bunch can be removed by using a pucker and the resulting loose ends should be cut with clipper. As a result, a bare patch occurs and combing in both directions with a metallic comb can fill this up.
When two or more ends get woven as one. This defect is
characterized by a thick bar running parallel to the warp.
Causes: Wrong drawing, taking more ends through a held eye.
Remedies: Can be corrected by pulling out the extra end with help of needle. A bare patch is formed & can be filled by combing in both direction with help of metallic comb.
Float is the improper interlacement of warp & weft threads over a Certain area.
Causes: Improper sizing that causes ends stick together. It can be from broken end also if entangled with other ends.
Remedies: Only minor floats can be rectified. The floating threads are cut with a clipper. Combing in both direction rectifies the patch.
This is a foreign matter accidentally woven into the fabric.
Causes: Improper loom cleaning. Dusty/Dirty weaving environment.
Remedies: Extra foreign matter can be pulled out with a pucker. Combing in both direction rectifies the resultant patch.
Hole, Cut, Tear:
This is self explanatory which defines any small/large hole or cut area
or tear position in the fabric.
Causes: Sharp edges on cloth roll, hard substances between layer of fabric in cloth roll. Coarse template used for fine fabrics. This can be raised during removal of hard particles woven in the cloth.
Remedies: Not possible to do mending. Need to reject from fabrics or from cut panels.
The fabric is characterized by a gap, parallel to the warp. The number of ends missing may be one or more.
Causes: Loom not equipped with warp stop motion. Drop wires not working properly which cause stop machine when warp breaks. Electric bars are dirty or defected that’s why machine not stopped When drop wire dropped over it.
Remedies: When there are only two adjacent ends missing, the fault can be rectified by combing in both directions using a metallic comb. More than 2 ends will be difficult to cover. Fabric portion needs to be avoided or rejected based on it’s availability along width of fabric
A narrow streak running parallel with weft threads caused due to absence of weft yarn.
Causes: Faulty let off & take up motion in loom. May be due to faulty Weft stop motion. If fell of cloth not adjusted after loom stoppage.
Remedies: When only 2 pick missing then can be rectified by combing with metallic comb. More than that not possible & need to be rejected.
Hanged/Untrimmed Loose Threads:
Any hanging threads on the face of the fabrics.
Causes: Tail ends are not trimmed after piecing up.
Remedies: This defect can be easily rectifies by cutting all hanged yarn by the clipper during grey mending.
An unwanted bar, running across the full width of a piece which differs in appearance from the adjacent normal fabric.
Causes: Different in count, twist, color, luster. Faulty let off and take up motion of loom
Remedies: Not possible to do mending.
Oil Ends Oil Weft
Oil Spots Reed Mark
VF-BDC JW Fabric Department’s Working Process & Other Necessary Details
Nominated Fabric Suppliers in Bangladesh:
There are few nominated fabric suppliers available in Bangladesh by VF Asia. Names are given below -
Envoy Textiles Ltd
Partex Denim Ltd
Nassa Taiepei Denim Ltd
Mahmud Denim Ltd
South China Bleaching & Dyeing Factory Ltd.
Sinha Textile Group.
Hamid Fabrics Ltd.
Paramount Textiles Ltd.
Thermax Yarn Dyed Fabric Mills Ltd.
Litun Fabrics Ltd
Ridwan Textiles Ltd
Nominated Fabric Suppliers in Pakistan:
There are few nominated fabric suppliers available in Pakistan by VF Asia. Names are given below -
Kassim Textiles Ltd
Artistic Milliners Denim Ltd
Soorty Denim Ltd
Naveena Textiles Ltd
Siddiqsions Textiles Ltd
Kohinoor Textiles Mill Ltd
Master Textile Ltd
Sarena Fabrics Ltd.
Nominated Fabric Suppliers in India:
There are few nominated fabric suppliers available in India by VF Asia. Names are given below -
Arvind Textiles Ltd
Mafatlal Fabrics Ltd
Suryalakshmi Denim Ltd
Raymond Denim Ltd
Nahar Textiles Ltd
Vardhaman Textiles Mill Ltd
Besides some other nominated fabric suppliers available in Thailand, Serilonka, Indonasia.
Fabric Related Work for BDC:
In mill week mill submits their new collections based on current market trend. Yearly there are two mills weeks, one is on in each June for Fall/Holiday season & another is in each Jan for Spring/Summer season.
The selected fabrics in mill weeks input in Fabric Code Generate System (FCGS) as well as SBU wise Fabric chart with lab test result. For any modification of color or new color development on a particular fabric item also done in this stage. Mills submit the selected fabrics sample yardages to BDC to do wash range & submit to US & HK. BDC is responsible for all non china mills.
From the submitted wash range US team short listed the fabrics for coming up season & request for proto which are consider highly potential for coming up seasons bulk fabric orders.
Fabric booking is released by BDC Merchandiser team to Fabric team for proto, Pre-line, F&F and bulk standard sample purpose & fabric team book this sample to Mill. In this sample stage if we get any fabric issue, we updated all parties. From fabric booking date we need to in-house within 15 working days for oversees Mill & 7 working day for Bangladeshi Mill.
After getting each sample yardage for proto we need to check with master roll, then need to approved swatch.
Merchandising team give proto wash leg to Fabric team for test purpose and fabric team send this wash leg to BKK Lab along with pretest number. If this test result is failed in any parameter then liability of fabric team.
Update Fabric Price:
We need to update fabric price & cut-table with each month because validity of fabric price is only one month.
Substitute Wash Range :
We are doing lot of substitute fabric from different mill & need to do wash range with original fabric and send to US for approval. In the meantime need to update all details in our system & fabric chart as well as test result.
CTFT also researches the construction of garments for the consumer marketplace through:
Total Easy Care research, which includes:
Prevention of fabric faults
Machine washable suits in which interfacings, linings and suiting all wash and dry together perfectlyiecing up.
Remedies: This defect can be easily rectifies by cutting all hanged