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Embed code for: ISN Enzymes
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What happens to the food that we eat?
It breaks down into….
Let’s look at Lactose…..
What is Lactose?
Lactose is a disaccharide (double sugar) found in dairy products
What is lactose intolerance?
They lack the enzyme Lactase
Sugars end in “-ose”
Enzymes end in “-ase”
But…..what is an enzyme?
What are Enzymes?
Most enzymes are proteins’
Act as Catalysts to speed up a chemical reaction by helping molecules react with each other faster
Are specific for what they catalyze
End in –ase
Named for the reaction they help:
Sucrase breaks down sucrose
Protease breaks down proteins
Lipase breaks down lipids
DNA polymerase build DNA
Enzymes are not used up
Reused again and again for the same reaction
Very little enzyme needed to help in many reactions
PRODUCT what the enzyme helps produce from the reaction
SUBSTRATE Molecule(s) that the enzyme works on
ENZYME helper protein molecule
part of enzyme that substrate molecule fits into
Reactants form Products
It’s shape that matters!
Lock and Key model
Shape of enzyme allows substrate to fit
Specific enzyme for each specific reaction
Enzyme + Substrate Enzyme + Products
How do Enzymes work?
Enzymes work by weakening bonds which lowers activation energy
“The energy needed to start a reaction”
Reactions can occur without the help of catalysts, but not at the speed our body requires.
Enzymes reduce the energy needed for a reaction to occur
It is like a discount on the cost of the reaction
What affects enzyme activity?
pH, temperature, enzyme or substrate concentration
Cofactors and Coenzymes
Substances needed for the enzymes to work
Bind and block the enzyme from working
High temperatures cause enzymes to denature (unfold and lose shape)
Low temperatures slow molecules down and less collisions
Human Enzymes: 35°- 40°C (body temp = 37°C)
Denaturing: extreme temperature and pH can change enzyme shape, rendering it useless