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11/21/2014 1 The chemistry of life BIOCHEMISTRY AND MACROMOLECULES All living things are mostly composed of 6 elements: C, H, N, O, P, S or SCHNOP Compounds are broken down into two general categories Inorganic Compounds Do not contain carbon Organic Compounds Contains significant amounts of carbon and hydrogen Often found with common “functional groups” ORGANIC CHEMISTRY Carbon has four valence electrons in its outer shell Carbon can form covalent bonds with as many as four other atoms (elements) Usually with C, H, O or N Example: Methane CH4 CARBON Large organic molecules Also called polymers ( poly- means many) Made of smaller building blocks called monomers (mono- means one) 4 types Carbohydrates Lipids MACROMOLECULES Proteins Nucleic acids MONOMER VS. POLYMER Polymer Monomer Made up of many repeating units Made up of one unit Macromolecules are formed from Dehydration Synthesis Also called Condensation reaction Forms polymers by combining monomers by removing water HO HO H HO H2O HHO 11/21/2014 2 Macromolecules are broken down by Hydrolysis Separates monomers by adding water HHO HO HO H2O HH Carbohydrates are made from simple sugars like glucose and fructose Carbohydrates store energy Examples Monosaccharides Disaccharides Polysaccharides CARBOHYDRATES Monosaccharides One sugar unit Example: Glucose (C6H12O6) Deoxyribose Ribose Fructose Galactose CARBOHYDRATES Glucose Fructose Disaccharides Two sugar units Examples: Sucrose (glucose + fructose) Lactose (glucose + galactose) Maltose (glucose + glucose) CARBOHYDRATES Glucose Fructose Polysaccharide Many sugar units Examples: Starch (bread, potatoes, corn) Glycogen (beef muscle) Cellulose (lettuce, corn, cell walls in plants CARBOHYDRATES Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Glucose Sugar High Not soluble in water Functions Store the most energy Make up cell membranes Act as chemical messengers Protect and insulate Examples LIPIDS Fats Phospholipids Oils Waxes Steroid hormones Triglycerides 11/21/2014 3 Triglycerides Composed of one glycerol and three fatty acids LIPIDS There are two kinds of fatty acids you may see on food labels Saturated fatty acids: no double bonds between carbons (saturated with hydrogen), (bad kind) Unsaturated fatty acids: double bonds between carbons, results in bend or kink, (good kind) FATTY ACIDS lipds Amino acids 20 different kinds of a.a. bonded together by peptide bonds to form a polypeptide Functions Storage albumin Transport hemoglobin Regulatory hormones Movement muscles Structural hair, nails, collagen Enzymes cellular reactions PROTEINS (POLYPEPTIDES) Four levels of protein structure Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary PROTEINS (POLYPEPTIDES) Amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds in straight chains The order of the amino acids PRIMARY STRUCTURE 3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils or pleats held together by hydrogen bonds Examples: Alpha (α) helix Beta (β) Pleated sheet SECONDARY STRUCTURE 11/21/2014 4 Secondary structures bent and folded into a more complex 3-D arrangement Bonds: hydrogen, ionic, disulfide bridges (S-S) Called a subunit TERTIARY STRUCTURE Composed of two or more subunits Globular shape Form in aqueous environments Example: enzymes, hemoglobin QUATERNARY STRUCTURE Proteins Carry the genetic information to make proteins Two types Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA – double helix) Ribonucleic acid (RNA- single strand) Nucleic acids are composed of long chains of nucleotides linked by dehydration synthesis NUCLEIC ACIDS Nucleotides include Phosphate group Pentose sugar (deoxyribose or ribose) Nitrogen base Adenine (A) Thymine (T) in DNA only Uracil (U) in RNA only Cytosine (C) Guanine (G) NUCLEIC ACIDS O O=P-O O Phosphate Group N Nitrogenous base (A, G, C, or T) CH2 O C1C 4 C3 C2 5 Sugar (deoxyribose) NUCLEOTIDE IN YOUR NOTEBOOK Organic Molecule Monomer Polymers Examples Uses