The transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β) superfamily comprises nearly 30 growth and differentiation factors that include TGF-βs, activins, inhibins, and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). Multiple members of the TGF-β superfamily serve key roles in stem cell fate commitment. The various members of the family can exhibit disparate roles in regulating the biology of embryonic stem (ES) cells and tumor suppression. For example, TGF-β inhibits proliferation of multipo
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