Photo of a meadow with thousands of Helianthella quinquenervis (aspen sunflower, Asteraceae) plants. In the year that this photo was taken, a springtime frost killed all but a few flower buds. Compare with the photo of the same meadow in a year without frost. The lack of flowers in years having springtime frost has ecological consequences. There is no pollen or nectar for pollinators (bees and flies), no seeds for seed predators (tephritid flies and caterpillars), and no seed predators for paras
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