Ants (Formica obscuripes) searching for extrafloral nectar on the involucral bracts around a flower head in bud in the frost-sensitive herb Helianthella quinquenervis. The ants help to deter oviposition by flies (Tephritidae) that try to lay eggs on the flower heads. Because fly larvae eat developing seeds, the ants benefit the plants. Thus, the ant / herb interaction represents a mutualism. This mutualism can be disrupted if flower buds are killed by frost, as they won't secrete the extrafloral
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