Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. NougayrÃ¨de et al. report that certain E. coli strains harbor a set of genes that specify the biosynthesis of compounds that are either toxic to a host organism or can prolong bacterial survival and thus act as a fitness factor. These opposing effects depend on several factors, including the location of the bacteria within a host organism and duration of exposure to the compound.
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