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Embed code for: Formative Assessment 1 SPED 350
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By: Lauryn Dean & Andrea Valenzuela
The IQ Discrepancy Model
Identifies if there is a significant difference between a student's achievement test scores and a general intelligence test.
Each state has their own established formula for determining a severe discrepancy. For example most states say there must be at least a two standard deviation for the students to be recognized as having a learning disability
Was replaced by RTI in 2004 when the Disabilities Education Improvement Act was passed. However many school psychologists continued to use this assessment for at risk children of a specific learning disability
Response To Intervention (RTI model)
Definition: a student’s change (or lack of change) in academic performance or behavior as a result of instruction.
Tier 1: universal screening to identify students who may be at risk of academic failure.
Tier 2: students receive small group instruction by a teacher three to four times per week with emphasis on areas of difficulty.
Tier 3: includes more intensive intervention that is individualized by student, provided by a special educator.
Hard to identify younger children
Doesn’t assess the quality of instruction students are receiving
Misdiagnosed as results from assessment do not inform the instructional process
Some students who don't meet the criteria would benefit from extra help and early detection
Students have to fail before they can start the identification process
Smart students are not identified
Responsive To Intervention
Doesn’t differentiate between learning disability students and other “underachievers”
Will most likely identify slow learners as LD students
Does not have any formal means of cognitive processing in evaluation
Can be influenced by teachers, parents, and others who want a student to be identified
Response To Intervention
Can be applied to students of all ages
Does not allow the student to fail for a long period of time before being identified
Forces mainstream interventions
Requires little educational disruption for testing
Is an established practice
Easy to employ and understand
Teacher doesn't have to identify, school psychologist conducts the IQ and achievement test
One time assessment
Start services quicker
Why do teachers need to assess a student's classroom learning outcomes?
To make sure each individual student is reaching the educational milestones
To determine appropriate placement
To identify if students will benefit from extra assistance
To make sure students are progressing at the right speed
Crawford, L. (2014). The Role of Assessment in a Response to Intervention Model. Preventing School Failure, 58(4), 230-236. doi:10.1080/1045988X.2013.805711
Hallahan, D. P., Kauffman, J. M., & Pullen, P. C. (2011). Exceptional learners: An introduction to special education. (3rd ed.). Pearson Higher.
Pedrotty Bryant, D. (2014). Tier 2 Intervention for At-Risk First-Grade Students Within a Response-to-Intervention Model of Support. School Psychology Review, 43(2), 179-184.
Restori, A. F., Katz, G. S., & Lee, H. B. (2009). A critique of the IQ/achievement discrepancy model for identifying specific learning disabilities. Europe's Journal of Psychology, 5(4), 128.
U.S. Department of Education Office of Special Education Programs. (2007). IQ-Achievement Discrepancy Model, retrieved from http://www.ideapartnership.org/documents/IQ-RTI.pdf.
Young children- Prior 2nd or 3rd grade