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Physical Fitness and Wellness
1.1 Understand the health and fitness consequences of physical inactivity.
1.2 Identify the major health problems in the United States.
1.3 Learn how to monitor daily physical activity.
1.4 Learn the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.
1.5 Define wellness and list its dimensions.
1.6 Define physical fitness and list health-related and skill-related components.
1.7 State the differences among physical fitness, health promotion, and wellness.
1.8 Distinguish between health fitness standards and physical fitness standards.
1.9 Understand the benefits and significance of participating in a comprehensive wellness program.
Physical activity in modern society is being replaced by machines
Threats to health in America
Sedentary death syndrome (SeDS)
There is growing interest in health and preventive medicine
Participation in fitness and wellness programs
Causes of Death in the United States for Selected Years
Morbidity in the Twentieth Century
Primary causes of death in the 20th Century
Has shifted from infectious diseases to chronic diseases
Prevention is the best medicine
Good health can be mostly self-controlled
Premature death can be prevented by following positive lifestyle habits
Factors that Impact Health and Longevity
Life Expectancy Factors
What factors impact life expectancy in the United States?
Extremely poor health in some groups, e.g., Native Americans and inner-city poor
National Institute of Aging expects average lifespan to decrease by five years in coming decades
Leading Health Problems in the United States
Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors
Lifestyle as a Health Problem
Physical Activity and Exercise Defined
Physical activity: bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles
Exercise: requires planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement
Improves or maintains one or more components of physical fitness
Physical Activity Recommendations
Moderate physical activity
Uses 150 calories per day, or 1,000 calories per week
General health recommendation
Perform the activity in 30-minute continuous segments over 5 days each week
Note: 30-minute continuous segment can be replaced with three activity sessions of at least 10 minutes each
National Initiatives to Promote Healthy and Active Lifestyles: Guidelines
Adults and older adults
Two hours and 30 minutes of moderate activity – OR –
One hour and 15 minutes of vigorous exercise* each week
Strength building 2 days/week
* Or, an equivalent combination of both
National Initiatives to Promote Healthy and Active Lifestyles: More Guidelines
More benefits with increased aerobic exercise
Increase moderate activity to 500 minutes – OR –
Increase vigorous activity to 2 hours and 30 minutes* each week
National Initiatives to Promote Healthy and Active Lifestyles: Children
Children 6 years of age and older and adolescents
1 hour or more per day of moderate or vigorous activity with 3 days having vigorous-intensity activities
Strength building activities 3 days/week
National Initiatives to Promote Healthy and Active Lifestyles: Women
Pregnant and postpartum women
Women who are not already doing vigorous exercise should get 2 hours and 30 minutes of moderate exercise spread out over week
Women who regularly engage in vigorous exercise can continue and should talk with health care provider about their activity level
American Medical Association (AMA)
Launched a nationwide “Exercise Is Medicine” program
National Health Objectives for 2020
To achieve increased quality and years of healthy life and seeking to eliminate health disparities
Personal responsibility for health behavior
Health benefits for all people and all communities
Health promotion and disease prevention
National Physical Activity Plan
What are some strategies to increase physical activity of the whole population?
Enact policies for schools to promote physical activity
Provide early childhood education
Improve access and opportunity to physical activity
Make physical activity a patient “vital sign”
Establish performance measures for active travel
National Physical Activity Plan (cont’d.)
Enhance parks and recreation infrastructure
Identify and disseminate best-practice models for physical activity in the workplace
Provide tax breaks for employers who support active commuting
Encourage businesses to adopt work policies promoting physical activity
Monitoring Daily Physical Activity
Pedometer: a device that senses body motion and counts footsteps
Active lifestyle = 10,000 steps/day
“Sitting Disease”: A 21st Century Chronic Disease
On average, people spend eight hours per day or more sitting
Inactivity physiology: a new field of study
Works to combat “sitting disease”
What are the dangers of sitting?
Excessive sitting is the “new smoking”
Take actions to break periods of inactivity
How can individuals enhance daily nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)?
A constant and deliberate effort to stay healthy and achieve the highest potential for well-being
The Seven Dimensions of Wellness: Physical, Emotional, Mental
Good physical fitness and confidence in your personal ability to take care of health problems
Ability to understand your own feelings, accept your limitations and achieve emotional stability
State in which your mind is engaged in lively interaction with the world around you
The Seven Dimensions of Wellness: Social, Environmental, Occupational
Ability to relate well to others, both within and outside the family unit
Capability to live in clean and safe environment that is not detrimental to health
Ability to thrive on the job with rewards that are important to the individual
The Seven Dimensions of Wellness: Spiritual
Sense of meaning and direction in life and a relationship to a higher being
Prayer: signpost of spirituality
Altruism: doing good for others
Wellness, Fitness, and Longevity
What is the relationship between physical activity level and mortality?
Types of Physical Fitness
Health-related fitness: the ability to perform activities of daily living without undue fatigue
Lowers the risk of premature hypokinetic diseases
Skill-related fitness: comprises agility, balance, coordination, reaction time, speed, and power
Fitness Standards: Health versus Physical Fitness
Health fitness standards
Link minimum fitness values to disease prevention and health
Seen in improved metabolic profile
Assessed as cardiorespiratory endurance: VO2max
Physical fitness standards
Set higher than health fitness standards
Require a more intense exercise program
Health versus Physical Fitness
Which Program Is Best?
What are your personal objectives?
Lowering the risk for disease
Participating in vigorous fitness activities
Benefits of a Comprehensive Fitness Program
Better quality of life and fewer health problems
Exercise and brain function
Higher academic performance; protection against age-related loss of cognitive function and depression
Improved health increases productivity and reduces health care costs
Health and Fitness Benefits
The Wellness Challenge for Our Day
What is this challenge?
To teach people how to take control of their personal health habits and adhere to a positive lifestyle
How can we meet this challenge?
Provide the tools to write, implement, and regularly update a personal lifetime fitness and wellness program
Wellness Education: Using This Book
Individuals must learn how to enjoy good health and wellness
Longevity is related to wise choices initiated during youth and continued throughout life
A Personalized Approach
Wellness prescriptions must be personalized to obtain the best results
Learn to develop a personal lifetime program to improve fitness and promote your own preventive health care and personal wellness
A small but real risk exists for exercise-induced abnormalities for:
People with a history of cardiovascular problems, with certain chronic conditions, and at higher risk for disease
If you have questions regarding your current health status, consult your doctor before:
Initiating, continuing, or increasing your level of physical activity
Assessment of Resting Heart Rate
Check heart rate early in the morning, before getting out of bed, or in the evening after sitting for 30 minutes
Bradycardia: slower heart rate than normal
Assessment of Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is measured using
A sphygmomanometer and a stethoscope
What is the procedure for assessing blood pressure?
Systolic blood pressure
Point where sound of pulse becomes audible
Diastolic blood pressure
Point where sound disappears
Resting Blood Pressure Guidelines
FIGURE 1.1 Causes of death in the United States for selected years.
FIGURE 1.2 Factors that impact health and longevity.
FIGURE 1.3 Life expectancy at birth for selected countries: 2005–2015 projections.
FIGURE 1.4 Leading causes of death in the United States, 2010.
FIGURE 1.5 Death from all causes attributable to lifestyle-related risk factors for men and women in the United States.
FIGURE 1.6 Estimated impact of the factors that affect health and well-being.
Table 1.2 Adult Activity Levels Based on Total Number of Steps Taken per Day
FIGURE 1.9 Dimensions of wellness.
TABLE 1.6 Resting Heart Rate Ratings
TABLE 1.7 Resting Blood Pressure Guidelines (in mm Hg)nmental, Occupational
Learn to develop a personal lifetime program to improve fitness and promote your own preventive health care and per