What email address or phone number would you like to use to sign in to Docs.com?
If you already have an account that you use with Office or other Microsoft services, enter it here.
Or sign in with:
Signing in allows you to download and like content, and it provides the authors analytical data about your interactions with their content.
Embed code for: 007428
Select a size
Study Guide American History, Part 1 By Brandon McCabe ABOUT THE AUTHOR Brandon McCabe holds a Bachelor of Arts in Economics and a Master’s Degree in Education from Wilkes University in Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. He has been teaching social studies in Pennsylvania for the past eight years in both public and online digital schools. In addition to this guide, he has worked on de - signing curriculum for both Penn Foster and his public school district. Brandon currently resides in North - east Pennsylvania with his supportive wife, Laura, and Shetland sheep dog, Merlin. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 INTRODUCTION 1 LESSON ASSIGNMENTS 8 LESSON 1: FIRST AMERICANS TO A NEW NATION 1-1 LESSON 2: THE NEW REPUBLIC 2-1 LESSON 3: THE CIVIL WAR AND THE LATE 1800S 3-1 LESSON 4: THE GILDED AGE TO THE 1920S 4-1 © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1 Introduction INTRODUCTION CONTENTS © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 2 Introduction Your study materials are designed so that you can take ownership of your educational goals and schedule and complete your coursework whenever and wherever you can. At Penn Foster, you won’t study at the same pace as other students in the same program, but you can reach out to your peers using the online Community. Your study materials are broken down into small chunks that are easy to handle, and each assignment is tied directly to the learning outcomes and objectives. Materials include summaries, reviews, self-checks, and activities to help you master them! You’ll find it easiest to study if you follow the plan outlined below. Beginning with Assignment 1, read the objectives listed in this study guide. Keep these objectives in mind as you start your reading. In the study guide, read the material related to the assignment you’re working on. Pay attention to graphics presented. They provide a visual and text representation of critical information. Quickly read the pages assigned in the textbook. This process is called skimming. Reread the textbook pages, this time paying careful attention to what you’re reading. Focus on main concepts and definitions. Complete any exercises associated with the assignment. These exercises aren’t graded; they’re designed to help you test yourself to make sure you understand what you read. Once you’ve completed an exercise, check your answers with those provided. When you’ve completed all the assignments for a particular lesson, review the material in preparation for the multiple-choice lesson examination. Submit the examination for grading and evaluation as soon as you complete it. Complete each lesson in this manner. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 INTRODUCTION NAVIGATING THIS COURSE © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 3 Introduction This course includes the following materials: This study guide, which contains An introduction to your course A lesson assignments page, which outlines the study assignments in your textbook Introductory material for each assignment Practice activities and answers to help you assess your understanding of the material An introductory video that gives an overview of what you’ll learn in this course Yo ur course textbook, United States History,which contains your assigned readings, as well as additional practice activities, infographics, maps, timelines, primary source documents, and quick study guide summaries at the end of each chapter YOUR STUDY GUIDE This study guide is intended to help you better understand the material in your textbook. It’s not a complete substitute for reading your text. The material for this course is divided into seven lessons. Each lesson culminates with a multiple-choice examination that can be accessed from the student portal. It’s important to complete the exam for a lesson as you complete the lesson. Trying to study for multiple lesson examinations at the same time may lead to unnecessary confusion of terms and concepts. Each lesson contains numerous short assignments. INTRODUCTION COURSE MATERIALS © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 4 Introduction YOUR TEXTBOOK Before you begin your study, spend some time looking through your textbook to become familiar with its content and layout. Here are the key features of the text, United States History. Table of Contents. The Table of Contents is an outline of the topics covered in each chapter. It’s a good idea to scan the Table of Contents section before you start a new chapter to know the topics you'll be studying. Skills Handbook. The Skills Handbook provides guidance on how to approach practice activities within the book. The Reading Informational Texts section provides valuable in - formation on how to approach reading assignments. The skills discussed in this section will also help you in future courses. Activities in the Skills Handbook section aren't re quired, but you’re encouraged to read over the information. Chapter organization and features. After browsing the Table of Contents and Skills Handbook sections, turn to Chapter 1, “Many Cultures Meet.” Read the Witness History and Chapter Preview. By the end of each chapter, you should be able to answer the Chapter Focus Question. Each chapter section ends with assessment questions. Your study guide indicates which question or questions you should complete. At the end of each chapter, you’ll find a Quick Study Guide that recaps the chapter’s main concepts. You'll also find a Chapter Assessment that includes a Terms and People feature. This feature provides an excellent study aid for vocabulary and key people pre - sented in the chapter. Go over the terms to see if you can define or explain them. If you can’t, you need to go back and review those items. For Focus Questions, Critical Thinking Questions, Writing About History, and Document-Based Assessment questions, you’ll be required to complete only the activities referenced in this study guide. If you wish, you can complete other activities on your own. Throughout each chapter you'll encounter maps, images, charts, and graphs that clarify and explain the textbook material. Be sure to study these visuals as well as the reading material. Reference Section. Beginning on page 1137, your textbook provides a reference . The subsections are titled Five Themes of Geography Profile of the Fifty States Atlas Presidents of the United States Economics Handbook Landmark Decisions of the Supreme Court Documents of Our Nation English/Spanish Glossary Index Acknowledgements Reference this section if, for example you come across an a ssessment question related to a Supreme Court decision. You can use the Index to quickly locate key concepts and peo - ple discussed in your textbook. The English/Spanish Glossary subsection will help you review terms. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 5 Introduction Disregard references to accessing www.pearson - school.com/shist within the textbook. We provide links to videos within this study guide. You aren’t provided with a login to the Pearson site as part of your American History course. STUDY STRATEGIES Here are some suggestions to help you succeed in your American History course: Set aside a regular time for reading and studying, and mark your schedule on a calendar. Check off assignments as you complete them to track your progress, and adjust your schedule if necessary. Few people comprehend all the details on the first reading. If necessary, read the material in the textbook and study guide assignment twice. Allow plenty of time for completing Discover More, Infographics, Reflect and Respond, and Self-Checks that are assigned in your study guide. They’re designed to help you measure your progress, identify weaknesses in your understanding, and guide you back to the areas where you need further study. Finally, give yourself a pat on the back and a reward as you complete each assignment. 3 4 1 2 © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 6 Introduction Welcome to American History! In this course you’ll explore the fascinating story of those who have lived in what is now the United States. You’ll learn about the earliest humans in the region up to modern day people. While many students question the worth of studying events and people from the past, it’s important to know how our world today was shaped. Decisions made by people much like you hundreds or thousands of years ago continue to make an impact on our lives now. When you complete this course, you’ll be able to Explain the interactions between Native Americans and early settlers from Europe Describe the development and growth of European colonies in North America Analyze religious and social trends in the early United States Discuss the legal and historical origins of the United States Explain the causes, progress, and effects of the American Civil War Evaluate Manifest Destiny and its impact on the expansion of the United States Analyze the development of the United States as a world power in the late 1800s and early 1900s Evaluate the goals, successes, and failures of the Progressive movement Describe the causes of, effects of, and reaction to the Great Depression Discuss foreign policy of the United States in the early twentieth century from World War I to the Cold War Explain the post–World War II economic boom and transition in American society Analyze Cold War conflicts and foreign policy challenges faced by the United States Describe post–Cold War domestic and foreign policy Summarize recent technological and demographic changes occurring in the United States 12 13 14 10 11 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 3 1 © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 7 Introduction INTRODUCTION COURSE OBJECTIVES LESSON 1: FIRST AMERICANS TO A NEW NATION Read in the study guide: Read in the textbook: Assignments 1–4 Chapter 1 Assignments 5–9 Chapter 2 Assignments 10–13 Chapter 3 Assignments 14–17 Chapter 4 Examination 007428 Material in Lesson 1 LESSON 2: THE NEW REPUBLIC Assignments 1–3 Chapter 5 Assignments 4–7 Chapter 6 Assignments 8–12 Chapter 7 Assignments 13–16 Chapter 8 Assignments 17–19 Chapter 9 Examination 007429 Material in Lesson 2 LESSON 3: THE CIVIL WAR AND THE LATE 1800S Assignments 1–4 Chapter 10 Assignments 5–9 Chapter 11 Assignments 10–12 Chapter 12 Assignments 13–15 Chapter 13 Assignments 16–18 Chapter 14 Assignments 19–21 Chapter 15 Examination 007430 Material in Lesson 3 © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 8 Introduction INTRODUCTION LESSON ASSIGNMENTS © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 9 Introduction LESSON 4: THE GILDED AGE TO THE 1920S Assignments 1–5 Chapter 16 Assignments 6–9 Chapter 17 Assignments 10–12 Chapter 18 Assignments 13–17 Chapter 19 Assignments 18–21 Chapter 20 Examination 007431 Material in Lesson 4 You’ll begin this course examining the early human inhabitants of North America, the colonization of the continent by European powers, and the formation and revolution of the 13 British American colonies. ASSIGNMENT 1 THE AMERICAN INDIANS Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 1 of Chapter 1 in your textbook. THE FIRST PEOPLE OF THE AMERICAS Scholars estimate that the first humans arrived in the Americas 15,000 years ago while the earth was experiencing an ice age. People from Asia traveled to North America through a la nd bridge formed by the combination of lower sea levels and frozen water. These people were hunters and gatherers who relied upon wild sources of food rather than agriculture. Early American Indians were forced to follow food sources rather than settle in one place. As the temperature warmed, food sources became more varied and allowed people to spread further to the south. As the people spread out into North, Central, and South America, they began to develop distinct languages and cultures. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-1 Lesson 1 LESSON 1 FIRST AMERICANS TO A NEW NATION ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 1 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 1.1 Identify the origin of North Americans and the causes of early migration from Asia 1.2. Examine the importance of climate and environmental factors in human settlement 1.3 Explain why Native Americans developed differing cultures and economies 1.4 Identify and analyze the importance of agriculture to the growth of American Indian populations and settlements 1.5 Compare culture, economy, and governments of the American Indians and Europeans before and during the age of exploration Some scholars disagree with the land bridge theory. These scholars theorize people origi- nally came to North America 40,000 years ago in small boats following the coastlines of Asia and North America. See the map “Migration to the Americas” on page 5 to compare the theorized routes. Approximately 3,500 years ago, American Indians in central Mexico developed three im - portant domesticated crops: Maize (corn) Squash Beans Agriculture allowed population growth, which led to larger settlements in what’s now Mexico. The methods of agriculture developed by the American Indians slowly spread north in the following centuries. EARLY AMERICAN INDIAN CULTURES As the American Indian people spread throughout North America, regional climate and geography played a role in shaping the different cultures of these groups. Keep in mind that these culture regions are being discussed in terms of groups sharing a similar lifestyle rather than sharing the same political organization or leadership. Each one of the culture regions discussed was made up of many different culture groups who would compete and war with each other if needed. The table within the map on page 8 will help you identify culture groups within each culture region. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-2 Lesson 1 Relating to the Past Imagine what life would be like if you had to rely on hunting wild animals or ﬁnding edible plants for your food source. Would you be able to settle in one place perma - nently? Would starvation be a distinct possibility? Agriculture allows human beings to produce food on a more reliable basis than hunting/gathering and allows for greater amounts of food to be produced. This reliability allows for future planning, population growth (starvation is less of a concern), and the creation of permanent settlements. As you read through this guide and the book, make use of the map on page 8 to give you a visual representation of where the diﬀering culture groups settled. Notice how the prevalence of cultivated plants diminishes as you go further north. The colder climate made cultivation diﬃcult if not impossible. SOUTHWEST CULTURE The Southwest culture encompassed much of what’s now the southwestern corner of North America. This culture region was greatly impacted by the dry climate of the area, which led to the wise use of canals and water management technologies. Buildings were made out of locally available resources: sandstone and sun-dried bricks. See page 7 for a brief description of cliff dwellers. MISSISSIPPI RIVER VALLEY CULTURE The Mississippi River Valley culture enjoyed a humid and temperate climate. It benefited from easy access to the waters of the Mississippi River and waterways that flow into it. Easy access to water led to widespread agriculture and allowed for some of the largest settlements in North America at the time. THE GREAT PLAINS CULTURE The Great Plains culture resided between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains. Agriculture was present in villages near waterways in this region. Some groups of the Great Plains culture, including the Apache, lived a nomadic lifestyle following the great herds of buffalo. While on the hunt, these nomadic groups lived in temporary shelters called tepees, which were made of animal hides. EASTERN WOODLANDS CULTURE Th e Eastern Woodlands culture centered on the Appalachian Mountain range in the eastern part of North America. Spreading from eastern Texas in the West to the Atlantic Ocean in the East, this culture benefited from three factors: A wide range of waterways Soil that could be farmed A large number of wild animals to hunt On page 8 of your textbook, take careful note of the differences between the north and south Eastern Woodlands groups. The climate in the South allowed for a longer growing season while the North would need to rely more on hunting and gathering techniques. Also no te the Iroquois League, which acted as a peace keeping confederation among the northern Iroquois. In this situation, there was fear of war among the tribes or people of one culture group (the Northern Iroquois) who lived in the Eastern Woodlands region. While the Iroquois League wasn’t a proper nation in the European sense, you can’t help but wonder if modern nations would have formed had Europeans not arrived. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-3 Lesson 1 A temperate climate is one in which the weather isn’t too hot or too cold over long periods of time. COMMON CULTURAL FEATURES While geography and climate caused a variety of cultures to develop in North America, American Indians held some common features: Political power was spread among many local chiefs rather than in centralized nations as it was in Europe. American Indians owned little private property; local land was considered common ground for all to use. Men and women divided work upon gender lines—men handled hunting and war- fare; women cared for children, wove baskets, and prepared and gathered food. Answer question 6 on page 10 of the text. Click here to compare your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-4 Lesson 1 Click here to learn more about Native American tribes in the West. ASSIGNMENT 1: ADVANCED CULTURE AMONG FARMING SOCIETIES REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 2 THE EUROPEANS Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 2 of Chapter 1 in your textbook. LIFE IN EUROPE IN THE 1400S In this time period in Europe, strong nations were forming out of the chaos that was the Middle Ages. This led to a situation in which the rules of these nations would be able to put together the resources that would lead to the European age of exploration. Europe’s economy was based in agriculture at this time, which as we previously learned, allows for larger and permanent human settlements. In addition to agriculture, the people in cities were beginning to engage in small-scale manufacturing. Keep in mind that European cities were much smaller during this period than they are today. The majority of Europeans were working poor, ruled by a small elite. This elite (nobles, ultimately ruled by monarchs) consistently engaged in warfare to increase the size of their territories. EUROPE LOOKS BEYOND ITS BORDERS Old ways of thinking were slowly evolving as European nations became wealthy and en - gaged in trade with other areas of the world. The simple survival of the Middle Ages gave way to the relative comfort of the Renaissance. This comfort allowed Europeans to focus on learning. The ability to produce more goods than were needed also led to the search for new trade routes and trade partners. As you read through this section, note how all of these influences combined to create a push to explore the rest of the world (Figure 1). See the Quick Study Section on page 14 of your textbook for some of the factors con - tributing to the Age of Exploration. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-5 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 2 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 2.1 Identify the driving forces behind European exploration 2.2 Compare culture, economy, and governments of the West African cultures and Europeans before and during the age of exploration THE PORTUGUESE BEGIN TO EXPLORE As you read, make note of how geography and political organization play a role in Portu - gal and Spain taking the lead with exploration of the world. In addition to geography, faith took a role in pushing the countries of the Iberian Peninsula outward into the world. Chris- tianity would later come to shape the relations between Europeans and those they inter- acted with during this age of European exploration. Answer question 4 on page 14 of the text. Click here to compare your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-6 Lesson 1 FIGURE 1—Main Factors Leading to Further European Exploration ASSIGNMENT 2: THE EUROPEANS REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 3 THE WEST AFRICANS Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 3 of Chapter 1 in your textbook. The third major group of people (in addition to American Indians and Europeans) that played a major role in the settling of the Americas was the West Africans. The western region of Africa was rich in salt and gold. Due to this natural wealth, West Africa found itself a hub of trade and host to several powerful kingdoms between A.D.800 and 1600. Powerful leaders like Mansa Musa not only wielded political power but also moved to change the very culture of their kingdoms. Take a look at the map on page 16 to see just how interconnected West Africa and Europe were 1,000 years ago. The West African empires relied on strong governments in a manner similar to Europeans. However, Europeans and West Africans differed in terms of religious beliefs and views on property ownership. Read about these cultural features on page 18. Part of the trade that made the West African region so wealthy was the slave trade. Slav- ery was an unfortunate result of being on the losing side of warfare in the region. The slave trade between African and Arab traders existed for years. Note how slavery in Africa differs from the system that would later develop in the Americas. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to get involved with the slave trade in a large capacity. They set up what would later become a major funnel for enslaved men and women to be sent to the Americas. Answer question 4 on page 19. Click here to compare your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-7 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 3 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 3.1 Compare culture, economy, and governments of the West African and European cultures before and during the age of exploration ASSIGNMENT 3: THE WEST AFRICANS REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 4 FIRST ENCOUNTERS Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 4 of Chapter 1 in your textbook. SPAIN LOOKS TO THE WEST The increase in European exploring inevitably led to expeditions sent west after seeing the opportunities already gained by the Portuguese in and off the coast of Africa. The Spanish hoped to find similar opportunities and possibly a new route to China to the west. The Spanish king and queen chose adventurer and mariner Christopher Columbus (at his urging) to plot a course to a new trade route to the East. Columbus set sail for this new trade route in 1492 and the rest is, as we say, history. Read about Columbus and his voyages on pages 21–22. While Columbus may not have been the first European to travel to the Americas, his voy- ages opened the floodgates for European involvement and colonization (Figure 2). This colonization allowed European nations to become wealthy and to use that wealth over the following centuries to become the dominant cultural force in the world. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-8 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 4 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 4.1 Analyze the impact of the early European explorers’ travels to the Americas 4.2 Explain the causes and impacts of the slave trade across the Atlantic Ocean 4.3 Identify the impact colonization had on migration of peoples between the continents on the Atlantic Ocean 4.4 Explain the methods the Spanish used to maintain control of their empire in the Americas THE SPANISH EXPAND THEIR AMERICAN EMPIRE The Spanish took a dominant role in the colonization of the Americas during the early years of exploration, making massive land gains in Central and South America. Read more about Spain’s land gains on pages 23–24. Two factors gave Spain an early advantage in the New World: The geographical advantage of being on the western edge of Europe The newly strengthened Spanish nation Of course the American Indians in Central and South America weren’t consulted in the claiming of these lands. The native populations found themselves subjected to unfamiliar diseases (namely smallpox), war, and violent exploitation at the hands of the Spanish. These factors led to a massive depopulation of the Americas. With the native population greatly reduced, Europeans turned to Africa and the slave trade. Along with millions of African slaves, large numbers of European settlers eventually made their way to the Americas. These population shifts dramatically changed the ethnic and cultural makeup of the New World. In addition to population changes, economic activity thrived as the Old World and the New World exchanged goods and raw resources. See the infographic, “The Columbian Exchange,” on page 25 for more information. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-9 Lesson 1 Pedro Alvarez Cabal • Backed by Portugal • Discovered the coast of Brazil in 1500 Amerigo Vespucci • Backed by Portugal during famed voyage • Explored the coast of South America • Namesake of the Americas John Cabot • Backed by England • Sailed to Newfoundland (modern-day Canada) in 1497 Hernán Cortés • Backed by Spain • Defeated the Aztec Empire and conquered Mexico for Spain (1504) Ferdinand Magellan • Backed by Spain • First person to complete a voyage around the globe (1519–1522) FIGURE 2—Get to know your explorers! Answer question 6 on page 26. Click here to compare your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-10 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT 4: THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE REFLECT AND RESPOND Before moving on to the Self-Check for this chapter, take some time to review using the Quick Study Guide on page 28. Check your understanding of key concepts in Chapter 1 by answering questions 1–9 on page 30 of your text. Click here to check your an swers. ASSIGNMENT 4 SELF-CHECK ASSIGNMENT 5 EUROPEANS ESTABLISH COLONIES Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 1 of Chapter 2 in your textbook. SPAIN MANAGES AN EMPIRE In Chapter 1 you learned about Spain’s early efforts in the Americas. This section of your book details the early wealth and power the American colonies brought to Spain and how the Spanish organized its empire. Spain used its new wealth to attempt land gains in Europe and spearheaded Catholic efforts against Protestant nations in Europe. The conflicts in Europe were carried to the Americas as other European powers rushed to create colonies of their own. See the map on page 36 showing the paths of explorers. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-11 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 5 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 5.1 Identify the reasons for the Spanish colonizing push into North America The languages spoken in the Americas today trace their roots to the colonial period. Most of Central and South American nations now speak Spanish. Brazil, which was a Portuguese colony, speaks Portuguese. The United States and Canada speak En glish with the notable exception of the province of Quebec in Canada. French is spoken in Quebec since it was once a colony of France. In early explorations, Spain used conquistadors to bring Spanish rule to the Americas. The Spanish colonies were divided into two large areas known as viceroyalties, run by officials known as viceroys, who were appointed by the king. The Spanish leaders became concerned that using force might be killing too many American Indians. Because of this concern, religion became a tool to spread the Spanish empire. Missionaries were sent to co nvert native people to Christianity to smooth the spread of the empire. Through a system of military strength (forts) and religious conversion (missions), the Spanish strengthened their empire. SPANISH EXPLORERS PUSH NORTH The Spanish made attempts to push their control north into North America. The search for riches by de Soto and Coronado turned up little in terms of valuables, but the Spanish continued north anyway because they needed to defend against encroaching European colonization. This defensive push led Spain into New Mexico and Florida. Pedro Menen - dez de Avilés founded the town of St. Augustine, which became the first permanent colo - nial town in North America. THE PUEBLOS REVOLT AGAINST THE SPANISH The Pueblo Indians revolted in 1680 due to three factors: Religious tension A prolonged drought The harsh demands of the Spanish rulers The revolt was led by a shaman named Popé, who urged a rejection of Spanish ways and a return to traditional Pueblo beliefs. Joined by other local native groups, the Pueblo were successful in regaining self-rule for several years. However, the Spanish were able to reclaim control as the Indian alliances broke down. The revolt did teach the Spanish and the native population the need for compromise. Answer question 6 on page 39. Click here to check your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-12 Lesson 1 See the infographic on page 38 for more information on missions and forts. ASSIGNMENT 5: PUEBLO REVOLT REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 6 THE FRENCH EMPIRE Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 2 of Chapter 2 in your textbook. THE FRENCH ESTABLISH A FUR TRADE During the early 1500s, French explorers tried to find a northwest passage to Asia and explored much of the coast of eastern North America in the process. The passage wasn't fo und, but new lands were now exposed to the French. While the Spanish became wealthy with silver and gold from South America, the French looked to the fur trade in North America. Animal fur was relatively rare in Europe, which increased its value. Rather than enslave the local population as the Spanish did, the French engaged in trade. The American Indians would provide the French with furs in exchange for metal tools and weapons. Read about this trade and the impact it had on Indian relations on pages 40-41. LIFE IN NEW FRANCE Like the Spanish, the French sent missionaries to the New World in an attempt to convert the native people. Between the trade relations and conversion efforts, the French found th emselves allied with friendly American Indian groups. These alliances, however, brought the French into rivalries and conflicts between various Indian groups. For example, Samuel de Champlain, the founder of Quebec, attacked the Iroquois to help some of his Indian allies. This caused the Iroquois to become enemies of the French for decades after. The French settlements in Canada, and later in New Orleans, had trouble attracting European immigrants. Most potential French colonists didn’t want to do the hard work of preparing wild lands for settlement. The slow growth of the French population in the Americas and the powerful Indian groups in the Northeast meant the French had to be much more diplomatic than the Spanish in their dealings with the natives. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-13 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 6 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 6.1 Identify the colonial structure and governance of the French Answer question 4 on page 43. Click here to check your answer. ASSIGNMENT 7 ENGLAND’S SOUTHERN COLONIES Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 3 of Chapter 2 in your textbook. ENGLAND’S FIRST AMERICAN COLONIES The English colonization of North America focused on the Atlantic coast of the continent. England faced a growing population and a stagnant economy. English leaders began to believe that American colonies could help solve both issues. Poor people would be sent to the Americas as colonists and their efforts would yield wealth for England. Early attempts to colonize Roanoke Island on the North Carolina coast failed. The colonists proceeded further north into the Chesapeake Bay to build the first successful English settlement in North America—Jamestown. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-14 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT 6: THE FRENCH EMPIRE REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 7 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 7.1 Compare the colonial structure and governance of the French, English, and Spanish colonies 7.2 Explain the characteristics of government, economy, and society in the Southern, New England, and Middle English colonies 7.3 Identify the challenges faced by early English colonists The early colonists to Virginia faced starvation, hostile Indian tribes, and exposure to disease, in particular malaria. The future of the colony seemed uncertain until colonists learned to cultivate tobacco, which had become extremely popular in Europe. Since the climate in England wasn’t suited to growing tobacco, the American colonies became the main source. The opportunity for wealth offered by tobacco—matched with the offer of free land to settlers—stimulated the population of the colony. In addition to granting land to settlers, the Virginia Company, a group of investors given permission by the English government to run a colony, also granted political reforms. The House of Burgesses was set up as the first representative body in the Americas. It gave male landowners the right to elect leaders who could make laws and raise taxes in the Virginia colony. This body began a strong tradition of representative government in the English colonies. Use Table 1 to review what you’ve learned about the colonial powers in America. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-15 Lesson 1 Click here to learn more about Jamestown. TABLE 1 Comparing the Colonial Powers in North America Spain France England Economy Funded through gold and silver mined in South America Based on the fur trade, limited farming Farming, lumber, limited fur trade, cash crops (tobacco) Relationship with American Indians Subjugated, enslaved, and converted Indians when possible More friendly to Indians than other European countries due to the fur trade and a small French population in America Early cooperation between Indians and English. English demand for land later causes conﬂict Location South/Southwest, North America, Florida Canada, Mississippi River, New Orleans The eastern Atlantic coast of North America OTHER SOUTHERN COLONIES You’ll find information on pages 48 and 49 of your textbook on the other Southern English colonies: Maryland, the Carolinas, and Georgia. Answer question 4 on page 49. Click here to check your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-16 Lesson 1 Take note of the map on page 49. Notice how all of the major settlements (represented by black dots) are near bodies of water. In the colonial period, wa - terways were the preferred method o f transporting both people and goods. Overland travel coul d be dangerous due to the threat of Indian attacks and the poor condition of roads. Water travel, by contrast, was faster and marginally safer. ASSIGNMENT 7: SURVIVAL OF JAMESTOWN REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 8 THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 4 of Chapter 2 in your textbook. PURITANS AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND Most New England colonists were people who had a religious disagreement with the es- tablished church. These people were known as Puritans. The Puritans believed that the Church of England didn’t distance itself enough from the practices of the Catholic Church. The Puritans’ call for reform led Charles I, king of England, to persecute the group. Read about the beliefs of the Puritans on pages 50 and 51. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-17 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 8 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 8.1 Analyze the impact of religion on the Puritans’ arrival in America and on the Puritans’ policies toward religious tolerance in America A note on religion: In the ﬁrst few chapters of this book, you’ll ﬁnd multiple references to Catholicism and Protestantism. Both are branches of Christian - ity. In the early years of the religion, most Christians belonged to the Catholic Church (Catholic means “univer - sal”). In the sixteenth century, a religious movement called the Protestant Reformation questioned the authority of the Catholic Church. Those who split away from the main Catholic Church came t o call themselves Protestants. The term Protestant has com e to describe Christians who aren’t Catholic. Protestantism spread throughout what’s now Ger - many, the Netherlands, and later England. France and Spain remained Catholic. These religious diﬀerences led to many conﬂicts, including the problems created and faced by the Puritans discussed in this chapter. PURITANS ARRIVE IN MASSACHUSETTS The search for refuge from English authority led the Puritans, who were later called Pilgrims, to set out for America. Before attempting to settle in the New World, the group that would found the Plymouth colony (about 100 of the Puritans) made an agreement called the Mayflower Compact. They agreed to form a government and follow its laws. This compact was another example of self-government in the English colonies. New England gained more English settlers when John Winthrop led a larger group of Puritans to America and established the Massachusetts Bay colony. The colony quickly spread from the Boston area to the interior of New England. Although the Puritans wanted religious freedom for themselves, they didn’t tolerate other religions. CONFLICT WITH THE NATIVE AMERICANS The intolerance of the Puritans extended to the Native Americans in New England. This lack of respect for the native culture, combined with expanding English land claims, created an uneasy situation between the settlers and the natives in the area. Eventually, conflict broke out between the settlers and the natives in New England. Read about these conflicts on pages 53–54 of your textbook. The conflicts didn’t end well for the local Native American tribes and the native population was dramatically reduced. By 1700, Europeans outnumbered natives in New England. Native Americans that remained found themselves subject to forceful missionary work. The Puritans considered the native people to be savage in nature and worked vigorously to convert the natives religiously and culturally. Answer question 5 on page 54. Click here to check your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-18 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT 8: VIRGINIA AND MASSACHUSETTS COLONIES REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 9 THE MIDDLE COLONIES Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 5 of Chapter 2 in your textbook. THE DUTCH ESTABLISH NEW NETHERLAND While settlers from England initially claimed the Southern Colonies and New England, it was the Dutch and Swedes who created the first European colonies in the Mid-Atlantic region. This region is now known as the states of Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware. In 1609, the Dutch began to trade with Native Americans on the Hudson River. See the map on page 59 for a visual idea of where the Hudson River is located. The Dutch quickly created the settlements of Fort Orange (modern day Albany) and later New Amsterdam (modern day New York). NEW SWEDEN IS FOUNDED Swedish settlers claimed land in 1638 within the present day state of Delaware. After a violent confrontation with Dutch settlers, Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant used military force to take the Swedish territory. Despite this victory, the Dutch had difficulty attracting settlers to come to America. The economy in the Netherlands was booming and few Dutch people saw a need to leave home. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-19 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 9 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 9.1 Explain the circumstances surrounding the change of control of the Middle Colonies from the Dutch to the English 9.2 Outline the characteristics of the Middle Colonies Note-Taking Strategies As you read through this section, create an outline highlighting the characteristics of the Middle Colonies. You can ﬁnd an example of how to do an outline in the bottom left corner of page 55. This outline will be used to answer your Reﬂect and Respond question at the end of the section. THE ENGLISH CONQUEST The low Dutch population made the Dutch colonies vulnerable when the Dutch and English empires went to war in the 1650s and 1660s. The English soon came to claim the Dutch lands in America. Read about this change of power and the creation of the New York and New Jersey colonies on pages 56–57. WILLIAM PENN FOUNDS PENNSYLVANIA In 1680, King Charles II of England granted William Penn the lands west of the Delaware River as the colony of Pennsylvania. Penn was a Quaker, a religion that avoided the use of violence and tolerated other religions. The climate in Pennsylvania was favorable toward fa rming and the colony, along with its main city Philadelphia, quickly grew in population. Since Penn welcomed all religions (unlike the New England colonies), the Middle Colonies de - ve loped a wide diversity of settlers from many different religions and European nationalities. Unlike the Southern Colonies, the people settling in the Middle Colonies tended to be free people of middle-class background who chose to come to America. The attitude of tolerance extended to the Native Americans. Penn paid the natives for their land and treated the local groups with a measure of respect. Because of this relatively fair treatment, Pennsylvania did not experience the native rebellions seen in the South and in New England. Read about the tolerance and diversity of the Middle Colonies on pages 57–59. Answer question 2 on page 59. Click here to check your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-20 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT 9: CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MIDDLE COLONIES REFLECT AND RESPOND © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-21 Lesson 1 Check your understanding of the key concepts in Chapter 2 by answer- ing questions 1–10 on page 62 of your text. Click here to check your answers. ASSIGNMENT 9 SELF-CHECK Before moving on to the Self-Check for this chapter, take some time to review using the Quick Study Guide on page 60. ASSIGNMENT 10 IMMIGRATION AND SLAVERY Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 1 of Chapter 3 in your textbook. EUROPEANS MIGRATE TO THE COLONIES More Europeans arrived in the English colonies in North America during the 1700s. In the 1600s, most colonists came from England. Half of these were indentured servants, poor immigrants who agreed to work in exchange for their passage. The English economy re - covered by the end of the 1600s, and fewer English people chose to leave for America. With fewer English settlers, other groups such as the Scots, Scotch-Irish, and Germans, moved to America in large numbers. Many of these newer arrivals came to seek a better economic life, one that wouldn’t be possible back in Europe. T he map on page 67 shows where the different groups settled. AFRICANS ARE TRANSPORTED TO AMERICA As the number of new English settlers declined in the late 1600s, demand for workers increased. Colonists began to turn to African slaves to fill this demand. During the 1700s, th e British colonies imported approximately 1.5 million enslaved Africans. At least 250,000 of these slaves came to the 13 colonies. A three-part voyage system was set up to facilitate the de mand for raw materials and slaves. This system, known as the triangular trade,involved traders from Europe going to Africa to trade manufactured products for slaves. The second part of this triangular trade involved trading slaves to the European colonies in exchange for raw materials such as sugar, tobacco, or lumber. The final part saw the return of the traders to Europe to complete the route once again. Take a look at the infographic on pages 68 and 69 for more information regarding the realities of the slave trade. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-22 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 10 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 10.1 Identify the various ethnic groups that came to settle in the 13 English colonies in North America 10.2 Explain the rise of African slavery in the English colonies 10.3 Describe the functioning and impact of the triangular slave trade 10.4 Describe life for Africans in the English colonies AFRICANS IN THE AMERICAS Slaves from Africa arrived in all of the 13 colonies. The slave population was highest in the Southern Colonies where labor-intensive crops such as tobacco, rice, and sugar were grown. Slaves were forced to work long hours in terrible conditions and were considered to be the property of their owners. Families would commonly be broken up at slave auc- tions. Despite the overwhelming odds, some African Americans managed to buy their freedom or were set free by owners. Even with freedom, African Americans still faced discrimination in the colonies. Answer question 4 on page 71. Click here to check your answer. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-23 Lesson 1 Click here to learn more about the slave trade. ASSIGNMENT 10: CAUSES OF IMMIGRATION REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 11 THE AMERICAN COLONIES AND ENGLAND Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 2 of Chapter 3 in your textbook. GOVERNMENT IN THE COLONIES England was the model the colonies followed in terms of society, government, and econ - omy (Figure 3). Rather than direct control over colonies like the French king had, the English granted charters to private companies and lords who supported the monarchy. This limited self-rule led to a more independent type of government for the English colonies. Colonists asserted that they were entitled to rights enjoyed by English citizens in England. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-24 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 11 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 11.1 Identify the English roots of colonial government and society 11.2 Explain mercantilism and the policies put in place by England to support such a system 11.3 Compare the social movements of the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening in the English colonies FIGURE 3—English Government Traditions Used by the Colonists ENGLAND’S ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIP WITH THE COLONIES From the standpoint of England, the 13 colonies existed for one major reason—to increase the wealth of the home country. The policy of mercantilism supported this idea. English leaders wanted to have their colonies as exclusive trad - ing partners, cutting out or discouraging trade with other nations. To gain the advantage in trade, the English Parliament passed trade laws called the Navigation Acts. These acts strongly encouraged colonial traders to engage in trade with England. Manufactured products would be purchased from England, while valuable farm goods such as tobacco would be sent only to England. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-25 Lesson 1 Mercantilism holds that a nation or an empire could build wealth and power by developing its industries and exporting manufactured goods in exchange for gold and silver. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-26 Lesson 1 A system in which the 13 colonies could trade only with England was a great deal for England. The colonies were forced to buy English-made products, which drove up de - mand for England’s manufactured goods. Such a system also kept prices down for raw materials such as tobacco, furs, and lumber. The system was less favorable to people in the colonies. Since colonists couldn’t sell their goods to the highest bidder, they received less from English buyers. Since colonists could buy manufactured goods only from Eng - land, the English manufacturers could charge a high price for their products. This mercantilist system brought great wealth to England and a variety of manufactured goods to the colonies. Read more about this system of trade on pages 75–77. NEW IDEAS AFFECT THE AMERICAN COLONIES During the 1600s and 1700s, Europe went through an intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment.This movement focused on solving problems with human reasoning. The main thinkers of this movement focused not only on the study of science, but also on how human reason could be applied to government and economics. Many of the ideas that came from the Enlightenment would later be used to form the government of the United States. In contrast to the Enlightenment, a religious movement swept through the colonies in the mid-1700s. This movement was known as the Great Awakening. Preachers stressed per- sonal religious experience and rejected the ideas put forth by the Enlightenment. New branches of Christianity were formed as a result of this movement as preachers pushed for less formal practices. Read about the social changes in the colonies on pages 77–79. Answer question 6 on page 79. Click here to check your answer. ASSIGNMENT 11: THE GREAT AWAKENING REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 12 COMPARING REGIONAL CULTURES Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 3 of Chapter 3 in your textbook. REGIONAL ECONOMIC PATTERNS The colonies didn’t have much in the way of industry other than shipbuilding and iron - works. The majority of the colonies made their living through farming. Despite this com - mon method of making a living, climate and geography created differences in how farming was conducted in the colonies. The New England colony had a cold climate with rough land features that made large- scale farming difficult. The colonists in this area had small farms that raised crops and livestock that would fit the local food needs. The local economy did benefit from trade through the port of Boston and the export of fish and timber. The Middle Colonies had mild climate compared to New England. This allowed farmers in this region to grow better wheat, which was exported to Europe. The Southern Colonies had the longest growing season and warmest climate, which led to the raising of cash crops such as tobacco. They also grew staple crops, which were used for local food supplies. The geography near the ocean, with large flat areas, was suitable for large-scale farms known as plantations.African slaves made up a large por- tion of the population in the coastal areas. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-27 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 12 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 12.1 Explain and compare the societies and economies of the three main regions of the British colonies By the 1700s, the colonies had grown into three distinct regions: New England, the Middle Colonies, and the South. This section highlights the differences and similari- ties in these regions. As you work through this section, use the map on page 82 and the three regions chart on page 90 to help you visualize the information presented. REGIONAL SOCIAL PATTERNS The three regions attracted different types of settlers: The southern settlers tended to be poor, young, single men looking to work as in - dentured servants for several years before owning their own land. African slaves made up a large portion of the population, especially in the plantation areas. The New England settlers tended to be middle-class immigrants who paid their own way to get to the colonies. Men and women were somewhat balanced in numbers, unlike the South which had many more men than women. Settlers in the Middle Colonies had the greatest diversity due to the relatively toler- ant religious views held. Immigrants from all over Europe had more economic and social opportunity in this region. You can learn about life in the colonies on pages 83–84. Notice how the design and com - pactness of settlements affected the education and income levels of the people living in the three colonial regions. Answer question 4 on page 84. Click here to check your answer. ASSIGNMENT 13 WARS OF EMPIRE Read this section in your study guide. Then, read Section 4 of Chapter 3 in your textbook. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-28 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT 12: COMPARING REGIONAL CULTURES REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 13 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 13.1 Analyze how Great Britain’s wars with France affected the colonies EUROPEAN COMPETITION AND THE COLONIES By the mid-1700s, Spain, England, and France were competing on a world stage to con - trol ever larger empires. France and England were the two major powers in North Amer- ica. France controlled land from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. England controlled the 13 colonies along the Atlantic seaboard. See the maps on page 88 to visualize the territory held by both empires. France and Britain had already fought a series of wars in Europe and that fighting would soon spread to America. In North America, the British colonies had a much larger population than the French colonies. This population advantage was countered by the friendly relations the French had with local Native Americans. The natives themselves wanted to maintain a balance between the two European powers in the area, benefiting from increased trade and avoiding a situation in which a single European power in the area would turn on the Native Americans. THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR A dispute over the Ohio valley caused the French to build Fort Duquesne near modern-day Pittsburgh. The British governor of Virginia sent colonial forces, including George Washington, to drive the French away. The events following this order to confront the French set off yet another war between France and England. Read about the French and Indian War on pages 86–88. AFTERMATH OF THE WAR The British won control of the French territory, and the Native Americans found them - selves with one European power to deal with. The French had previously acted as a counterbalance to the British, giving the natives a bit of power in maintaining control of their lands. Now that balance was gone and the British soon began to treat the natives harshly. British settlers moved in large numbers into Native American territory in western Pennsylvania and Virginia. This harsh treatment of natives set off a backlash known as Pontiac’s Rebellion. In re - sponse, the British issued the Proclamation of 1763, which tried to limit colonization of areas west of the Appalachian Mountains. This measure was an attempt to improve rela - tions with the native people. The proclamation didn't stop settlers and in the end only an - gered colonists who wanted to make use of newly gained land. In addition to the ban on expanding colonial areas, some other measures were taken by the British that caused strain between the home country and the colonies. After the French and Indian War, the British owed a large amount of money to pay for the war and now needed to maintain a much larger area of land in North America. The British wanted more control over the colonies and imposed new taxes and regulations on colonial trade. These actions angered the colonists and set up the events that would lead to the Ameri- can Revolution. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-29 Lesson 1 © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-30 Lesson 1 Answer question 5 on page 89. Click here to check your answer. ASSIGNMENT 13: WARS OF EMPIRE REFLECT AND RESPOND Check your understanding of the key concepts in Chapter 3 by answer- ing questions 1–9 on page 92 of your text. Click here to check your answers. ASSIGNMENT 13 SELF-CHECK Before moving on to the self-check for this chapter, take some time to read through the Quick Study Guide on page 90. This page presents the information you already read about in a graphical manner. ASSIGNMENT 14 CAUSES OF REVOLUTION Read this section in your study guide. Then read Section 1 of Chapter 4 in your textbook. THE COLONISTS’ POLITICAL HERITAGE The governments of the different colonies had a structure similar to that of Great Britain. Wealthy landowners in both Britain and the colonies had a limited ability to vote for gov- ernment officials who would represent them in government. Most colonies modeled their law-making assemblies after the two houses of Parliament: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. While there were similarities, there were also differences between the forms of governing in Britain and the colonies. The British plan of representative government wasn’t a single list of rules; it was a collection of laws and traditions. The American colonies tended to © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-31 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 14 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 14.1 Identify the causes of colonial resistance to English rule 14.2 Compare the reasoning for the British imposing new taxes to the colonial opposition to these taxes 14.3 Explain the political beliefs of the colonists before the Revolutionary War 14.4 Identify John Adams, Patrick Henry, and the Sons of Liberty and their actions taken to oppose British control in the colonies 14.5 Identify the reasoning and people behind the push for American independence from Britain In Chapter 4, you’ll read about the circumstances surrounding the decision by the 13 colonies to rebel against British rule. As you read this chapter, keep in mind that both sides were convinced they were justiﬁed in their actions. The British believed they had protected the colonies from the French and Indians and that the colonists should rightfully take on some of the cost of the recent war. The colonists believed they had the right to tax themselves without interference from an outside force. The colonists held this belief due to the colonial tradition of partial self-rule. have a single written agreement (a charter or compact), which would set the rules for government. A higher percentage of the colonial population owned land compared to the British population. The colonists felt that they, rather than the British government, should have the power to control their own taxes. Read about the government of Britain and the colonies on pages 98–99. Use the chart on page 99 to compare the two systems. NEW TAXES UPSET COLONISTS The French and Indian War cost the British a large amount of money. The British felt that the colonists should help to pay for some of the war because the war was fought to protect the colonies. The British attempted to impose new taxes on the colonies to raise money (Figure 4). Read pages 100–102 to learn about the new taxes and the colonial reaction. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-32 Lesson 1 FIGURE 4—Outline of English Acts and Colonial Resistance More than anything else, the taxes and the responses made by the colonists brought poli- tics to the attention of most people in the colonies. Groups like the Sons of Liberty and leaders such as Patrick Henry rose to fame by asserting the colonies’ right to be free of taxes imposed by Britain. The series of actions and reactions led to greater anger and disunity between Britain and the colonies. For example, protesters throwing rocks and snowballs at British soldiers led to the tragic Boston Massacre. The colonial protest of the Boston Tea Party led to the closing of the port of Boston and other harsh measures against the colonies. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-33 Lesson 1 To raise new funds and save money in the colonies the Sugar, Quartering, and Stamp Acts are passed. The Stamp Act is repealed but British officials create a series of indirect taxes known as the Townshend Acts. England passes the Coercive Acts, stations soldiers in Boston, and closes the port of Boston in reaction to rising colonial violence. Colonists react violently to the Townshend Acts. Five colonists are killed in the Boston Massacre. Property of a British company is destroyed during the Boston Tea Party. The British government needs new revenue to pay for the French and Indian War and to maintain the large North American colonies. They begin to consider new taxes. Colonists resist taxes through intellectual protest, economic boycott, and violent intimidation of English officials. Colonists meet for the First Continental Congress to organize boycotts against all British goods and pressure Parliament to remove the Coercive Acts. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-34 Lesson 1 What do you think? It’s clear that the colonists felt that the taxes imposed by the British were a violation of the self-rule the colonies enjoyed for decades. This is the common reason given for the reaction by the colonists. The British are portrayed as the “villains” from the perspective of people in the United States. The British believed that the colonists should help pay for the French and Indian War and contribute to the costs of protecting the colonies. Do you think the British were unreasonable in their demands? Did the British taxes justify the response from people in the colonies? Click here to check your answer. Through boycotts, physical intimidation, and political organizing (the First Continental Congress), the colonists attempted to reclaim some of the self-rule that had been taken away by the British after the French and Indian War. While most colonists wanted to re - main part of the British Empire, tensions continued to increase. Answer question 6 on page 105. Click here to check your answer. ASSIGNMENT 14: CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION REFLECT AND RESPOND Click here to learn more about the trouble brewing in the colonies. ASSIGNMENT 14: THE COLONIES TAKE ACTION REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 15 DECLARING INDEPENDENCE Read this section in your study guide. Then read Section 2 of Chapter 4 in your textbook. WAR BEGINS The tension between Britain and the colonies broke out into war on April 19, 1775. British soldiers were sent to Lexington and Concord, two country towns west of Boston, to arrest patriots and seize a weapon stockpile. Shots were fired at Lexington. By the time the British force returned to Boston, there was open fighting between the two sides. In May of 1775, delegates from all colonies assembled in Philadelphia for the Second Continental Congress.This congress raised armed forces to come to the aid of New Englanders who were already fighting the British. Command of a Continental Army was given to George Washington. While some members of this congress wanted to declare independence from Britain, most delegates held out hope that such a divide could be avoided. A petition was sent to King George III attempting to stop the fighting and reaffirm loyalty to Britain while maintaining self-rule. The King rejected the petition and sent more troops to Boston. The colonists were divided into two groups who differed in their beliefs on what the future of the colonies should be: 1. Patriots 2. Loyalists Most colonists supported the Patriot cause. The Patriots wanted to maintain self-rule (especially control over taxation) and felt that British officials went too far in terms of taxa - tion and the stationing of troops in the colonies. However, a large minority of colonists, known as Loyalists, wanted to remain under British rule. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-35 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 15 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 15.1 Compare the beliefs of the Patriots and Loyalists during the early part of the Revolutionary War 15.2 Explain the grievances against Britain and the natural rights presented in the Declaration of Independence WHO WERE THE LOYALISTS? Comprising about one-fifth of the total colonial population, the Loyalist group was made up of people from all occupations, including Native Americans and enslaved African Americans, who felt British rule would be better for them. Loyalists feared the disorder that would come with war and thought that the British would win if a wider war broke out. They felt that Britain was the legitimate power in the colonies. While Loyalists weren’t fond of the taxes imposed on the colonies, they felt it was illegal to rebel against the home country. Loyalists also didn’t like taxes, oaths of loyalty, and militia drafts that were imposed by the Patriots. To them, this made the Patriots more oppressive than the British. OPINION SWINGS TOWARD INDEPENDENCE In January 1776, Thomas Paine wrote a short book called Common Sense . His book called for the independence of the colonies from Britain, representative government, and a new nation. His writings changed the opinions of many colonists, furthering the inde - pendence movement. By that spring, Congress had decided to declare independence and selected a committee to draft a document declaring independence and the reasons for doing so. Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence, which Outlined the problems the colonies had with British rule Declared that the colonies were now independent of the British Empire Explained natural rights that couldn’t be taken away by government, including life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness Read the Declaration of Independence on pages 113–116. Pay close attention to the notes in the margins of the page. They’ll help you clarify what’s in the text of the Declaration of Independence. After you've completed your reading, list four of the grievances against the king mentioned in the Declaration of Independence. Do the grievances you listed match the complaints against British rule you’ve learned about in the previous two sections of the book? Click here to check your answers. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-36 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT 15: DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT 16 TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR Read this section in your study guide. Then read Section 3 of Chapter 4 in your textbook. THE OPPOSING SIDES At the beginning of the war, the British held great advantages, while the Patriots seemed to be facing impossible odds. Despite the advantages enjoyed by the British, the Patriots had a major factor in their favor that eventually would decide the war. The British needed to completely defeat the revolution to be successful. The Patriots needed to survive only long enough for the British to give up. The revolution succeeded because the Patriot commanders (notably George Washington) managed to avoid complete destruction of colonial forces. Pages 117–119 describe the advantages and disadvantages that each side faced in the early conflicts of the Revolutionary War. Figure 5 summarizes these points for you. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-37 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 16 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 16.1 Identify the factors that contributed to the colonies winning the Revolutionary War 16.2 Explain the role European powers played in helping the Patriots during the Revolutionary War FIGURE 5—Comparison of British and Patriot Strengths and Weaknesses THE WAR SHIFTS TO THE MIDDLE STATES The British were forced to leave Boston in early 1776 due to pressure from Patriot forces. After this defeat, British commanders decided to focus on the Middle Colonies in an at- tempt to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies. The British won most military engagements, with a few notable exceptions such as the battles of Princeton and Tren - ton. By 1777, the British controlled both Philadelphia and New York City. You can use the timeline and map on page 121 to look closer at the major battles of the war. A major turning point in the war occurred at the Battle of Saratoga, when a British army was forced to surrender. This Patriot victory convinced Europeans that the colonies could win the war. France soon officially recognized American independence, seeing an oppor- tunity to strike against its old enemy, Great Britain. The French declared an alliance with the Americans, providing much needed military forces and supplies. In 1779, Spain en - tered the war as an ally of France and put even more pressure on British forces. In addi- tion to official help from France and Spain, individual military leaders from all around Europe volunteered to help the American cause. Marquis de Lafayette provided military expertise before France officially declared its help, and German Baron Von Steuben came to help train the Patriot armies. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-38 Lesson 1 British Strengths • Larger population • Well trained and supplied army • Strong manufacturing = better ships and plenty of weapons • Stable and established government British Weaknesses • Underestimated the capabilities of the Patriots • Poor military leadership • Fighting far away from the home base of Great Britain Patriot Strengths • Fighting on home territory • Capable military commanders • Only needed to avoid surrendering to win Patriot Weaknesses • Poorly supplied and (initially) poorly trained • Little manufacturing to produce ships and weapons • About 20% of the population loyalists and another 20% slaves Answer question 4 on page 122. Click here to check your answers. ASSIGNMENT 17 WAR’S END AND LASTING EFFECTS Read this section in your study guide. Then read Section 4 of Chapter 4 in your textbook. THE BRITISH INVADE THE SOUTH The British decided to move the war effort to the southern colonies in an attempt to take advantage of Loyalist support in the region. Unfortunately for the British, they continued the traditional war tactics that hadn’t succeed in the northern colonies. While the British won military victories, they failed to gain the support of the colonists in the countryside. This failure to gain the support of the common people would prove to be a great disad - vantage for the British. There were major reasons that the Patriots won the war: The British made tactical mistakes because they initially underestimated the Patriots. The British misunderstood the political nature of the conflict—winning hearts and minds. The Patriots were highly motivated and benefited from Washington’s leadership. The Patriots received critical assistance from France. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-39 Lesson 1 ASSIGNMENT 16: TURNING POINTS OF THE WAR REFLECT AND RESPOND ASSIGNMENT OBJECTIVES When you complete Assignment 17 of Lesson 1, you’ll be able to 17.1 Examine the impact the Revolutionary War had on colonial society © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-40 Lesson 1 THE WAR ENDS The Patriots won a decisive victory in October of 1781. Washington trapped the British general Cornwallis at the city of Yorktown in Virginia. Seeing no other option, Cornwallis surrendered his army of 8,000 soldiers. This victory added to the seven years of fighting and high taxes paid by the British citizens; the British public was tired of the war. In 1782, the British government began negotiations with the Patriots. In 1783, an American group of delegates negotiated the Treaty of Paris, which recognized American independence and granted the new nation most of the land east of the Mississippi River and south of Canada. See the map on page 126 to help you visualize the new borders that America negotiated in the Treaty of Paris. THE REVOLUTION IMPACTS SOCIETY The war had an impact on various groups within the colonies during and after the fighting. Loyalists and Native Americans found themselves abandoned by their British allies. In many ways, these two groups were punished after the Patriots won. The contribution of women to the revolutionary cause led to some reforms in terms of giving women more say in government. The ideals of freedom and equality pushed by the Patriots were picked up by slaves and those looking to end slavery. While slavery remained strong in the South, it was mostly ended in the northern states. Answer question 4 on page 127. Click here to check your answer. ASSIGNMENT 17: THE WAR ENDS REFLECT AND RESPOND To prepare for your examination, please review these key points: Humans have been in North America for tens of thousands of years. The arrival of Europeans in the late1400s brought rapid change to the continent. England controlled colonies on the east coast of North America. France controlled land in what is now known as Canada and the Louisiana territory. Spain’s holdings in the New World included much of Central and South America, multiple islands in the Caribbean, and land in southwest North America. The English colonies formed into distinct regions—the New England colonies, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies—with their own economies, cultures, and forms of government. The American Revolution resulted in the 13 American colonies breaking away from Great Britain and becoming an independent nation—the United States. Review the content for Lesson 1. Then, complete the multiple-choice lesson examination before moving on to the next lesson. © PENN FOSTER, INC. 2015 AMERICAN HISTORY PAGE 1-41 Lesson 1 Check your understanding of the key concepts in Chapter 4 by answer- ing questions 1–9 on page 130 of your text. Click here to check your answers. ASSIGNMENT 17 SELF-CHECK AMERICAN HISTORY KEY POINTS AND RESOURCES here to check your answers. ASSIGNMENT 17 WAR’S END AND LASTING EFFECTS Read this section in your study guide. Then read Section 4 of Chapter 4 in your textbook. THE BRITISH INVADE THE SOUTH The British decided to move the war effort to the southern colonies in an attempt to take advantage of Loyalist support i