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Exam 3 Review
This is just an outline of general knowledge you should know, and be able answer in detail about.
Also, I saw the test prior to making this… NO ANSWERS WILL BE GIVEN. But there will be helpful hints of what to study!
Also good news, NO DIHYBRID PUNNETTE SQUARES! Yay! So don’t stress out about that.
Can you list all the checkpoints and where they occur? What are the Cdks? How does phosphoralization contribute to this? Do you know the yeast cellular regulation?
Tumor Suppressor Genes
What is p53? How does it work? What is the difference between a proto-oncogene and an oncogene?
Be able to draw out the steps or list the out the steps. Make comparisons with mitosis. When is the cell a haploid? Diploid? What do you start with? What do you end with? When do homologous chromosomes go separate ways and when are sister chromosomes separated?
What are the 3 main sources? How do they occur? When do they occur?
Somatic, zygote, synapsis, nondisjunction, homologous chromosomes, sister chromatids
Why does Mendel choose to study peas? What are his basic methods? What is his element model? What is dominant? Recessive? What is the principle of segregation?
Can you do one? What is the ratio? What about percent?
Can you predict what one of the parents are if you are given the genotypes of the offspring and the other parent? Can you do a F1 generation and a F2 generation? Example: Green pea plant (Gg) and is crossed with a yellow pea plant (gg). What is the F1 generation’s phenotype and genotype? What would the F2 generation be if you allowed it to self-cross?
Know those exceptions to Mendel’s Rules
What is multiple alleles? Know what alleles are present in O, A, B, and AB. (Might have to be able predict ma and pa based off of giving information) What is Codominance? Polygenic? Pleiotropy? Epistasis? Environmental influence?
What did he do? What did he discover? How? (Brief recap of the mice and S strain and R strain). Do you know what transformation is?
What are they? What do they consist of?
DNA is made up of these… Can you draw a structure? (This will help you understand all the components, and make sure to label the carbons) What carbons do they connect by? What carbon can you find the free hydroxyl group? What are the nitrogenous bases? What matches up with what?
Watson and Crick
What did they propose? Look at Dr. Wu’s slides.
Prokaryotic DNA Replication
Where does DNA replication start? Where does it end? What are the 3 main steps?
Eukaryotic DNA Replication
What direction does it occur in? What is a helicase? What important thing does a topoisomerase do? What is gyrase? What important thing does SSBs do? DNA polymerase? What is ligase? What are Okazaki fragments?