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Johnny R. Phillips 10-17-2016 Chapter 6 outline
The Revolution within:
Abigail Adams born in Massachusetts in 1744
The dream of equality:
1.The Revolution unleashed public debates and political and social struggles that enlarged the scope of freedom and challenged inherited structures of power within America.
2.The Declaration of Independence’s assertion that “all men are created equal” announced a radical principle whose full implication could not be anticipated
Expanding the political nation:
1.the democratization of freedom was dramatic for free men.
2.Arisans, small farmers, laborers, and militia all emerged as self-conscious elements in politics
The revolution in Pennsylvania:
1.The prewar elite of Pennsylvania was dramatic for free men.
2.Pennsylvania’s 1776 constitution sought to institutionalize democracy in a number of ways, including
1.Establishing an annually elected, one-house legislature
2.Allowing tax-paying men to vote
3.Abolishing the office of governor
1.Each state wrote a new constitution and all agreed that their government must be republics.
2.One-house legislatures were adopted only by Pennsylvania, Georgia, and Vermont.
3.John Adam’s “balanced governments” included house legislatures.
The right to vote:
1.The property qualification for suffrage was hotly debated.
2.The least democratization occurred in the southern states, where highly deferential political tradition enabled the landed gentry to retain their control of political affairs.
3.By the 1780s, with the exception of Virginia, Maryland, and New York, a large majority of the adult white male population could meet voting requirements.
Toward religious toleration
Joining forces with France and inviting Quebec to join in the struggle against Britain had weakened anti-Catholicism.
Separating church and state:
1.The drive to separate church and state brought together Deists with members of evangelical sects.
2.Many states still limited religious freedom
3.Catholics gained the right to worship without persecution throughout the state
Jefferson and Religious Liberty:
1.Thomas Jefferson’s bill for establishing religious freedom separated church and state.
2.Thanks to religious freedom, the early republic witnessed an amazing proliferation of religious denominations.
3.DEFING ECONOMIC FREEDOM
Toward free labor:
By the 1800’s indentured servitude had all but disappeared from the United States
The soul of a republic:
To most free Americans, equality meant equal opportunity rather than equality of condition.
The politics of inflation:
Some Americans responded to wartime inflation by accusing merchants of hoarding goods by seizing stocks of food to be sold at the traditional “just price”
The debate over free trade:
1.Congress urged states to adopt measures to fix wages and prices.
2.Adam Smith’s argument that the “invisible hand” of the market directed economic life more effectively and fairly than government.
4.THE LIMITS OF LIBERTY
The limits of Liberty:
An estimated 20 to 25 percent of Americans were Loyalists.
The Loyalists’ Plight:
1.The war for Independence was in some respect a civil war among Americans.
2.When the war ended, as many as 100,000 Loyalists were banished from the United States or emigrated voluntarily.
The Indian Revolution:
1.American independence meant the loss of freedom for Indians.
Slavery and the revolution:
The irony that Americans cried for Liberty while enslaving Africans.
Obstacles to Abolition:
Some patriots argued that slavery for blacks made freedom possible for whites
The cause of general Liberty:
1.By defining freedom as a universal entitlement rather than as a set of rights specific to a particular place or people, the Revolution inevitably raised questions about the status of slavery in the new nation.
2.Samual Sewall’s The Selling of Joseph (1700) was the first antislavery tract in America
3.In 1773, Benjamin Rush warned that slavery was a “national crime” that would bring “national Punishment”
Petitions for Freedom;
1.Slaves in the north and in the South appropriated the language of liberty for their own purposes.
2.Slaves presented “freedom petitions” in New England in the early 1770s.
1.Nearly 100,000 slaves deserted their owners and fled to British lines.
2.At the end of the war, over 15,000 blacks accompanied the British out of the country.
Abolition in the North:
Between 1777 and 1804, every state north of Maryland took steps toward emancipation.
Free black communities:
After the war, free black communities with their own churches, schools, and leaders came into existence.f-conscious elements in politics
3.In 1773, Benjamin Rush warned that slavery was a “national crime” that w