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Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
Ministry of Popular Power for University education, science and technology
University Institute of Management (IUPG Professions)
Section: 6 "DB"
Active Voice & Passive Voice
Professor (a): Norman A Canaie Members:
Caracas, 13 October 2016
Active Voice 4
Active Voice 4
Subject --> action --> Object 4
The Passive Voice 8
Grammatical Rules 11
Uses of the Passive Voice 11
Comparison of Active Voice and Passive Voice 15
ACTIVE / PASSIVE OVERVIEW 16
In the English language there are several grammatical resources used in sentences, one of them are the voices which can be active or passive. When we talk about asset we refer to something that produces an effect, and when we talk about liability we refer to something that lies dormant letting things happen without your intervention.
Similarly, in a sentence can present the passive voice, this appears in the nominative-accusative languages, and in it the verb has a subject suffering from the action, ie, it is a subject patient, and do not realize it, executes or controls, as in the active voice. In other words we can say that the active voice is where the action of the verb falls on the object. The difference between the active voice and the passive voice is not merely formal. It is also a difference in meaning: in the active sentence, the subject of the sentence is responsible for the action; in the passive sentence, the subject of the sentence receives the effects of the action.
The active voice appears in the field of grammar and is linked to a form of conjugate verbs. Also known as direct voice, the active voice expresses a subject agent who executes an action.
It was also said that a sentence is in active voice when the significance of the word is produced by the person to whom one is grammatical concerns:
(Pedro de Mendoza founded in Buenos Aires)
In this mode, the prayer expresses that a subject performs an action and that action is received by the object.
Subject --> action --> Object
Is the type of prayer that we use more frequently in all tenses. In the following prayers, the action of sweep is performed by Julia and lies in the street. And we can express it in different tenses.
Present : Julia sweeps the Street.
Past: Julia swept the street.
Future: Julia will sweep the street.
Future: Julia is going to sweep the street.
Present Continuous: Julia is sweeping the Street.
Past continuous: Julia was sweeping the Street.
Continuous future: Julia will be sweeping the Street.
Present Perfect: Julia has swept the street.
Past Perfect: Julia had swept the street.
Future perfect: Julia will have swept the street.
Present Perfect Continuous: Julia has been sweeping the street.
Past Perfect Continuous: Julia had been sweeping the street.
Future Perfect Continuous: Julia will have been sweeping the street.
As we can see in every prayer we have a subject that acts: Julia, and an object that receives its action: the street. The action it performs is expressed in the different tenses.
In the case of simple times (present, past and future), uses the conjugation simple corresponding to each of the times.
In the case of the times perfect, uses the basic structure of each one of them, always using have in the corresponding time, more the participle of the active verb (you have swept, had swept, will have swept).
For the rest of the continuous times, with the active voice is always uses the shape of the gerundio (verb ending in -ing.
The active voice also use it when we express an action performed by the subject, but without indicating their object:
The car runs.
The flower will blow.
The dog barked.
We also use the active voice with the modal verbs to indicate that someone can or must perform an action. In these cases the word is also used in their conjugations simple of present, past, or future:
You must study
Mary could won the race.
We may achieve the goal.
They can arrive on time.
THIS SIMPLE (SIMPLE PRESENT)
SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT.
THEY PAINTS THE HOUSE.
THIS PRESENT PROGRESSIVE:
SUBJECT + VERB TOBE + (VERB + ING) + COMPLEMENT
THEY ARE PAINTING THE HOUSE
SIMPLE PAST SIMPLE PAST:
TO BE SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT IN PAST
THEY PAINTED THE HOUSE
SUBJECT + VERB TO BE IN PAST + (VERB + ING) + COMPLEMENT
PAINTING THE HOUSE THEY WERE
THIS PERFECT (PERFECT PRESENT)
SUBJECT + VERB + YOU HAVE OR PARTICLE + COMPLEMENT
EXAMPLE: THE PAINTED HOUSE THEY HAVE
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE:
SUBJECT + HAVE OR HAS BEEN + (VERB + ING) + COMPLEMENT
THEY HAVE BEEN PAINTING THE HOUSE
GOING TO FUTURE (FUTURE GOING TO)
SUBJECT + VERB + + GOING TO COMPLEMENT
THEY GOING TO PAINT THE HOUSE
WILL FUTURE (FUTURE WILL)
SUBJECT + VERB + COMPLEMENT WILL
PAINT THE HOUSE THEY WLL
The Passive Voice
The passive voice is a construction or verbal conjugation in some languages for which there is the subject as passive (subject patient), while the action executed by the verb is played by a snap-in (agent plug-in) and not by the subject agent of the verb in active voice. The passive voice converts to a transitive verb in a verb intransitivo with only one main argument as possible (the agent when it is expressed through an attachment marked with case oblique or prepositional).
Is known as grammatical voice to the category that is associated with the word and that alludes to the semantic link that maintains with the object and with the subject. According to the voice grammar, the subject is patient or agent according to receive or run the action.
Auxiliary verb (to be) + past participle
Am/are/is + PP
Spanish is spoken here.
Am/are/is being + PP
Your questions are being answered.
Will be + PP
It'll be painted by next week.
FUTURE (GOING TO)
Am/are/is going to be + PP
Terry is going to be made redundant next year.
Was/were + PP
We were invited to the party, but we didn't go.
Was/were being + PP
The hotel room was being cleaned when we got back from the shopping.
Have/have been + PP
The President of America has been shot.
Had been + PP
When i got home I found that all of his money had been stolen.
Will have been + PP
Our baby will have been born before Christmas.
Present Simple Passive
Present simple: Subject + present the verb to be + main verb in passive participle.
Simple Present is used for common actions and general truths.
Example: two days a week.
Subject + past verb to be + main verb in passive participle.
Note: The past simple of to be is singular Was - Were Plural. (Depending on the subject.)
Simple Past is used for actions that are completed.
Subject + present continuous to be + main verb in passive participle.
Note: The present continuous is to be being Am - Is being - are being. (Depending on the subject)
The Present Continuous is used for actions that are trascurriendo at the time we're talking about.
Example: The children are at school being Taught French.
Subject + past continuous to be + main verb in passive participle.
Note: The past continuous is to be being Was, Were being the past continuous is used for actions that were trascurriendo in the past. Example: The house was being painted.
Subject + present perfect to be + main verb in passive participle.
Note: The present perfect of to be Have been or is He Has been present perfect is used for completed actions that relate to the present time.
Example: Mike has-been told. I Have Been Promoted to general manager.
Subject + Past perfect of to be + main verb in passive participle.
Note: past perfect of to be is HAD Been for all subjects.
The past perfect is used when we have two past actions and precedes the other.
Example: By the time the police arrived, the house had broken into Been.
Subject + will be + main verb in passive participle.
The Simple future passive is used for actions that will occur at a certain time in the future.
Example: Alicia will be in marriage Asked by Steven.
+ Will Have Been + main verb in passive participle.
The future perfect passive is used for actions that were completed in a certain time in the future.
Auxiliary question and denial are: will Have Been
Example: She Will Have Been invited to the party
Would be + subject + main verb in passive participle.
Example: Amanda would be Asked out.
Subject + Would Have Been + main verb in passive participle.
It is used to set unrealistic actions it refers to actions already completed
The passive voice is formed with the auxiliary verb "to be" and the past participle of the verb.
Subject + auxiliary verb (to be) + past participle…
The passive voice, as its name indicates, appears with the subject patient. An add-in is the grammatical element that executes the action of the verb, while the subject receives it
The speech is written for the president.
The house was built in 1975.
My wallet has been stolen. The room will be cleaned while we are out.
Uses of the Passive Voice
We use the passive voice when we do not know who has performed the action.
To civilian has been killed.
The car was stolen.
We use the passive voice when we want to give more importance to what happened, that who performed the action or when we do not want to say who was made.
The letter was delivered yesterday.
A mistake was made.
Note: we cannot use the passive voice with verbs intransitivos as "die", "arrive" or "Go". Intransitivos verbs are verbs which do not bear a direct object.
To pass a sentence in the active voice to passive voice, the direct subject of prayer active (the testimonies) becomes the subject of the passive.
The passive voice of process shape with the corresponding shape of being, while the passive state shape with BE. The main verb (collect) is included in the passive sentence as variable participle, agreeing in gender and number with the noun (collected/to/os/ACE).
The subject of the active prayer can be included as a complement in the passive sentence preceded by the preposition by, but in the passive state will not appear.
The police records the testimonies.
The testimonies are collected (by the police). → Passive process
The testimonies are collected. → Passive state
Testimonies (masculine, plural) → collected
Summary - tenses in the active voice, the passive state and the passive process
The testimonies are collected.
← Present → The police records the testimonies.
The testimonies were collected.
← imperfect → The police collected testimonies.
The testimonies were gathered.
← Undefined → The police collected the testimony.
The testimonies have been collected.
← The Present Perfect Tense → The police has collected testimonies.
The evidence had been collected.
← Past Pluscuamperfecto → The police had collected the testimony.
The testimonies will be collected.
← Future Simple → The police will collect the testimonies.
← Future composed → The police have been collected the testimony.
The testimony would be collected.
← Conditional Simple → The police would reap the testimonies.
The witnesses have been collected.
← Composite Conditional → The police would have collected the testimony.
"The passive voice in English is generally used in written records, in scientific articles and technical documents, but also in newspapers or other formal documents.
Normally we focus on agents that starring the actions, however, the passive voice allows us to speak of objects, processes or people who are passive subjects of actions undertaken by other people, and in this way give prominence in our speech".
It is said that a sentence is in passive voice when the significance of the word is received by the person to whom one is grammatical relates: Buenos Aires was founded by Pedro de Mendoza.
Forms with the assistant of the verb to be and the past participle of the verb that conjugates.
The supplement to the prayer becomes active subject of the passive. As in Spanish, the subject of the active can be retained as subject agent.
When a verb has two add-ons can make two passive structures:
To book was sent to Tom by Mr. Smith.
Tom was sent to book by Mr. Smith (passive language).
Model of verb in Passive Voice TO BE SEEN = BE SEEN
I am seen.
You are seen.
He is seen.
We are seen.
They are seen.
I have been seen.
You have been seen.
I have been seen.
We have been seen.
They have been seen.
I was seen.
You were seen.
I was seen.
We were seen.
They were seen.
I shall be seen.
You will be seen.
I will be seen.
We shall be seen.
You will be seen.
They will be seen.
I had been seen.
I should be seen.
I shall have been seen.
I should have been seen.
Comparison of Active Voice and Passive Voice
S. Liabilities + + verb. Passive + Agent Plug-in
S + verb. + Complement(can be direct, indirect or circumstantial)
The Passive Voice is prayer where the meaning of the word is received by the person to whom it refers
Active Voice is when a person performs the action directly or also on the same person
Passive Voice The Agent Plug-in always has to start with the preposition -By-
Transitive verb without there is no OD and therefore there is no active voice
The carriage is being sought by Me
I seek The Expensive
ACTIVE / PASSIVE OVERVIEW
Once a week, Tom cleans the house.
Once a week, the house is cleaned by Tom.
Right now, Sarah is writing the letter.
Right now, the letter is being written by Sarah.
Sam repaired the car.
The car was repaired by Sam.
The salesman was helping the customer when the thief came into the store.
The customer was being helped by the salesman when the thief came into the store.
Many tourists have visited that castle.
That castle has been visited by many tourists.
Present Perfect Continuous
Recently, John has been doing the work.
Recently, the work has been being done by John.
George had repaired many cars before he received his mechanic's license.
Many cars had been repaired by George before he received his mechanic's license.
Past Perfect Continuous
Chef Jones had been preparing the restaurant's fantastic dinners for two years before he moved to Paris.
The restaurant's fantastic dinners had been being preparedby Chef Jones for two years before he moved to Paris.
Simple Future will
Someone will finish the work by 5:00 PM.
The work will be finished by 5:00 PM.
Simple Future be going to
Sally is going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
A beautiful dinner is going to be made by Sally tonight.
Future Continuous will
At 8:00 PM tonight, John will be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes will be being washed by John.
Future Continuous be going to
At 8:00 PM tonight, John is going to be washing the dishes.
At 8:00 PM tonight, the dishes are going to be being washedby John.
Future Perfect will
They will have completed the project before the deadline.
The project will have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect be going to
They are going to have completed the project before the deadline.
The project is going to have been completed before the deadline.
Future Perfect Continuous will
The famous artist will have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural will have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Future Perfect Continuous be going to
The famous artist is going to have been painting the mural for over six months by the time it is finished.
The mural is going to have been being painted by the famous artist for over six months by the time it is finished.
Jerry used to pay the bills.
The bills used to be paid by Jerry.
My mother would always make the pies.
The pies would always be made by my mother.
Future in the Past Would
I knew John would finish the work by 5:00 PM.
I knew the work would be finished by 5:00 PM.
Future in the Past Was Going to
I thought Sally was going to make a beautiful dinner tonight.
I thought a beautiful dinner was going to be made by Sally tonight.
It can be noted that even if the active voice is easier and clearer to many people, does not mean that the passive must be put aside.
The active voice and the passive voice are two ways of presenting the same situation focusing it from different perspectives. In the case of the active voice, we want the person responsible for the action (the agent), while in the passive voice we want the patient or the result of this action. So each person depend on voice use but most important is to have clear the grammatical structure of each sentence.
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They will have completed the project b